Knowing that today's transportation system accounts for 28% of our Nation's greenhouse gases, second only to electrical energy production requires the transportation profession to take very seriously operational management policies and construction techniques to reduce our carbon footprint. This means using transportation techniques to minimize greenhouse gas emissions by reducing travel delays and congestion as well as promoting non-single occupant vehicle travel such as transit and carpools or the use of non-motorized transportation such as bicycles and walking. Roadway construction techniques are available to further reduce greenhouse gas emissions to construct sustainable roadway infrastructure. The transportation industry needs to develop policies that rate and/or provide incentives for a sustainable transportation system. This paper provides a summary of the state of the practice to reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions related to today's transportation systems and a recommendation on national policy for transportation sustainability.
TPC Group is a $2B petrochemical company, with energy costs being the second largest contributor to the Cost of Goods Sold (COGS). The company has taken a multigenerational approach to manage energy consumption and costs.
Three generations of the multigenerational approach have been completed, and Generation 4 is in progress. Generation 1 increased general awareness at a single plant level and included some optimization. Generation 2 optimized energy across multiple plant sites and used external benchmarking to set a path forward for Generation 3. Generation 3 consisted of adding energy's cost and impact to the company's profit/loss model in order to include energy as part of business decisions, plus implementation of a robust home grown system for monitoring and displaying information across all levels of the organization. The purpose of Generation 4 is to incorporate energy optimization into the overall company sustainability program, and to move to commercial solutions. High level work within Generations 3 and 4 is discussed, as well as some examples of value returned from the program.
The multigenerational approach to energy management has been in place at TPC Group for over ten years. By taking a multigenerational approach, even a small company with limited resources can successfully implement a robust energy management program and return value to the company.
The cost components of energy and utilities have become increasingly more significant to the overall costs of goods sold (COGS) for the domestic United States petrochemical industry. Several of the drivers for this include the fluctuation of natural gas prices, deregulation of electricity in parts of the country, increased demand outpacing "new build?? for utility supply industries, and the overall aging of facility related infrastructure that provides the energy and utilities.
For these reasons, there is an increased focus in both optimization of the energy and utilities consumed and concentration on controlling and reducing the costs affiliated. Companies of all sizes can benefit from a focused multigenerational approach to managing the impact of energy costs to their business. A 10 year multigenerational plan for a $2B petrochemical company is discussed. The results show there is a good return in paying attention to and devoting resources to optimizing energy and utility use in a planned way.
We all know that energy efficient motor use saves electricity and that converts to a reduction in carbon emissions. Adding adjustable speed drives is also a popular upgrade that can save even more energy on the right application.
In addition to motor and drive replacement, the mechanical power transmission components can be optimized for energy efficiency which may reduce the amount of horsepower to drive the load. On the front end, energy efficient transformers and smart starters can be added and on the load side, perhaps more efficient pumps, fans and compressors. Use of process control to ensure plant processes are in harmony will save energy and increase productivity.
But looking beyond simple component replacement will gain additional energy savings, improved reliability and productivity gains. However, more engineering redesign and benchmarking may be required to do so.
Consider the System
We are reaching the point where motor efficiency cannot be increased without using technology that is expensive today. The next generation of motors will be quite different from today's squirrel cage induction motors. To further reduce motor losses, the designs may change to a motor where the rotor contains permanent magnets or the motor becomes a type of synchronous reluctance design requiring a drive for its operation. Even with these super-efficient motors, it makes little sense to connect a 95% efficient motor to a 50% efficient load if the pump or fan efficiency can be improved.
When we look at the system, we should consider all components that the user can select. Sizing begins with the most efficient pump, fan or load device that is available. This will require a certain speed and torque for its operation. In some cases a motor may be directly coupled; mechanical power transmission components may be used to reduce speed and increase torque in others. Best available components should be selected which will reduce the horsepower requirements for the NEMA Premium Efficiency® motor. An adjustable speed drive should be selected when it will result in improved process control.
Efficiency Upgrades by Component
Premium efficient motors were first introduced in the early 1980s by motor manufacturers. In 2001 NEMA established a Premium Efficiency standard in table 12-12 in NEMA MG 1. Over the years, premium motors have been used for simple drop-in upgrades when older motors fail or when new equipment is specified. Premium Efficient motors may result in modest increases as shown by the following examples:
The world's energy challenges are multi-dimensional. Meeting growing demand, while also protecting the environment, will require an integrated series of solutions. Expanding all commercially viable energy sources, developing and deploying technology to help mitigate the growth of emissions, and accelerating gains in energy efficiency are all essential elements.
Energy efficiency is one of the largest and lowest-cost ways to extend our world's energy supplies and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Between 1980 and 2005, nearly half the increase in global energy demand was met by improvements in energy efficiency. Further gains in energy efficiency through 2030 will curb demand growth by about 65 percent.
At ExxonMobil, we are taking actions to reduce energy usage and emissions in our own operations, and we are working on energy-efficient products and technologies that will help manufacturers and consumers do the same. On the operations side, we have invested 1.6 billion dollars since 2006 in activities that improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Through our own actions, greenhouse gas emissions are down over 12 million tonnes since 2005, equivalent to removing about 2.5 million cars from U.S. roads.
Through deployment of our proprietary Global Energy Management System (GEMS), we have identified opportunities to improve the energy efficiency of our refineries and chemical plants by 15-20 percent. A strong focus on operation and maintenance of existing equipment, coupled with energy efficient design of new facilities, enabled us to achieve best-ever energy efficiency in 2010. We are on track to achieve our goal of improving energy efficiency across our worldwide refining and chemical operations by at least 10 percent from 2002-2012.
On the consumer side, we have developed a variety of technologies that are available today, including lighter-weight vehicle parts, improved tire liners, energy-efficient synthetic lubricants and lithium-ion battery separator films. We are also working on a number of breakthrough technologies to help power next generation lower-emission vehicles, and we continue to sponsor strategic research into ways to make alternatives like solar, hydrogen and biofuels more affordable for use on a broader scale.
Improving energy efficiency is more than just good business. It is a triple-winner that benefits companies, consumers, and the environment alike. More efficient operations extend the supply and affordability of conventional energy resources, while reducing plant operating costs and greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike other options, which may require trillions of dollars and decades to develop, improving energy efficiency can make a significant difference today.
A primary outcome of climate change is the sea level rise potential. Risks from future sea level rise entail significant uncertainties concerning sea levels, overall potential impacts, the specific threats faced by particular geographic region, and benefit and costs associated with strategies for addressing such risks. Quantitatively assessing these risks requires the development of spatial risk profiles based on several analytical and computational steps of hazard likelihood assessment, scenario identification, consequence and criticality assessment based on inventories of assets along coastal areas particularly of population centers, vulnerability and inundation assessment, and benefit-cost analysis to manage risks. The proposed risk quantification and management framework is consistent with quantitative uncertainty and risk analysis practices in order to enable and enhance decision making. The methodology is outlined and some of its aspects demonstrated using illustrative examples based on notional information.
Keywords Carbon, Climate change, Coastal infrastructure, Extreme event, Risk, Sea level rise
Carbon, as a primary element for all living systems, is present in pools (or reservoirs) in the Earth's atmosphere, soils, oceans and crust, and is in flux as it moves from one pool to another at different rates. The overall movement of the carbon can be described as a cycle. Starting with the carbon in the atmosphere, it is used in a photosynthesis process with other elements to create new plant material. As a result, this process transfers large amounts of carbon from the atmosphere's pool to the plants' pool. These plants, similar to other living systems, eventually die and decay, or are consumed by fire, or are harvested by humans for other consumption, placing carbon in fluxes to other pools, and eventually released back to the atmosphere. This cycle is linked to each other cycles of the oceans' microbes, fossil rocks, volcanoes, etc. The Earth can be viewed as a whole with individual cycles linked to each on spatial and temporal scales to form an integrated global carbon cycle as shown schematically in Figure 1 that was constructed using values provided by the University of New Hampshire (2011). Pan, et al. (2011) estimated a global carbon budget for two time periods of 1990-1999 and 2000-2007 as shown in Figure 2 that clearly shows the increase of carbon under fossil fuel and cement over time. This increase goes unmatched in the carbon uptakes in efficiency with a potential for creating a prolonged time lag from emissions to uptakes. Such a time lag could drive other processes leading to global temperature increases and thereby contributing to seal level rise (SLR).
Ganjdanesh, Reza (U. of Texas at Austin) | Bryant, Steven Lawrence (U. of Texas at Austin) | Orbach, Raymond (University of Texas) | Pope, Gary Arnold (U. of Texas at Austin) | Sepehrnoori, Kamy (U. of Texas at Austin)
The current approach to carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) from pulverized coal-fired power plants is not economically viable without either large subsidies or a very high price on carbon. Current schemes require roughly a third of a power plant's energy for carbon dioxide capture and pressurization. The production of energy from geopressured aquifers has evolved as a separate, independent technology from the sequestration of carbon dioxide in deep, saline aquifers. A gamechanging new idea is described here that combines the two technologies and adds another: dissolution of carbon dioxide into extracted brine which is then re-injected. A systematic investigation over a range of conditions was performed to explore the best strategy for the coupled process of CO2 sequestration and energy production. Geological models of geopressuredgeothermal aquifers were developed using available data from studies of Gulf Coast aquifers. These geological models were used to perform compositional reservoir simulations of realistic processes with coupled aquifer and wellbore models.
The sequestration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in deep saline aquifers (Keith, 2009) as well as the extraction of methane and geothermal energy (heat) from deep geopressured-geothermal aquifers (Jones, 1975) have been studied independently in the past. However, capturing and storing CO2 in aquifers is an expensive process without any monetary return on investment. On the other hand, energy extraction from deep geopressured aquifers was abandoned as a result of low natural gas prices in the 70s and 80s (Griggs, 2005), which prevented this process from becoming economically feasible. In this study, we present a new strategy in which the CO2 sequestration and methane/geothermal energy extraction are combined. In fact, we suggest that the cost of the former can be offset by the profits from the latter.
Geologic formations are capable of storing huge amounts of CO2. Specifically, deep saline aquifers are the best candidates for the storage of significant amounts of CO2 emitted by pulverized coal-fired power plants. However, the storage technology faces several constraints. The most important constraint is the cost of the storage process which includes capturing, purifying, pressurizing, and injecting CO2 (Rochelle, 2009). In addition to the storage cost, other possible constraints exist such as the injection capacity of the aquifer and environmental hazards.
Formations of abnormally high pressure and temperature lie along the Gulf Coast of the United States at depths exceeding 10,000 feet. The brine in these formations is saturated with methane. The methane content of this brine is on the order of 30- 45 SCF of methane per barrel and the total amount is estimated to be between 3000 to 46000 TCF (Griggs, 2005). For example, at 34 SCF per barrel, a small geopressured aquifer with a pore volume of 1 billion barrels would hold a volume of dissolved methane of 34 BCF with an energy content of 35 trillion Btu. When CO2 is dissolved in brine saturated with methane, almost all of the methane comes out of the solution and forms a gas phase of almost pure methane (Taggart, 2009). The production of this methane could help offset the cost of CO2 storage. Moreover, the production of methane gas and/or brine saturated with methane while CO2 is being injected will reduce or eliminate concerns about pressure build-up accompanying CO2 injection. This pressure build-up is a key constraint on large-scale sequestration, because it significantly reduces achievable rates of CO2 injection.
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) offers one of the most promising ways for reducing the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Currently available post-combustion CO2 capture technologies lack the desired energy efficiency, we have developed a CO2 capture technology which converts CO2 to a hydrate under substantially atmospheric temperature and pressure conditions.
Being cooled to a low temperature of 5 degree Celsius and a pressure of 2.2 MPa, CO2 containing water can separate out the only CO2 component as a solid called a hydrate. This technology has long been known to enable separate CO2 from a mixed gaseous stream. However, practical application had been considered difficult due to the high operating cost of high pressure and low temperature conditions. We have discovered a phenomenon in which formation of the hydrate of CO2 is produced under significantly eased conditions of pressure and temperature by using a semi-clathrate hydrate such as tetra-n-butyl
ammonium bromide and other quaternary ammonium compounds. These quaternary ammonium compounds form a semiclathrate hydrate crystal with water molecules under atmospheric pressure.
Our preliminary result of X-ray diffraction shows that there are empty dodecahedral cages. Therefore, semi-clathrate hydrates can be used to separate small gas molecules that fit in these dodecahedral cages. We have found that they could encage CO2 molecules at higher selectivity than nitrogen and oxygen. We have performed a bench scale experiment to encage CO2 under substantially atmospheric pressure and temperature conditions such that pressure of 0.12 MPa and temperature of 18 degree Celsius, confirming the possibility of CO2 capture under those conditions. Our feasibility study has revealed that the operating
costs of carbon capture will be half compared to a conventional chemical absorption process.
We expect to conduct larger scale tests in the future, preconditioned on a CCS plant for CO2 capture of flue gas from thermal power plants and steel works assumed CCS scale from 0.3 million to 1 million tons per year. The improved CO2 capture process with minimized energy demand will play a significant role for the reduction of CO2 emissions.
Atmosphere carbon dioxide is a focus of attention as one of the greenhouse gases (GHG) which cause global warming. Early implementation of effective measures to prevent global warming is strongly desired. One conceivable measure for preventing global-scale warming is separation and capture of the CO2 contained in flue gas discharged into the atmosphere from thermal power plants, steel works, factories, and other facilities in the course of industrial activity, followed by fixation and effective utilization. This approach, if possible, would make an important contribution to prevention of global warming.
Various methods for separation and capture of CO2 from flue gas have been proposed, including chemical absorption using an amine solution, physical adsorption using an adsorbent, and membrane separation methods, among others. However, in order to realize practical application of these technologies, the cost of CO2 separation and capture must be substantially reduced, as this accounts for a large part of the total cost of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS).
This paper presents a hydrate-based CO2 separation and capture method which has the potential for large cost reduction in comparison with conventional techniques in CO2 separation and capture technology.
An integrated model was developed that includes economic and technical aspects of CO2-EOR and sequestration projects. Based on This model, a numerical simulator is developed to predict the performance of project and determine optimum rate of injection rate in different conditions. Also, an analytical model is developed and compared with numerical method. The results show that numerical simulator is a reliable tool for optimization of injection rate, whereas analytical method is not, because of its assumptions and approximations. Sensitivity analyses are done with both numerical and analytical method. The results
show that in larger and more homogeneous reservoirs, optimum injection rate is higher. Lower oil price and higher oil viscosity, require lower injection rate to make the project more economical.
Emissions associated to energy generation depend on the source of supply - which varies from polluting oil thermal units to clean renewables. This paper assesses the quality of supply in terms of associated emissions and, more importantly, load management strategies targeting a cleaner energy supply. We propose a framework where each consumer may know the impact of his (her) load management in terms of emissions and the associated economic costs. It will be then possible to clearly identify each consumer's possible "green initiative?? action and associated tariffs. We hope this will be the first step towards a transparent, society-supported sustainable future.
Index Terms--demand side management, smart green, green energy, carbon management, emission reduction
RENEWABLE energy's main benefits are well known: thermal displacement and associated emission reduction.
Moreover, smart grid advances open a whole new world on demand and network management, uncovering to consumers information about the emissions associated to their load and providing them an efficient control over their carbon footprint.
The green option, however, comes with a price: renewables may be more expensive than traditional thermal units. It is important to - far from deny it - know the price tag and build an incentive structure able to cover expenses.
This work is based on the "smart green"  concept and proposes a signal structure able to provide the consumer the whole picture: his impact on emissions and available cleaner options - of course, with the associated price.
The model targets initially the non-regulated clients, which concentrate the huge network consumption and are used to monitor and control their peak load. Further extensions could include residential and smaller consumers, after a wide and explanatory campaign.
When injected in deep saline aquifers or depleted oil and gas reservoirs, supercritical CO2 remains mobile and can, therefore, migrate through any conduits or fractures. In addition, public opinion, regulations and the lack of space for CO2 injection in some densely populated regions of the world such as the Japanese archipelago encourage investigating other alternatives such as carbon dioxide sequestration in deepwater sub-seabed formations.
This paper intends to present a technical feasibility study of CO2 sequestration in deepwater sediments offshore Japan. The main processes, technical requirements, technologies and structures that are currently available to transport and inject liquid CO2 successfully in sub-seabed formations below 9,000 feet of water (˜2,750 meters) are first discussed. Then, three storage sites situated offshore Japan; one located in the Northwest Pacific Ocean near the island of Shikoku; another located in the Sea of Japan near the island of Honshu; and the last one located farther in the Northwest Pacific Ocean in ultra-deepwater (18,000 feet); are selected to conduct reservoir simulations.
From this study, it appears that CO2 capturing technologies and transporting means seem to be at a mature stage. Also, current and newest 5th and 6th generation drilling vessels are estimated to be capable of drilling very shallow wells in water depths greater than 9,000 feet and even in ocean waters as deep as 18,000 feet if new materials such as titanium or composite for riser systems were to be deployed for both the drilling and CO2 injection operations. However, CO2 storing and injection facilities are not available yet to unload large quantities of CO2 offshore. As a result, some concepts should be designed, qualified and tested for these large scale operations within the next decade to demonstrate through pilot projects the technical feasibility of CO2 sequestration in sub-seabed geological formations.
Additionally, the main findings from this comparative study and reservoir simulations conducted at three different sites located offshore Japan confirm that a significant part of ultra-deepwater regions with at least 9,000 feet of ocean water and planar seafloor are appropriate for CO2 storage. Secondly, reservoir models confirm that due to high pressures and low temperatures reigning at water depths greater than 9,000 feet, the liquid CO2 injected in the first few hundred feet of sediments has a higher density than the surrounding formation pore-fluid and therefore remains buoyantly trapped under certain condition of geothermal gradient, sediments permeability and formation pressure and; hence constitute a valid and safe CO2 storage candidate.