Imbazi, Oyeintonbra (Shell Company in Nigeria) | Ugoh, Oluwatobi (Shell Company in Nigeria) | Okoloma, Emmanuel (Shell Company in Nigeria) | Osuagwu, Micheal (Shell Company in Nigeria) | Enyioko, Chigoziem (Halliburton) | Ighavini, Emmanuel (Halliburton) | Uzodinma, Chioma (Halliburton)
Well 01 and Well 02 are part of the phase 1-6 project that involved the development of six wells with the potential to deliver an additional 70% production increase to the LNG export market. The sand face for both wells was drilled with 0.72psi/ft pseudo oil-based mud (POBM). After the initial well clean-up, both wells produced sub-optimally (~20% of estimated potential) with relatively high drawdown (ranging from 500psi – 1000psi). This low production was suspected to be because of downhole (screen and formation) impairment or partial opening of the formation isolation valves (FIV).
A restoration team was set up with a responsibility to proffer a robust well intervention execution plan and select the most potent barite dissolver. Nine stimulation chemicals were tested and based on the team criteria, CHEM-001 and CHEM-002 were selected as main-treatment and pre-flush chemicals, respectively.
The downhole and surface conditions that exist in deep high-pressure wells pose many challenges to the coiled tubing industry as it strives to provide safe and reliable access to the wells. This paper highlights a case history of successfully snubbing coiled tubing (CT) into two deep (about 14,000ft+) live wells (Well 01 and Well 02) with a high surface pressure (7000psi+) and temperature (80 – 100°C) to stimulate both wells. The success criteria post stimulation was targeted at 75% of the potential production value. However, post treatment results show that cumulative gas production increased by 375% (with about 200psi) with a potential to increase up to 400%.
This paper details the entire operations during the CT well intervention, the planning, design, and technical analysis which led to the selection of a CT with 130,000psi yield strength on a 125K CT injector system, force simulations, and laboratory tests on CT with stimulation chemicals which led to a successful stimulation campaign. The paper also covers the initial planned versus actual operations and the lessons learned leading to on-the-spot optimization plans that resulted in a highly successful intervention operation.
Berry, Sandra L. (Baker Hughes, a GE Company) | Palm, Dustin C. (Baker Hughes, a GE Company) | Usie, Marty J. (Baker Hughes, a GE Company) | Schutz, Ronald W. (TiCorr LLC) | Walker, Heath W. (Arconic Energy Systems)
Matrix acidizing treatments containing hydrogen fluoride (HF) acid have been utilized in stimulation treatments of offshore wells to remove skin associated with fines migration for many years. In the last few years, operators have moved toward the use of organic acid - HF acid treatments due to corrosion concerns in the downhole tubular strings during the initial pumping of live acid and in the Titanium Stress Joints (TSJ) during the acid flow back through the production riser. A corrosion inhibitor to inhibit any unspent HF in the acid flowback returns would be beneficial to operators. Production of spent acid flowing back through the production riser is seriously being considered because significant cost savings may be realized over other acid flowback options. However, although most HF acid systems are mostly and/or highly spent during the reaction time with the formation mineralogy, even small concentrations of remaining free HF in the spent acid returns can result in severe bore surface corrosion (etching) and byproduct hydrogen absorption by the riser system TSJ. Lab studies were performed with several different inhibitor formulations added to two different spent organic - HF acid fluid systems to determine the ability for these candidate inhibitors to thwart corrosion (etching) and corresponding hydrogen uptake on ASTM Grade 29 titanium (Ti-29) test coupons. These candidate inhibitors were subjected to four-hour exposure tests conducted at 170 F under 3500 psi pressure with various inhibitor concentrations to determine if the package could meet screening criteria of corrosion/etch rate of less than 0.5 mils per day (0.5 thousandths of an inch) and hydrogen uptake limits consistent with ASTM product specification limits for the short term exposure (i.e., four hours). These lab test results are compared to those from recent published lab test studies on titanium in live and spent HF containing acid fluids, along with discussion on practical implications and considerations for their field use. Developing a corrosion inhibitor to inhibit the residual HF acid in the spent flowback returns and prevent etching and hydrogen uptake by the TSJ in the production risers not only yields effective protection of the TSJ, allowing flowback fluids to be returned thru the production riser, but also offers a significant operational cost savings.
A multi-phase stimulation treatment was required and subsequently executed in deep-water Gulf of Mexico to remediate a multitude of damage mechanisms resulting from years of hydrocarbon production. Among the many challenges that deep-water operators must face, there is the need for remediation of wells experiencing a decline in production. The execution of these treatments can prove to be very costly and require extensive damage assessments to properly design the most effective stimulation plan. Treatment placement is a major part of the decision process and will impact the performance of the job. A well in the Mississippi Canyon field had an asphaltene deposition issue based on asphaltene onset pressure evaluations as well as suspected fines migration issues. Each requiring its own treatment protocol. This operation required that a rig be moved onto location so that the job could be pumped via coiled tubing to assure injectivity into the zone of interest.
A multiphase approach design included:
The challenge is the difference between utilizing xylene alone for organic deposition removal verses specialty solvent treatments specific to asphaltene removal as well as the use of deep penetrating hydrofluoric acid blends and specialty additive packages.
Utilizing this multi-phase approach resulted in a successful treatment outcome for the operator. An increase in total fluids production, an increase in flowing tubing and a job pay off of less than 30 days was the result of finding a solution to these particular set of challenges.
Jin, Ningjing (Vertechs Oil & Gas Technology Co., Ltd.) | Xiao, Shuyue (Exploration and Development Research Institute, PetroChina Southwest Oil and Gasfield Company) | Zhang, Shuo (Vertechs Oil & Gas Technology Co., Ltd.)
The paper will include an introduction of dissolvable plug and its development in oil & gas upstream business. Dissolvable plug is a customized tool, and it could be modified by controlling its chemical compound to adjust its dissolving rate. In addition, slim version dissolvable plug is a plug solution with dissolvability originally brought out to overcome the downhole restriction challenge (ID of SSD), namely to pass the downhole restriction then to set in the original casing ID. A case study of its application in offshore squeeze cementing job will be analyzed in this paper, from the plug designing perspective to operational data recap to prove its benefits. Conventional plugs will leave the bottom of the plug body downhole after plugs slip losing integrity during the milling operation, and the remainder leaving downhole will choke the well production or even block the well, however, dissolvable plug remainders will dissolve itself downhole, which will not have an impact on the production.
Asia's first rigless subsea stimulation was executed in 2018, with intervention performed upon three target wells offshore Sabah Malaysia, at a water depth of approximately 1400 m (4,593 ft). Significant changes in reservoir performance prompted an acid stimulation and scale squeeze treatment, designed to remedy fines migration and scaling issues within the well and production system. Treatment fluids were delivered subsea by an open-water hydraulic access system, using a hybrid coiled-tubing downline. Access to the subsea trees was permitted via a patented choke access technology, allowing for a flexible, opex-efficient, and low-risk intervention. The intervention system was installed upon a multi-service vessel, with the downline deployed via the vessel moonpool. A second support vessel was used as required to provide additional fluid capacity without disturbing primary intervention operations. This enhanced the flexibility of the operation, permitting changes in the treatment plan to be accommodated for without impact to critical path stimulation activities.
The full intervention was delivered as an integrated service, with all elements supplied by a single provider, via one contract. An established network of in-house equipment, expertise, test laboratories, and operational bases supported the planning and execution of the project. This was complemented by select external providers for vessels, remotely operated vehicle services, and other specialist contractors.
The challenges faced during this new market entry included completion of a comprehensive treatment fluid test program, importation and logistics of equipment from around the globe, and managing operational risks, all within a condensed timeline to satisfy a brief intervention window. By leveraging the diverse global network of the service provider, the technology and people required for the project were accessed and brought together to achieve a collaborative solution. This was enhanced by the inclusion of performance based elements within the contract. The provision of a highly efficient and flexible well access technology also supported rapid mobilization and operational risk reduction.
Post-stimulation well testing confirmed an average increase in oil productivity of 86%, with a corresponding productivity index factor (PIF) gain of 3.4. These results, combined with the efficient execution of the campaign, confirm the appropriateness of open-water hydraulic access using coiled-tubing for performing cost-effective stimulations on complex subsea wells.
Successful entry to the region was highly dependent upon the integrated nature of the service. Access to the service providers global network permitted a high degree of influence upon the ultimate performance of the stimulation. Examples include the PIF results achieved and the responsive actions taken to remedy offshore challenges such as reservoir lock-up on well #3.
Relative permeability has a significant impact on gas or oil and water production, but is one of the most complicated properties in unconventional reservoirs. Current understanding on relative permeability for unconventional reservoir rocks is very limited, mainly because of a lack of direct measurement of relative permeability for these rocks that have matrix permeability of sub-micron-Darcy level. Due to the difficulties related to the direct measurement, most studies on relative permeability in unconventional reservoirs are based on indirect or modeling methods. In this paper, a modified gas expansion method for shale matrix permeability measurement (Peng et al., 2019a) was adopted to measure gas relative permeability directly under the scenario of water imbibition for samples from different unconventional reservoir formations. Evolution of gas permeability, along with gas porosity and fracture-matrix interaction, during the process of water redistribution (mimic of what occurs in shut-in period in real production) were also closely measured. Results show that gas relative permeability in matrix decreases during water redistribution because of water imbibition from fracture to matrix and water block effect. Water block effect is more significant at low water saturations than higher water saturations, leading to a rapid-to-gradual drop of gas relative permeability with increasing water saturation.
A conceptual model on water redistribution in a fracture-matrix system and the change of gas and water relative permeability is proposed based on the experimental results and observations. Influencing factors including pore size, shape, connectivity, and wettability are taken into account in this conceptual model. The combined effect of these four influencing factors determines the level of residual gas saturation, which is the most important parameter in defining the shape of relative permeability curves. Water relative permeability is predicted based on the conceptual model and the measured gas relative permeability using modified Brooks-Corey equations. Deduction of oil-water relative permeability is also discussed, and experimental methods on determination of the key parameter, i.e., residual oil saturation, are proposed. Implication of relative permeability on gas or oil and water production and potential strategy for optimal production are also discussed in the paper. Hysteresis effect is not included in this study and will be addressed in future work.
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) logging is a powerful formation evaluation technology that provides mineralogy-independent porosity and helps distinguish clay-bound water, capillary-bound water, and free fluids. NMR logging tool generally operates at 1H NMR frequency of 2 MHz (magnetic field, B0 ~ 470 Gauss) or lower. At this magnetic field, it is only feasible to detect 1H signal from fluids in pores and rely on the relaxation time variation to characterize fluid and pore types. As magnetic field strength increases, NMR sensitivity increases very dramatically and NMR signals from solid matrix can be easily detected in high field. For example, NMR at 600 MHz is about 5,000 times more sensitive than the NMR at 2 MHz. Meanwhile, the spectral resolution of high-field NMR is also greatly increased and high-field NMR spectrum can resolve the detailed differences between molecule types. Therefore, the high sensitivity and spectral resolution of high-field NMR open a totally new horizon for the characterization of geological samples, especially in organic shale reservoirs, in which organic matter and complex mineralogy remain challenging to be accurately characterized.
In this work, we report high-field NMR applications for mineral characterization, using a 600 MHz NMR spectrometer equipped with multi-channel and Magic Angle Spinning probe. Comparing to X-ray diffraction (XRD), which is the primary tool for identifying and quantifying the mineralogy of crystalline compounds in geological samples based on Bragg’s diffraction, NMR can provide more compositional and structural information for non-crystalline compounds, due to its sensitivity to local electronic binding structures.
Here we demonstrate such an application of high-resolution 27Al NMR to determine the composition and bonding chemistry of 27Al as a fingerprint for a wide range of minerals. The ratio of 27Al at tetrahedral and octahedral binding sites is quantitative and essential to differentiate the dioctahedral and trioctahedral phase. 27Al NMR can also distinguish plagioclase series members ranging from albite to anorthite end members, where Na and Ca atoms can substitute for each other. 27Al NMR can be further combined with 1H, 13C, 29Si, 25Mg, 23Na, 31P for more detailed mineral determination and clay typing. Our results show that, combining with XRD, this group of high-field NMR spectroscopic methods can greatly improve the accuracy of rock mineral and formation clay characterization in tight-rock and unconventional reservoirs.
Liang, Xing (PetroChina Zhejiang Oilfield) | Wang, Gao-Cheng (PetroChina Zhejiang Oilfield) | Pan, Feng (Schlumberger) | Rui, Yun (PetroChina Zhejiang Oilfield) | Wang, Yue (Schlumberger) | Zhang, Lei (PetroChina Zhejiang Oilfield) | Mei, Jue (PetroChina Zhejiang Oilfield) | Li, Kai-Xuan (Schlumberger) | Zhao, Hai-Peng (Schlumberger)
Understanding mineral composition and depositional mechanisms aids in evaluating gas in place and mechanical properties of shale reservoirs. A method developed to delineate mineral variations and depositional setting combines borehole elemental concentration logs with borehole electrical image logs. Borehole elemental concentration logs provide a continuous measurement of the concentrations of more than 20 elements, which data help in obtaining quantities of mineralogical constituents. Electrical borehole images are used to identify in situ depositional features. Regional mapping of variations of mineral constituents and depositional features indicates sedimentary facies distribution.
The Lower and Upper WuFeng-LongMaxi Formation was studied in 27 wells spanning 100 km west-east across the southern SiChuan basin. From elemental spectroscopy, argillaceous, carbonate, and siliceous lithologies were identified; these were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) to investigate their mineralogy and geological origin. Argillaceous minerals were primarily supplied by terrigenous sediments, the majority of carbonate minerals originated from chemical precipitation, and siliceous minerals are associated with siliceous-shell organisms in the Lower WuFeng-LongMaxi strata and terrigenous influx in the Upper LongMaxi strata. A transgressive lag occurring at the base of the WuFeng formation corresponds to carbonate pebbles in cores and bedding-parallel gravels on borehole images. Silty layers deposited by turbidity currents that mainly appear in Upper LongMaxi Formation were readily identified on borehole images.
The objectives of this paper are to summarize effective Reserves estimation methods for use in unconventional reservoirs, and to propose systematic procedures for classification of Resources other than Reserves (ROTR) volumes. We propose optimal timing for application of decline curve analysis (DCA), rate transient analysis (RTA), and reservoir simulation. Using these techniques, we provide results for one well from a 38-well database in the Permian Basin wells (TX USA). We then describe how the volumes are classified and categorized and how those volumes move between Reserves and ROTR as more information becomes available.
We begin with the analysis of well performance, where we specify the information that is necessary for each estimation method. We then suggest procedures to identify the flow regimes using diagnostic plots, provide guidance on the application of multi-segment DCA models, and finally suggest procedures for the application of RTA and reservoir simulation. We continue with progress toward Reserves classification, starting with suggested procedures to reclassify Prospective Resources as Contingent Resources (upon discovery). We provide post-discovery guidance on development and commerciality for the project maturity sub-classes (within the Contingent Resources classification). We explain that “established technologies” must be technically and economically viable before they can be used for development decisions. And finally, we examine requirements to remove contingencies so that the volumes can be reclassified properly as Reserves.
Our major suggestions for well performance analysis are, first, that the multi-segment DCA approach is most effective in unconventional reservoirs when specifically relevant models are used for transient flow and boundary-dominated flow. Furthermore, we suggest that RTA using analytical models expands possibilities of forecasting for changes in well conditions and for well spacing studies. Though time and computationally time consuming, compositional simulation is required for confident analysis of near-critical reservoir fluids.
For movement of resources toward Reserves, we suggest that there is no linear path to define the movement from Prospective to Contingent Resources, though there are certain criteria which must be met for a given project. Certain contingencies, such as price of oil and available technologies, dominate the classification of resource volumes.
This paper provides a visual representation of when to use each Reserves estimation method depending on available data. We present a thorough analysis of best practices for each Reserves estimation method. We provide graphical representation of the movement between Prospective to Contingent Resources categories, the progression in chance of development and commerciality within project maturity sub-classes for Contingent Resources, and the contingencies that must be resolved to move from Contingent Resources to Reserves. Finally, we present an explanation of the criteria that must be met before volumes can be reclassified and/or recategorized from undiscovered to discovered.
Xu, Feng (RIPED / CNODC) | Li, Xianbing (RIPED) | Gong, Yiwen (The Ohio State University) | Lei, Cheng (RIPED) | Li, Xiangling (RIPED) | Yu, Wei (The University of Texas at Austin / Texas A&M University) | Miao, Jijun (The University of Texas at Austin / SimTech LLC) | Ding, Yutao (CNODC)
Natural fractures are commonly observed in the unconventional reservoir. Production history indicates that natural fractures have been playing an important role in the oil and gas development progress by improving the permeability of the reservoir and increasing the well productivity. In addition, inappropriate development strategies result in the unreasonable single well oil rate, early water breakthrough, severe damages to the unconventional reservoir and overwhelming economic losses when the fracture properties and distributions are not well understood before the development. Hence, it is of great importance to propose a powerful and efficient workflow to describe the fracture distribution clearly, including building a 3D fracture model, performing history matching and forecasting productions of the unconventional reservoir. In this study, we present a powerful and practical workflow through using Fracflow software and EDFM (Embedded Discrete Fracture Model) to build the 3D DFN (Discrete Fracture Network) model. The main methodology used to perform the fracture modelling allows rigorously handling of both hydraulic fractures and natural fractures that can be identified in an unconventional reservoir. This modelling allows computing the real geometrical fracture attributes (mainly orientation and density) and the spatial distribution of fractures. Fracture conductivity values will be calibrated through a comparison of the Kh(permeability thickness) from the well test to the Kh model computed from the upscaling of the fracture model. The mentioned model above will be built by means of a stochastic simulation constrained by the results of the static and dynamic fracture characterization. In the reservoir simulation phase, EDFM processor combining commercial reservoir simulators is fully integrated to perform history matching and production performance forecast of the unconventional reservoir. With a new set of formulations used in EDFM, the non-neighboring connections (NNCs) in the EDFM are converted into regular connections in traditional reservoir simulators, and the NNCs factors are linked with gridblock permeabilities. EDFM provides three kinds of NNC pairs, transmissibility factors, and the connections between fractures and wells. With the aid of the EDFM processor, we can obtain the number of additional grids, the properties of fracture grids, and the NNCs as the simulation input. From the proposed workflow, complex dynamic behaviors of natural fractures can be captured. This will further ensure the accuracy of DFMs and the efficiency offered by structured gridding. The practical workflow for the unconventional reservoir from modelling to simulation highlights the model constrained by the results of the static and dynamic fracture characterization, and the high efficiency to model discrete fractures through the revolutionary EDFM processor. Through this workflow, we can perform history matching effectively and simulate complex fractures including hydraulic fractures and naturally fractures. It potentially can be integrated into existing workflow for unconventional reservoirs for sensitivity analysis and production forecasting.