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Figliuolo, Saulo Queiroz (SENAI CIMATEC) | Beal, Valter Estevão (SENAI CIMATEC) | Rodamilans, Guilherme Bulhosa (SENAI CIMATEC) | Almeida, Danilo Araujo (SENAI CIMATEC) | Heredia, Laerte Girola (SENAI CIMATEC) | Almeida, Cleber Ribeiro (SENAI CIMATEC) | Igino, Wellington Passos (SENAI CIMATEC) | Santos, Hugo Francisco Lisboa (PETROBRAS)
A major concern in offshore production is the well intervention cost and the time taken to perform the operations. These issues relate to the need for a rig or a similar unit to perform those operations. This paper presents the current stage of the development of an autonomous robot for rigless well interventions. The robot enters the well through the Christmas Tree using a special tool. This proposal will allow significant cost reduction by avoiding the need for a rig to do light workover operations in offshore locations. This strategy reduces intervention time since a simpler unit may deploy the robot. Examples of operation performed by the robot are production logging, gas lift valve replacement, sliding sleeve opening and closing and plug insertion or removal. A Simplified Robot allowed evaluating the technical feasibility of this proposal, both theoretically and experimentally. This Simplified Robot allowed evaluating the Traction System, the Energy Storage, and the Positioning Algorithm. After that, the design of the Real Robot started. This system will be modular and adjustable according to the needed operation.
Fixed offshore platform pile foundation design and assessment in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) has been based on API RP 2A [
This paper summarizes a study performed to determine the effect of the new clay soil p-y curves on the structural responses of offshore platforms. In this study, three (3) featured fixed offshore platforms in the GOM were selected as representative structures for structural analysis and comparison. The selected platforms are actual platforms in operation in the GOM. The predicted platform responses from analyses were directly compared with measured and observed platform performance in field, including platform damage in hurricanes.
Analysis results demonstrate that structural models using the soil reaction formulations of the proposed 2GEO 2nd edition (draft), in combination with the best-estimate soil profiles interpreted based on the standard direct simple shear (DSS) tests, adequately predicted the platform responses observed in field.
The clay soil p-y reaction formulations (monotonic, cyclic, and fatigue) proposed for the update of 2GEO, as included in
Complete documentation of the study can be found in [
Cost reduction, deep water, long-step outs, HSE (Health, Safety and Environment) and reduction of carbon footprint drive the change from hydraulic to all-electric subsea control systems in the offshore oil and gas production. The main challenge of an all-electric control system is the safe and reliable actuation of the valves on the tree. A battery provides the power and energy to supply the electric actuators to close the valves in case of an ESD (Emergency Shutdown). The paper presents the qualification program developed to access the performance and safety over the design life of 25 years together with the results after a 3-year qualification program.
The qualification program was based on a risk assessment taking into consideration the uncertainties associated to this novel subsea technology and the API 17F for qualification requirements. The qualification program developed covers the following main sections: Misuse (destructive testing), Cycle Testing, Environmental Testing and EMI (Electro-magnetic Interference) testing. To access the state of health a large signal EIS (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy) has been developed and applied throughout the qualification program together with the DC-resistance and capacity measurements. For the cycle testing a DoE (Design of Experiment) methodology has been applied to develop a test plan which includes the parameters: temperature, cycles and idle time. The testing was performed on 30 cells in parallel.
The qualification results show a degradation of the battery depending on the parameter sets. The EIS measurements correlate with the degradation of the battery performance. The testing parameters range from −4°C to 50°C to stimulate an increased degradation. A reference group was used to access the acceleration factor for the increased temperature. The DC (Direct Current) measurements show an increase of the internal resistance over time.
The results provide details for a qualification program for subsea batteries in order to access the performance over the lifetime of 25 years. The program includes additional testing and monitoring compared to the API 17F requirements for PCBs (Printed Circuit Boards). The qualification program also provides information about the degradation kinematics of Li-Ion Batteries over the design life of 25 years. Based on the results of the qualification program a design life of 25 years can be concluded.
The shape of information used to execute drilling operations is rugged. A quick survey of all of the information shows data expressed in test reports, images, time series data, Cartesian data, text, spreadsheets, maps, code, and engineering drawings. Traditional database representations of data as tables with rows and columns does not match the new reality of all of the information forms that must be brought to bear on critical drilling decisions. For us to possess an expansive view of all of the information we must move beyond the limitations of relational data into the realm of graphs.
Representation of data in graph form has become popular in recent years, particularly in those domains where the data is rugged. The medical field was the first to recognize the value of graph forms to create cognitive applications like machine-based automated of disease diagnosis. We contend that the rugged nature of drilling operations also lends itself well to graph representation. The objective here is to create something known as a "corpus"—a repository of data in a wide variety of forms that can be traversed with a query language that is purpose-built for graphs. The ultimate aim is to create a Knowledge System that is suitable for natural language queries by humans.
In our talk we will describe how such a corpus is built and how to apply it specifically to drilling operations, with a focus on what works well alongside the challenges and (temporary) failures.
Knowledge Graphs have a unique character and are appropriate for certain classes of applications. We believe that Knowledge Graphs do deserve a place in the oil and gas industry given these attributes that map well to the characteristics of the industry's data forms.
Multiple industries are operating with the installed base of products, such as Valves for pipeline or fluid flow applications, Turbomachinery Equipment for power generating Plants, or Pumps for Oil & Gas Artificial Lift Services. This installed base of assets requires monitoring, predictive and preventative maintenance, as well as part or asset replacement when it is not performing to specifications. These additional performance requirements drive the Aftermarket business to maintain and repair these installed assets. One of the challenges is that many of the failure mechanisms resulting in part replacements or repair are unpredictable and require an immediate response to minimize operational downtime. Moreover, some assets are expected to last for decades, and in many cases, the original manufacturer is no longer in the business by the time the asset needs to be repaired or replaced. Often, the risk of part shortages is met by building and maintaining inventories, tying up cash in items that might never be used. Therefore, the nature of Aftermarket business places premium on quick response in spare part delivery and asset repair. This paper outlines how the relative simplicity and speed of Additive Manufacturing process can address this need and meet the associated demand with minimal inventory levels.
Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a novel manufacturing technology, growing rapidly and able to work with multiple materials, including many plastics, metal alloys, and ceramics. AM is characterized with relative simplicity and speed (less steps in Supply Chain process compared to conventional machining or casting), as well as ability to create very complex shapes for no additional cost and enabling favorable economic value for a product lot of one (thus solving mass customization challenge). These advantages make AM indispensable for the Aftermarket as it is uniquely positioned to meet quick response demands eliminating the need to hold inventories. Moreover, combining capabilities of AM with modern reverse engineering and modeling & simulation tools allows quick turnaround for parts that are no longer serviced by the original manufacturer.
We present several case studies on how AM is able to meet Aftermarket challenges in different businesses such as Valves and Turbomachinery Equipment, dramatically reducing lead time for spare parts and eliminating inventories. With rapidly growing footprint of AM, including new materials, larger and more versatile 3D printers, and scalable, economic processes, it is evident that the case for AM in Aftermarket business will only get stronger and we will see rapid proliferation of AM in many industries for years to come.
The application of AM processes to the Aftermarket business challenges results in a dramatic change of business models: no longer spare part shortage risks are addressed by building inventories; rather, speed of AM process allows meeting demand for part replacement and repair just in time, minimizing inventory levels and enabling economic Supply Chain solutions for a product lot of one.
Liagre, Pierre F. (Shell International Exploration & Production, Inc.) | Ang, Zhili (Shell International Exploration & Production, Inc.) | Wibner, Christopher G. (Shell International Exploration & Production, Inc.) | Aragh, Sina H. (Inspectrum Group)
This paper presents a multitude of lessons learned during the 5 years spent on the design, manufacturing and delivery of the on- and off-vessel mooring components for the Appomattox semi-submersible.
Appomattox is Shell's newest and largest deepwater oil & gas production asset in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). It was successfully moored about 260 kilometers Southeast of New Orleans, in June 2018 using a 16-point chain-polyester-chain mooring system. It was the culmination of the work done by a dedicated team of Shell civil-marine engineers, mooring equipment suppliers and an offshore installation contractor. Shortly after completion of mooring lines hook-up operations, the polyester ropes were pre-stretched, and the FPS was moved into position for the start of the Steel Catenary Riser (SCR) system installation. Appomattox started production in May 2019. The mooring equipment has so far been performing as expected.
The delivery of Appomattox mooring components was particularly challenging due to an unusually large number of stringent constraints including: 40-year design life, first application of fairleads with underwater chain stoppers in the GoM to mitigate out-of-plane chain link bending fatigue, polyester rope properties fine-tuned to ensure that installation and in-service requirements are met, stringent inspection oversight to enforce project-specific requirements, Thermal Spray Aluminum (TSA) on portions of the platform chains and novel chain handling equipment and method for mooring lines hook-up operations, just to mention a few. The design of the overall system and management of the mooring equipment vendors was performed using mostly in-house resources.
The paper starts with some general information about the Appomattox development. The three subsequent sections present the mooring system, the delivery team and the overall timeline. The lessons are then organized in sections by mooring component types (on-vessel, polyester ropes, chains, and various connectors). Some reflections on how stakeholders influenced certain characteristics of the mooring components are disseminated throughout the paper. The paper also includes some observations about how the equipment performed in the field even though the lessons learned about the commissioning and offshore installation are left for a separate future paper.
The ability to detect oil spills reliably, as well as to carry out fast and effective recovery operations, is the onus of any extraction company working in the field. Unfortunately, detecting and tracking oil spills is no easy task. By employing a combination of radar, optical and infrared (IR) sensors, operators are empowered to not only detect, characterise and track spills, but also to locate "combatable oil", i.e. where oil is at its thickest, and therefore, where recovery efforts should be mobilised.
Radar-based oil spill detection (OSD) systems can be supported to great effect by the addition of optical and IR sensors. Real-time evaluation of oil spill thickness using such a combination of sensors is achieved thanks to the exploitation of some of oil's natural properties.
The first of these properties is that oil will interact with the surface of the sea, affecting radar backscatter imagery. When oil is present on the sea surface it impacts the surface tension of the water and, as a result, wind does not create the same short-wave patterns on the surface as in areas free of oil. This means that areas covered with oil will not exhibit backscatter in the same way as areas free of oil.
The second of these properties is that when oil and water are at the same temperature, oil emits less infrared energy than water, meaning that oil will appear cooler than water when observed using an infrared sensor. Additionally, unlike water, oil absorbs almost all light in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, meaning that thick oil (where the upper layers of oil are insulated from the water below) will heat up in the daytime and become hotter than water. At night, the inverse will be observed, with the upper layer of thick oil cooling to below the temperature of the surrounding water.
As a result of these properties, areas of the sea that are polluted with oil will appear differently on the various sensor displays based on the thickness of the spill, the wind and current conditions, and whether it is day or night. By harnessing the combination of radar, optical and infrared sensors, operators can determine the location of spills in daylight or darkness. They can also determine the leading edge of the spill, allowing for an understanding of its trajectory, and where recovery efforts should focus their attention.
Furthermore, automatic tracking and historical insights can add much-needed information to user interface displays, giving operators comprehensive situational awareness.
Partouche, Ashers (Schlumberger) | Yang, Bo (Schlumberger) | Tao, Chen (Schlumberger) | Sawaf, Tamim (Schlumberger) | Xu, Lina (Schlumberger) | Nelson, Keith (Schlumberger) | Chen, Hua (Schlumberger) | Dindial, Deo (Schlumberger) | Edmundson, Simon (Schlumberger) | Pfeiffer, Thomas (Schlumberger)
Wireline formation testing has evolved from discrete pressure measurements, introduced in the 1950s to measuring pressure gradients and fluid contacts since the 1970s. Technology introduced in the late 1980s and onwards added interval pressure transient testing, focused sampling, and downhole fluid analysis. Thirty years later, this paper shows data examples of a recently developed formation testing platform in a wide range of environments, and applications, that change how we plan, acquire, and use formation testing.
The dual-flow-line architecture of the formation testing platform is designed to systematically address shortcomings of legacy technology, enabling focused sampling in the tightest conventional formations, as well as transient testing in high mobility environments. Specialized pre-job planning software evaluates conveyance options to minimize friction and borehole contact, estimates the available flow rate, compares cleanup performance of the different inlets, and simulates transient testing responses. During the operation, the platform uses hardware embedded automation algorithms that execute routine tasks in a consistent and highly efficient manner, leaving more time for the user to focus on data quality and value of the measurements.
Case studies from Mexico, Norway, and the US demonstrate specific improvements in capability and performance. Field data from Mexico shows focused sampling of gas condensate from a heterogeneous submillidarcy carbonate formation in an HP/HT well drilled with oil-based mud. Controlled downhole decompression of crude oil in the flowline at a sampling station in Norway enabled real-time measurement of its bubblepoint pressure to within 6 psi of that measured in the laboratory. Another case study integrates accurate relative asphaltene gradients into an existing reservoir fluid study to prove reservoir connectivity across a large lateral distance in a producing field. Application of the dual packer subsystem demonstrates inflation within four minutes and pure oil samples within 90 minutes on station in a 1.5-md/cp fractured basement formation. The fine pump control at a low rate enabled sampling just below reservoir pressure in Alaska and a case from the Gulf of Mexico demonstrates the real-time impact of fluid properties on the understanding of reservoir architecture and completion design.
The presented examples highlight the impact of downhole automation, define the new operating envelope for formation testing in the most challenging environments, and highlight how the technology development leads to decision making on a broad reservoir scale by providing contextual answers rather than an accumulation of facts and figures.
Lv, Zuobin (CNOOC China Limited, Tianjin Branch) | Song, Hongliang (CNOOC China Limited, Tianjin Branch) | Wang, Pengfei (CNOOC China Limited, Tianjin Branch) | Fang, Na (CNOOC China Limited, Tianjin Branch) | Zheng, Bin (CNOOC China Limited, Tianjin Branch)
The resolution of seismic data in the semideep reservoirs ranging from 1500m to 3000m is low, and reservoir prediction is difficult when well data are scarce (
In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a well-seismic integrated reservoir prediction technique based on seismic data frequency division processing and lithofacies distribution prediction technique based on sedimentary numerical simulation. On the basis of reservoir prediction, 3D reservoir geological modeling is carried out. With the reservoir prediction results as the constraint conditions, the sedimentary microfacies modeling is firstly developed, and then reservoir petrophysical modeling is carried out under microfacies constraints. The fine geological modeling of complex semideep reservoir is realized. Compared with the traditional geological model based on the constraint of 2D sedimentary microfacies map, the new modeling method has higher accuracy. The geological model established by the new method can more accurately predict the spatial distribution, porosity and permeability properties of reservoirs.
McPhail, Finlay (Shell Global Solutions International B.V.) | Auburtin, Erwan (TechnipFMC) | van Haaften, Ewoud (Shell Global Solutions International B.V.) | Yates, Darren (Shell Brasil Exploration and Production) | McConochie, Jason (Shell Australia Pty. Ltd.) | Leridon, Aurelien (TechnipFMC) | Lefebvre, Timothee (TechnipFMC)
The Prelude Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) facility is designed to offload Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) to carrier vessels moored in a Side by Side (SBS) configuration, using Marine Loading Arm (MLA) technology. This operation is novel and therefore could impact the project economics. The design was subject to extensive verification to ensure it could reliably support operations. Robust methods of quantitatively assessing an entirely novel, and complex, offshore operation were developed.
The high offtake cadence, exposed location, and range of different variables associated with the Prelude operation represented multiple technical challenges. There are few international standards which can be drawn from for this type of operation.
Limiting criteria for the operation have been developed through bridge simulations and consultation with marine technical experts. Additional limiting criteria are derived from marine hardware. Wind tunnel modelling, wave basin modelling, and other experiments have been performed. Innovative modelling techniques for multibody hydrodynamic modelling were developed to provide quantification of operational effectiveness and reliability. Novel operational assessment tools and method have been developed.
Hydrodynamic models have been developed for a range of different LNG and LPG carriers based on potential theory. These models include non-linear mooring characteristics, multi-body coupling, and coupling with sloshing effects. Multiple research projects have been executed to effectively model these different characteristics and validate the numerical modelling.
These models have been analyzed against a set of statistically representative MetOcean data derived from a 39 year hindcast of the Prelude location. The reduction of this data to statistically representative bins simplified modelling overhead. Multiple and increasing permutations of carriers, load conditions, and mooring configurations resulted in more than 100,000 time-domain simulations being required to evaluate the operation.
Combinations of different simulations and stages of loading to derive ‘window’ operability were established based on work with marine experts. Significant effort was applied to develop realistic models and assumptions for input to economic assessment and predictive tools for operational planning.
To mitigate the effects of a range of transient conditions, methodologies for employing the FLNG thruster system were developed in coordination with the marine and operations team. Methods for modelling these operational approaches were derived to enhance the operational effectiveness of FLNG and improve the predictive capabilities for operators.
Prelude represents the first of its kind for such a scale and exposed location. Significant novel methods for effectively analyzing such a complex situation were pioneered and refined for this project. There has also been an important feedback loop between operations readiness, operations, and analysis which has lead to safe and successful first operations. Measurements collected aboard Prelude and during future operations should enable further refinement and accuracy of modelling to support enhanced operational effectiveness.