The SPE has split the former "Management & Information" technical discipline into two new technical discplines:
- Data Science & Engineering Analytics
The SPE has split the former "Management & Information" technical discipline into two new technical discplines:
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Abstract Al Baraka Oilfield Services SAOC has supported Oman's leading oil and gas exploration and production company in the Sultanate, in servicing wells in the Oman Block 6 concession area using Conventional Workover Rigs since 2013. Workover includes primarily changing completions and casings, fishing, cementing, abandonment, milling, perforations, changing pumps/motors, upsizing wellhead, and other integrity operations. The challenge given by the Client to the Contractor was to safely and successfully commission the first two new electric-powered 550 HP Hoists. A Super Local Community Contractor (SLCC) has become the first oil and gas company in Oman to introduce ground-breaking electric-powered Workover Rigs. It is proud to declare itself as the first company in Oman to work intensively and proactively to design these modularized electric-powered workover units, able to optimize the move time between the wells, thereby creating faster turnarounds and reducing costs. This allowed the Client to bring early oil to the tanks, minimizing deferment, achieving ample savings in operations, and accelerating cash flow. Conventional workover rigs are primarily hydraulic, not electric. Compared with the Conventional units, the new Electrical hoists are equipped with the latest technology and ergonomics that ensure safe operations and faster movement between locations which reflects in the increased number of wells attended so far in 2022. Other advantages are viz. modular, less space occupation; improved control features, ability to control both torques and speed very accurately; fully automated pipe-handling systems; less maintenance expenditure and lower capital/operating investment The Electrical units are designed to enhance safety and overall performance efficiency defined by the specific application, the location of the well, and the type of work to be performed. These rigs have a more efficient power source, as electric motors convert more of the energy input into mechanical power compared to diesel engines. This is also reflected in the reduction in Non-Productive Time. Two critical features were the basis of the design of the Workover Unit, i.e. potential to take lead in energy efficiency/decarbonization and minimizing "lifting and drops" hazards by introducing automated handling mechanisms and reducing manual/human intervention. In phase II, these units will be hooked up to the Overhead Electricity Transmission Grid instead of running from diesel generators. Oman's power grid is fed by electricity produced from clean natural gas-fired turbines which emit less pollution; therefore there will be an overall saving in energy consumption and reducing pollution from burning fossil fuels, with the aspiration to reduce global carbon emissions to Net Zero by 2050, as part of the decarbonization roadmap laid down by the Ministry of Energy & Minerals in Oman, in line with the Paris Agreement's objectives of limiting global warming to 1.5°C compared to pre-industrial levels. The electric-powered WO rig concept has been so successful that the Client has incorporated these types of rigs in future new contracts as against conventional hydraulic rigs – the client has changed the contract specification in line with these Hoists. Other service providers are planning to switch to Electric WO rigs as a new trend in Oman as these units have enhanced technical features.
Abstract BP has had a presence in Oman since 2007 and stands as a major investor within the country. BP is one of the world's pioneers in tight gas production, harnessing technology and experience to develop one of the Middle East's largest unconventional gas resources in the Sultanate's Block 61. BP Oman's overall goal is to create a sustainable legacy that supports Oman's strategic goals for energy security and long-term economic diversification. Production from Phase 1 of Block 61, Khazzan, started in 2017 (Fig. 1). In October 2020, production from Phase 2, Ghazeer also started (Fig. 2). Combined, Khazzan and Ghazeer produce 1.5 billion cubic ft of gas/d and more than 65,000 bbl/d of associated condensate. With an estimated 10.5 trillion cubic ft of recoverable gas resources, the block has the capacity to deliver approximately 35% of Oman's total gas demand.
Abstract The oil and gas (O&G) business is going through a natural but accelerated evolution to incorporate more digital tools into its business model. While it is important to adapt quickly, under such circumstances it is equally important to plan with the future in mind. The biggest challenge the oil and gas industry has faced recently is the sudden shifts in demand and supply. The pandemic era curbed demand, while the recovery resulted in an unprecedented supply shortage. This imbalance identified an opportunity to quickly evolve new sales and operational planning (S&OP) processes. These processes were designed to continually balance supply and demand at different time horizons. The digital capabilities were further empowered to harness S&OP potential to forecast and plan better than ever before. The digital planning tool (DPT) is now part of the business fabric, enabling product forecasting up to 12 months out. This paper illustrates one of the steps in the technological digital journey driven by O&G service companies. It shows how implementing a DPT enables S&OP processes to optimize resource management. Such optimization creates a more agile and accurate response to a fluctuating demand-supply balance, improving company performance overall.
Amorocho, A. (Drilling Technology ADNOC, Abu Dhabi, UAE) | Elkasrawi, A. (Drilling Drilling Materials ADNOC, Abu Dhabi, UAE) | Abdelazim, A. (Drilling Drilling Materials ADNOC, Abu Dhabi, UAE) | AlRashdi, A. (Drilling Drilling Materials ADNOC, Abu Dhabi, UAE) | Shamlam, A. Bin (Drilling Operations ASR/UC/ASAB ADNOC, Abu Dhabi, UAE) | Nuaimi, M. Al (Drilling Technology ADNOC, Abu Dhabi, UAE) | Nunez, Y. (Drilling Technology ADNOC, Abu Dhabi, UAE) | Blanpied, C. (Middle East Services Director – Vallourec, Abu Dhabi, UAE) | Cavanha, T. (Business Owner OCTG Digital Solutions – Vallourec, Paris, France) | Blues, S. (Vallurec ME, Vallourec, Abu Dhabi, UAE)
Abstract Responding to requirements of Operator Company in Abu Dhabi to automate and strengthen processes of running casing and tubing, a patented digital solution has been implemented, which timestamps all key phases of the tubulars’ lifecycle from rig receipt to running then to rig return, while enabling continuous improvement through post-running data analytics. The solution relies on unique individual pipe traceability, through a combination of different methods of marking such as – data matrix, RFID & barcodes. These markings are read using a variety of digital tools including – smartphones, tablets & cameras. The solution has already been deployed in North & South America, Europe, and Asia, totaling over 100 successful jobs worldwide. Operator Company in Abu Dhabi was the first operator in the Middle East to try the solution in 2022. The below section summarizes the solution results based on the feedback from the first three wells piloted by Abu Dhabi Oil Company. The value chain is broken down into three key categories as follows: –Pre-running: the solution brought an increased level of quality control paired with an automatically generated pre-tally list. Further to this, an increase in personnel is safety assisted by a reduction in tubular handling and removal of personnel from high-risk positions. –During running: the accuracy of the running sequence was ensured by the utilization of the solution ‘‘Watchdog Alerts’. These highlighted to the user any deviation from the original plan, preventing error and minimizing any downtime generated. All of this was made available in real-time in a cloud environment to anyone within the Operator Company with credentials for accessing the system. –Post-running: monitor and compare rig performances through digitally enabled data analytics In conclusion, significant cost reduction (from 15 to 45 k$ per job for a 70k$ rig day rate), mitigating risks of non-productive time by reducing human errors (from 5 to 15 hours per job), ensuring safety and integrity of the well and enabling operators to track its assets and monitor running operations in real-time.
Bhawna, Ahuja (Halliburton, Bangalore, Karnataka, India) | Gurunath, Gandikota (Halliburton, Bangalore, Karnataka, India) | Shashwat, Verma (Halliburton, Bangalore, Karnataka, India) | Yogesh, Sharma (Halliburton, Bangalore, Karnataka, India)
Abstract The daily drilling report (DDR) contains information on daily activities and parameters from the well operations. The inputs are classified using activity codes to evaluate the field performance with improved decision-making. The coding levels support hierarchy in activity code sets. However, it requires information about a substantial number of codes and subcodes. Thus, accurate and consistent identification of codes for operation activities becomes challenging and time-consuming. This work proposes a novel approach to automatically suggest the activity code for drilling activities in well information management system (IMS), with the aim of facilitating the digitization of well operations. We propose a natural language processing (NLP) based two-stage machine learning (ML) model for prediction of activity codes using drilling activities descriptions. The methodology consists of data analysis to identify critical factors for developing ML model. To handle challenges of the diversity of the larger dataset, sampling approach is adopted. Augmentation via contextual embeddings is also explored for minority class. The term frequency-inverse document frequency (TFIDF) is used for feature extraction from text. The classifier is first trained to predict the main activity codes. Predicted main codes in the first stage become the feature space for the second stage training for enhanced accuracy. To improve the accuracy further, related subcodes are grouped according to confusion matrix, performance, and expert advice. This ML model is then integrated with IMS. This method was implemented on a large dataset consisting of 3000+ wells with 1M+ rows. With 70% of the dataset for the training, accuracies achieved for subcode prediction include 66% for the conventional model, 83% for grouped subcode prediction, and 92% for the proposed two-stage grouped subcode prediction. Hence, the proposed model outperforms the conventional model significantly. It is observed that the number of codes/subcodes affects the accuracy. During microservice development, memory requirement and latency are also examined. Increasing tree depths of the ML model after a certain point does not offer significant accuracy improvement though it leads to greater memory requirement and latency. Compression reduces the memory requirement significantly but at increased latency. Hence, an optimal trade-off between accuracy, latency and memory requirement may be attained by selecting model features. It is, therefore, established that the proposed workflow can be used to assist the digitalization of activity code mapping with potential benefits of improving performance, efficiency and reduced manual efforts in database information system for improving efficiency. Novelty of this approach lies in the use of two stage prediction where hierarchical nature of codes is utilized for enhancing accuracy with the help of advanced technologies such as NLP and ML. Grouping of related codes with expert knowledge and performance also provides a realistic solution for reducing the manual efforts.
Al-Riyami, N. (Exebenus, Stavanger, Norway) | Revheim, O. (Exebenus, Stavanger, Norway) | Robinson, T. S. (Exebenus, Stavanger, Norway) | Batruny, P. (PETRONAS Carigali, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia) | Meor Hakeem, M. H. (PETRONAS Carigali, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia) | Tze Ping, G. (Faazmiar Technology Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia)
Abstract O&G operators seek to reduce CAPEX by reducing unit development costs. In drilling operations this is achieved by reducing flat time and bit-on-bottom time. For the last five years, we have leveraged data generated by drilling operations and machine learning advancements in drilling operations. This work is focused on field test results using a real-time global Rate of Penetration (ROP) optimization solution, reducing lost time from sub-optimal ROPs. These tests were conducted on offshore drilling operations in West Africa and Malaysia, where live recommendations provided by the optimization software were implemented by the rig crews in order to test real-world efficacy for improving ROP. The test wells included near-vertical and highly deviated sections, as well as various formations, including claystones, sandstones, limestones and siltstones. The optimization system consisted of a model for estimating ROP, and an optimizer algorithm for generating drilling parameter values that maximize expected ROP, subject to constraints. The ROP estimation model was a deep neural network, using only surface parameters as inputs, and designed to maximize generalizability to new wells. The model was used out-of-the-box, with no specific retraining for the field testing. During field-tests, increased average ROP was observed after following recommendations provided by the optimizer. Compared to offset wells, higher average ROP values were recorded. Furthermore, drilling was completed ahead of plan in both cases. In the Malaysian test well, following the software's advice yielded an increase in ROP from 10.4 to 31 m/h over a 136 m drilling interval. In the West Africa well, total depth was reached ∼24 days ahead of plan, and ∼2.4 days ahead of the expected technical limit. Importantly, the optimization system provided value in operations where auto-driller technologies were used. This work showcases field-test results and lessons learnt from using machine learning to optimize ROP in drilling operations. The final plug-and-play model improves cycle efficiency by eliminating model training before each well and allows instantaneous, real-time intervention. This deployable model is suitable to be utilized anytime, anywhere, with retraining being optional. As a result, minimizing the invisible lost time from sub-optimal ROP and reducing costs associated with on-bottom drilling for any well complexity and in any location is now part of the standard real-time operation solutions. This deployment of technology shows how further optimization of drilling time and reduction in well cost is achievable through utilization of real time data and machine learning.
Abstract The oil and gas industry face unprecedented challenges and opportunities which demand innovative solutions. There needs to be more than the traditional centralized IT operational model to meet the dynamic needs of the industry. This has led to new models, such as the citizen developer program, which enables business users to create and deploy applications without requiring specialized technical skills. The citizen developer program is a new approach allowing non-IT professionals to create applications for their business needs using low-code and no-code platforms. This program aims to decentralize IT operations, increase innovation, reduce costs, and enhance customer experience. The democratization of technology is the core concept behind the citizen developer program, which enables businesses to create their applications and automate their processes . The implementation of a citizen developer program requires careful planning and consideration of various factors, including change management, awareness and marketing of the concept, training, selecting the correct low code no code tool, management buy-in, building a community of practices for citizen developers, governance/policy, and more. These elements are critical to the program's success and must be carefully considered during implementation. This manuscript provides a framework for implementing a citizen developer program in the oil and gas industry. It also includes a case study of implementing such a program and creating significant value in Kuwait Integrated Petroleum Industries Company (KIPIC). The Framework emphasizes the importance of change management, awareness and marketing of the concept, training, selecting the correct low code no code tool, management buy-in, building a community of practices for citizen developers, governance/policy, and more. The manuscript aims to provide insights into the benefits of implementing a citizen developer program in the oil and gas industry and its potential impact on the IT operational model. In summary, the citizen developer program represents a paradigm shift in the oil and gas industry, which enables businesses to create and deploy applications without relying solely on IT professionals. This program can increase innovation, reduce costs, and enhance customer experience. The implementation of a citizen developer program requires careful planning and consideration of various factors, as outlined in this manuscript.
Abstract Materials development, mechanical design, cutting structure modelling/simulation, advanced manufacturing process are the key necessities for producing high-quality, superior-performing drill bits. Among all, the bit body materials and manufacturing method are the key limiting factors for geometric design and bit life. Conventionally processed materials used for drill bit bodies, either a metal matrix body (Tungsten carbide particles infiltrated with copper alloy binder) or a steel body with hand-applied hardfacing material, have reached the limit of certain properties. Recently, an Additive Manufacturing (AM) method has gained rapid expansion from prototyping to industrial scale production with the capability of building complicated shapes and competitive properties. This paper presents the innovative work that went into developing the AM powder containing extremely hard tungsten carbide particles and directly printing this matrix composite parts then to be used in manufacturing drill bits for challenging drilling applications. Additionally, other benefits of adopting AM technology include minimized greenhouse gas emission (GHGE); thus, boosting sustainability. Multiple field application cases with polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drill bits dressed with AM components are presented to show the performance improvement over conventional counterparts.
Sulaiman, A. Y. (Adnoc Offshore, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates) | AlHammadi, I. (Adnoc Offshore, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates) | Al Ali, S. (Adnoc Offshore, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates) | El-Sheikh, H. (Adnoc Offshore, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates) | Al Ghafeli, S. K. (Adnoc Offshore, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates) | Shokry, A. (Adnoc Offshore, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates) | Abdi, R. M. (Adnoc Offshore, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates) | Abdulla, M. F. (Adnoc Offshore, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates) | Yakovlev, T. (Interwell Middle East, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates) | Ross, S. (Interwell Middle East, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates)
Abstract As wells completed with wireline retrievable downhole safety valves are becoming mature, issues related to seal bore and nipple profile tend to develop, causing the safety valve to be non-integral. Without a fully functioning downhole safety valve, these wells cannot produce and must be shut in. One option to overcome this issue is to utilize an Insert Valve Carrier (IVC) connected to the existing downhole safety valve (DHSV). The IVC has an anchoring mechanism to hang the system on depth, replacing the function of the damaged nipple. Also, it is equipped with upper and lower sealing elements to seal across the existing control line outlet in the tubing providing hydraulic fluid to operate the safety valve. An electronic setting tool sets the anchors at the pup joint slightly above the safety valve nipple while positioning the sealing elements across the control line outlet. The system is simple to use and can easily be set with Slickline, Electric Line, or Coiled Tubing with CCL capability for correlation or a No-go assembly. Several successful jobs were conducted between 2021-2022 in 4-1/2″ and 7″ completions in the Offshore Abu Dhabi field. Before mobilization, System Integrity Test is performed to ensure the system passes the pressure test and the safety valve functions properly. In this operation, the IVC and the safety valve were set using an Electric Line, taking advantage of real-time reading from the CCL for correlation. Once on depth, a signal was sent from the surface, setting the anchors and sealing elements. A normal procedure to apply pressure in the control line was performed. When the pressure holds, it provides a positive indication that the packing elements seal properly. An inflow test on the flapper was performed to confirm its integrity. Following the installation, flow tests were performed at different rates to ensure the system worked fine and evaluate the potential. This system has successfully restored the downhole safety valve functionality, which permits the wells to produce again after being inactive for a long time. In addition, the success of this system eliminates the need for expensive workovers.
Abstract The deep carbonate reservoir formation on this field has proven to be an extreme High-temperature (HT) environment for downhole equipment. While drilling the 5000 - 6500 ft 5-7/8" slim long laterals across this formation, very high bottom-hole circulating temperatures is encountered (310-340 degF) which exceeds the operating limitation for the downhole drilling/formation evaluation tools. This resulted in multiple temperature-related failures, unplanned trips and long non-productive-time. It became necessary to provide solution to reduce the BHCT-related failures. Performed offset-wells-analysis to identify the BHT regime across the entire-field, create a heat-map and correlate/compare actual formation-temperatures with the formation-temperature-gradient provided by the operator (1.4-1.8 degF/100-ft). Drilling reports and MWD/LWD/wireline logs were reviewed/analyzed. Reviewed tools-spec-sheets, discovered most of the tools had a maximum-temperature-rating of 300-302 degF and were run outside-technical-limits. Observed temperature-related-failures were predominant in very long slim-laterals, which indicated that some of the heat was generated by high flow rate/RPM and solids in the system. Tried drilling with low-RPM/FR, did not achieve meaningful-temperature-reduction. After detailed risk-assessment and analysis on other contributing factors in the drilling process, opted to incorporate mud-chiller into the surface circulating-system to cool-down the mud going into the well. Upon implementation of the mud chiller system, observed up to 40 degF reduction in surface temperature (i.e. temperature-difference between the mud entering/leaving mud chiller). This was achieved because the unit was set-up to process at least twice the rate that was pumped downhole. Also observed reduction in the bottom-hole circulating temperature to below 300 degF, thus ensuring the drilling environment met the tool specifications. The temperature-related tools failure got eliminated. On some of the previous wells, wireline logging tools have been damaged due to high encountered downhole temperature as circulation was not possible prior-to or during logging operation. The implementation of the mud-chiller system has made it possible for innovative logging thru-bit logging application to be implemented. This allows circulation of cool mud across the entire open hole prior to deployment of tools to perform logging operation. This has made it possible for same logging tool to be used for multiple jobs without fear of tool electronic-components failure die to exposure to extreme temperatures. The long non-productive time due to temperature-related tool failures got eliminated. The numerous stuck pipes events due to hole deterioration resulting from multiple round trips also got eliminated. Overall drilling operations became more efficient. The paper will describe the drilling challenges, the systematic approach implemented to arrive at optimized solution. It will show how good understanding of drilling challenges and tailored-solutions delivers great gains. The authors will show how this system was used to provide a true step-change in performance in this challenging environment.