A huge amount of data is recorded during well operations, ranging from rig sensors to lithological information, drilling reports, and equipment records.
Usually the use of these data, particularly those acquired through rig sensors, is limited to control in real time drilling operations. However, all these records are highly valuable for future wells engineering and planning. This paper describes how the combination of these data sets increases their value and creates practical analyses for well problems investigation, performance enhancement, and ultimately supports cost reduction by anticipating and reducing risks.
The use of “big data” solutions creates significant analytics combining multiple data types (sensors and reports) both on single well and group of offset wells. Particularly the interpretation of rig sensor data through the automatic recognition of operating sequence, when put together with other data sources, including traditional reports (DDR, DMR, DGR, etc.), provides a much higher granularity than traditional reporting.
Every operation is accurately measured through objective and detailed KPIs (ROP, tripping speed, weight to weight, connection time, etc.). Technical and performance issues are easily evaluated allowing a better understanding of their root causes, anticipating and avoiding the occurrence of these problems in the next wells and measuring activities and operations potential improvement.
As a further output, it supports future well planning by comparing equipment performance or operational sequences with other wells. It provides a full set of benchmark statistics on the main drilling indicators available and directs the selection of the optimal/best solution for the next wells.
A tangible economic benefit of this approach, measured on a real application, can be expressed in the range of 5% to 8% of overall well expenditure.
Furthermore, this innovative use of rig sensor data is supporting contractual strategy definition (impartial evaluation of the performance), operations monitoring (addressing drilling parameters giving the best performance) and training (providing a rich knowledge base for well engineers).
The Strategy adopted by Eni Company based on enhancing HSE culture within its management and towards its subsidiaries, helped achieving and maintaining a good level of performance in all aspects of its operations, and conduct its activities in a safe and responsible manner.
One of the concerns is how to enhance correlation between HSE Management System and HSE culture and to promote continuously leadership and commitment to improve and achieve very challenging results in HSE performance.
Eni implemented the HSE Management System inspired by the international standard OHSAS 18001 and ISO 14001 that sets elements with respect of a continuous improvement by conformance checks and demonstrates the principles by which the Company conducts its operations.
Challenging HSE proactive objectives are set to rethink the system as a whole, based on the different audit results, accident investigations and the commitment that top management is delivering to achieve a high level HSE performance, this will be through:
The following has been targeted and is still under workshops to ensure the suitability of the Company system:
Belayim Land Field, located in the Gulf of Suez Egypt, is a giant brown oil field, characterized by medium viscous oil, currently developed by means of peripheral seawater injection. Several chemical EOR processes were investigated to increase oil production and maximize ultimate recovery. Among them, polymer flooding application was selected to improve the mobility ratio, leading to an increased oil recovery. An intensive work has been done starting from laboratory studies for proper polymer selection and characterization, tertiary core-floods with polymer solution, to a sector model. Later on a pilot test was designed to evaluate the EOR potential at the reservoir-scale before a polymer flooding full field project is implemented to address uncertainties and risks. Pilot project for polymer flooding has been established in Belayim Land Field, polymer injection has been started effectively in Feb-16 with an injection rate of 1,000 BPD and a polymer concentration of 1,500 ppm, therefore, a detailed surveillance and monitoring program has been prepared and implemented. This program was guided by way forward road maps that target injection, flooding performance, and production assessment.
The purpose of this paper is to highlight the work done from the design phase till pilot project implementation and start up, to present the lessons learned and best practices for operation’s continual improvement of such processes and to highlight also that quality-control is an essential element for the successful implementation of a polymer-water-flooding project. The monitoring program should include, but not limited, the routine verification of polymer concentration, routine determination of the viscosity, and periodical check of the thermal and chemical stability of the polymer.
Typically, about 70% of most proven oil reserves in the world remain untapped after primary drive mechanisms. Even after applying extensive waterflooding (secondary recovery) project, there remains a significant amount of the oil resource unrecovered as a result of reservoir heterogeneity and complex geology.
The objective of this article is to give a practical guidance in order to promote ISO 26000 in oil and gas industry, with a high complexity of decision-making structures and with a high complexity of context.
The international guidance on Social Responsibility ISO 26000 enables a holistic approach to different issues of sustainability, balancing the various needs of creation of business value, governance, economic and social development, energy saving, environmental protection and fight against climate change and is particularly useful for organisation which operate in complex circumstances.
A governance approach based on ISO 26000 helps oil and gas industry in monitoring, measuring, managing and reporting the negative and positive impacts of its operations.
The first step is to move on due diligence, taking into account the expectations and interests of relevant stakeholders and the context in which the organisation operates. In this way oil and gas practices can be reconciled with the needs of community, governments and clients.
After the appropriate due diligence which takes into account all themes of Social Responsibility, performance gaps and opportunities for improvement can be defined. Oil and gas industry can set objectives and action plan to reduce these gaps, to adjust its operation processes or activities or to re-fix business.
The level of implementation of ISO 26000 can be checked by a Third Party, which provides assurance on orientation towards the principles, Core Subjects and specific Issues of corporate Social Responsibility.
The article includes a practical case study: presentation of Eni case. Eni has decided to implement a sustainability upstream management system based on ISO 26000 and has asked a Third Party to assess the level of implementation of this standard at different site/subsidiaries.
Tragedies in the offshore industry such as Macondo have urged the industry to implement effective safe guards to reduce major accidents offshore and to limit their consequences should they occur. The EU Offshore Safety Directive, due for implementation, is an initiative to reduce major accident risks in the offshore industry.
This paper will discuss risk based verification of Safety and Environmental Critical Elements (SECE) and will demonstrate the systematic implementation of “Independent Verification of SECE, verification of Well Operations and verification of Material changes” as required by the Offshore Safety Directive (2013/30/EU EU Directive On the Safety of Offshore Oil and Gas Operations). A high-level introduction to the Directive’s requirement for independent SECE will be discussed.
With years of experience in verification, DNV GL has developed an in-depth knowledge of the value that can be unlocked through a systematic and effective approach to risk management. With in-service SECE verification, the optimal point for Operators’ maintenance and assurance activities can be identified, and thereby optimizing a healthy balance of safety and reliability - enabling cost savings through both safer and smarter operations.
DNV GL has recently issued Service Specification DNV GL-SE-0466 – In-service Verification of Oil and Gas assets. This SE will also provide the methodology to ensure safety and reliability of offshore assets by managing the integrity of major accident barriers in the in-service phase.
Finally, next generation of risk barrier management principles and development as well as introduction of digitalization will be mentioned.
Systematic risk management is an important element in operational excellence.
DNV GL has developed systematics and guidelines to support operators in implementing robust barrier management while incorporating the OSD requirement into independent verification of Safety and Environmental Critical Elements.
Reserve - estimation statistics show the significance of oil carbonate reserves. Water injection is deemed to be the most successful and widespread secondary recovery method.
The LoSal (low salinity) is a well-established and proved technique for water flooding applied in sandstone rocks to enhance the recovery efficiency for such reservoirs; this method tailors the water salinity degree to extract the highest amount of STOIIP. On the other hand, a few lab experiments subjected to carbonate rocks whether dolomite or limestone.
The research deals with carbonate rocks where – in most real case histories- water flooding fails due to many reasons; however the most common reason is fractures existence in the carbonate rocks.
The research applied water injection for eight carbonate (limestone) core samples extracted from an Egyptian offshore oil field near Gulf of Suez.
Water salinity was tuned three times; three different water salinity to investigate the effect of different water salinities on (1) Residual oil saturation, (2) Recovery Efficiency and (3) relative permeability curves.
Results showed for majority of core samples a decrease in residual oil saturation (Sor) with decreasing water salinity and increase in recovery efficiency (Er).
Results showed from relative permeability curves that mostly enhancement was due to wettability modification or alteration as shown.
Also, results show that there is no clear relationship between applied differential pressure or absolute permeability and residual oil saturation and recovery efficiency. However, low pressure differential (1.5 psi) is enough to afford adequate injection rates of water into the core samples. The results obtained are analyzed through relative permeability curves.
That is achieved through:
Water flooding- as a mean of secondary recovery method for pressure maintenance- dates backs up early as 1865, the use of water flooding as a recovery method did not come into widespread acceptance and use until the early 1950's . In the west Texas, there was a significant expansion of the oil industry in the 1950's with the discovery of a number of very large fields such as Wasson, Slaughter, Levelled, North and South Cowden, Means and Seminole.
Oil and gas companies are being challenged by low oil prices and the need to focus on cost-efficiency. At the same time, the industry is under increasing pressure to act upon the Paris Agreement and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The recently-adopted UN sustainable development goals also require the industry to reduce environmental footprint beyond GHG. There is a need for a conceptual abatement framework that focuses on how to improve environmental sustainability in the sector, identifying the most cost-efficient mitigating measures for offshore assets. This paper proposes a framework which is based on the IPIECA, API and IOGP’s guideline for sustainability reporting, but which also could use other sustainability reporting initiatives or company specific sustainability KPIs as a starting point. A three-step integrated approach is proposed, building on: (i) reporting and accounting of emissions and discharges, (ii) impact and risk assessment, and (iii) prioritizing cost-efficient environmental improvements. The intention is to cover both emissions to air and discharges to sea for specific offshore assets (i.e. GHG, hydrocarbon spills, produced water, etc.), and the associated potential environmental impacts and risks.
The framework is ideally suited for providing a decision basis for how and where to improve the environmental performance of one asset or a mix of assets. This will also help operators in reporting and communicating with stakeholders, as well as in their efforts for continuous improvements and benchmarking. It can also provide status on the most critical environmental issues for all assets, and increase control and opportunities for global environmental risk management.
To demonstrate the proposed framework, DNV GL has carried out a case study for CO₂ emissions from an offshore asset. The results showed that there were a number of measures that could be considered profitable; for example, process control and optimization, in addition to power management and performance monitoring. It also showed that energy storage could be considered profitable. In total, the measures that were profitable could provide almost a 28% reduction in the current CO₂ emissions from the installation. An increased price on emissions could make the cost-effective reduction potential even higher. This demonstrates that it is possible to reduce CO2 emissions, and also obtain significant cost reductions.
Hussien, B. M. (Egyptian Natural Gas Holding Company) | Al-Sabagh, A. M. (Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute) | Migahed, M. A. (Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute) | Shaban, M. M. (Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute) | Moawad, Zakaa (Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation)
The aim of this research is to Preparation of nonionic surfactants from Oleic acid and their application in the field of corrosion inhibitors are the main goal of the present work. In this respect, oleic acid reacted with maleic anhydride using Diles Alder reaction to produce adduct, which esterified with ethoxthylated aniline to produce branched nonionic surfactants. The effect of ethylene oxide modification on both surface activity and corrosion inhibition efficiency on carbon steel pipelines in deep oil wells' formation water saturated with CO2 at 50 °C was studied by both potentiodynamic polarization techniques and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of the synthesized nonionic surfactants is correlated with surface tension measurements data. The nature of protective film formed on carbon steel surface is studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDX) techniques. Polarization curves indicated that the studied inhibitors acted as mixed (cathodic /anodic) inhibitors. EIS data showed that the values of charge transfer resistance (Rt) increased by increasing the inhibitor concentration, while the values of electrochemical double layer capacitance (Cdl) decreased.
Oil wells' Formation water that naturally exists in the rocks before drilling contains a variety of dissolved organic and inorganic compounds. This water considers the most corrosive environments in oil field operations due primarily to the presence of large quantities of the corrosive carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide in addition to other aggressive salts such as chloride and sulfate [1-3]. The severity of corrosion depends on temperature, fluid characteristics (CO2, partial pressure, gas / liquid ratio, formation water composition, water-to-oil ratio, and pH), flow characteristics and material characteristics. When CO2 is present in the gas phase, any water in contact with this gas will dissolve CO2, forming carbonic acid which is corrosive to steel .
Real-time drilling & well control simulators have the potential to reduce drilling operational costs and risks. Until now, such tools have been mostly limited to driller certification and training of drilling operations newbies. However, the continuously increasing computational capacity allows accelerating the solution of complex physical models. When fast enough, these models can be used to extend the scope of drilling simulators. Drilling Simulator Celle is a research facility dedicated to leverage state-of-the computational and measuring methods to obtain an engineering drilling simulator. In DSC a commercial drilling simulator has been enabled to allow modifying the software, in order to describe especially downhole events in an optimized way.
Models requiring further developments include hydraulic, solid transport, thermodynamic and drill string models between others. Ideally, these should be coupled between them to offer a holistic description of the drilling process. In this contribution, a solid transport model coupled with hydraulic and thermodynamic models is introduced as an example of the steps necessary to couple physical models with the commercial simulator. Necessary variables and information supplied by the model are commented together with its limitations. Thereafter, requirements to make the solid transport model real-time capable are introduced. These include the setting of the model to match the expectations of the application and the avoidance of overruns. In order to accomplish these requirements, solver types, time step selection and number of iterations are put in relation with the model accuracy and speed. The necessity of supplying further information not supplied by the commercial simulator as well as the necessity to display complex information not included in the default graphical user interfaces finish the case study.
The contribution ends with an outlook towards necessary development to obtain an engineering drilling simulator. Integration of various physical models considering the multiple sub-systems found in drilling operations is one important topic. In addition, the use of good quality data can be used to model aspects of the drilling operations less prone to be solved through deterministic models. Likewise, full-scale experimental test stands supplying real-time measurements can fill the missing gaps.
Well-collision avoidance has gained greater importance as fields become more crowded and well paths increasingly complex. The safety and financial implications of shutting in production wells on platforms or repairing damaged wells have established a need for the industry to evaluate the potential for collision with a producing well.
When planning a drilling operation, evaluating the Risk is a main activity. Usually a collision into a producing well is one of the risk considered.
This paper / presentation elaborates how ClampOn has met this challenge by developing a real time monitoring system for detection of a drill bit in the proximity for existing wells. The ClampOn DSP Well Collision Detector developed, provides the operator with an advanced real time collision monitoring system with minimal equipment and personnel requirements. We will present the technology and field cases demonstrating the results.
The detectors provide drilling operators with real time data during the operation, thus supplementing collision risk analysis calculations and other available means for determining the bit’s proximity to existing wells. A drill bit in operation generates strong vibration and also high frequency acoustic noise. When the drill bit approaches an existing well, this noise penetrates into the well structure, and propagates over long distances within the well.
Any change in the acoustic conditions on the well heads is readily available for scrutiny as the operation commences and may provide early warning of the drill bit approaching an existing well. Upon observations of strongly increasing ultrasonic signal levels, drilling can be halted and data from available sources analysed. Depending on the analysis, the drill string may be diverted or drilling can resume with confidence that a collision has been avoided or that predictive calculations have been confirmed.
ClampOn’s passive acoustic sensors are used for many different applications; most common are sand monitoring, pig detection, leak detection, but also crack detection, and “well collision detection” (WCM). Common to all are acoustic emission, our instruments samples acoustic emission, and process the data specifically for the application. I.e. Sand impacting the steel of the flow line generate quite high frequent ultrasound, whilst a passing pig/scraper generate ultrasound in the lower frequency area. When a drill bit grinds its way through the rock formation, it generate acoustic emission. When the drill bit gets close to casings of existing wells, the acoustic emission will be transported through the rock, into the casing and up to the passive acoustic sensor attached at the wellhead.