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...g Handbook Larry W. Lake, Editor-in-Chief Volume I – General Engineering John R. Fanchi, Editor Copyright 2007, Society of Petroleum Engineers Chapter 6 – Oil System Correlations Robert P. Sutton, Marath...d Engineering, Vol. 27, Abdul-Majeed and Abu Al-Soof, "Estimation of Gas-Oil Surface Tension," 197, Copyright 2000, with permission from Elsevier.) Fig. 6.38 – Effect of solution gas on surface tension of cru...d Engineering, Vol. 27, Abdul-Majeed and Abu Al-Soof, "Estimation of Gas-Oil Surface Tension," 197, Copyright 2000, with permission from Elsevier.) Fig. 6.39 – Comparison of surface tension calculations metho...
Figure 1.1 – Chemical nature of crude oils found worldwide (after Reservoir Fluid Database). Figure 1.3 – Distribution of data used to prepare PVT correlations. Figure 1.6 – Variability defined by bubblepoint pressure correlations. Figure 1.7 – Effective molecular weight related to tank-oil gravity. This property is determined by rearranging the equations for calculating bubblepoint pressure as discussed in Secs. The physical property density is the ratio between mass and volume.
...rate the text into the wiki. This is especially true for SPE papers in OnePetro. The page PetroWiki:Copyright describes what SPE materials can be included in PetroWiki and which should not. When the text does ...not belong to SPE, there can be a danger of copyright violations. Contributors are asked to acknowledge that the work is original or they have received p...
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... phrases, and designs. Intellectual property is traditionally composed of four categories: patents, copyright, trademarks, and trade secrets.  However, the main intellectual properties of interest in the pe...troleum industry are trademarks, copyright, and patents. Trademarks are names, words, symbols, designs, or combinations of these, that are...
Generally speaking, intellectual property is any product of the human intellect that the law protects from unauthorized use. Creators of intellectual property have exclusive ownership and rights to their intangible assets, which in the realm of the oil and gas industry usually applies to discoveries, inventions, words, phrases, and designs. Intellectual property is traditionally composed of four categories: patents, copyright, trademarks, and trade secrets. Trademarks are names, words, symbols, designs, or combinations of these, that are used to distinguish the goods or services of one company from those of another company. Copyrights protect creative works, like brochures or technical descriptions, from being copied without the creator's permission.
...d Engineering, Vol. 27, Abdul-Majeed and Abu Al-Soof, "Estimation of Gas-Oil Surface Tension," 197, Copyright 2000, with permission from Elsevier.) Fig. 5 – Effect of solution gas on surface tension of crude ...d Engineering, Vol. 27, Abdul-Majeed and Abu Al-Soof, "Estimation of Gas-Oil Surface Tension," 197, Copyright 2000, with permission from Elsevier.) Fig. 6 – Comparison of surface tension calculations methods...
Interfacial or surface tension exists when two phases are present. These phases can be gas/oil, oil/water, or gas/water. Interfacial tension is the force that holds the surface of a particular phase together and is normally measured in dynes/cm. It is a function of pressure, temperature, and the composition of each phase. Two forms of correlations for calculating gas/oil surface tension have been developed.
..."A Thermodynamic Model for Predicting n-Paraffin Crystallization in Diesel Fuels," pages 1647-1652, Copyright 1986, with permission from Elsevier Science). The ideal solubility equation also was used by Weing...Solid-Liquid-Vapor Equilibria: Wax Phase Formation From Heavy Hydrocarbon Mixtures," pages 265-279, Copyright 1986, with permission from Elsevier Science.) Fig. 4 – Effect of pressure on the phase equilibria ...Solid-Liquid-Vapor Equilibria: Wax Phase Formation From Heavy Hydrocarbon Mixtures," pages 265-279, Copyright 1986, with permission from Elsevier Science.) Pedersen et al. use the general form of the soli...
Understanding the mechanisms and potential for wax precipitation are key factors in preventing production problems as a result of wax. Wax precipitation has a strong dependence on temperature and weak dependence on pressure. This page presents a general form of the thermodynamic relation used to define the K values for solid and liquid phases in equilibrium, and the effect of different simplifying assumptions and thermodynamic descriptions of the phases involved on the model results are examined. The thermodynamic basis of solid/liquid equilibrium of components in a melt or dissolved in a solution is well established and is described in many standard texts (e.g., Prausnitz et al.). The basic principles continue to be applied to more complex systems as researchers attempt to develop more accurate models of solid wax precipitation. Lira-Galeana and Hammami reviewed experimental techniques and thermodynamic models for studying wax precipitation in petroleum fluids. The predictive capability of the thermodynamic models is affected both by the form and assumptions of the models themselves and the characterization procedures used to quantify the number and properties of wax forming components present in a fluid. Thermodynamic models for predicting wax precipitation may be derived assuming single-component or multicomponent, single-phase or multiphase solid deposits.
... Mitchell and J.G. Speight, "The Solubility of Asphaltenes in Hydrocarbon Solvents," pages 149-152, Copyright 1973, with permission from Elsevier Science.) Fig. 2 – Relationship of asphaltene aromaticity to c..."Factors Influencing the Separation of Asphaltenes From Heavy Petroleum Feedstocks," pages 616-620, Copyright 1984, with permission from Elsevier Science.) Although the exact nature of the original state of e...C. Lira-Galeana and A. Hammami, "Wax Precipitation from Petroleum Fluids: A Review," pages 557-608, Copyright 2000, with permission from Elsevier Science.) There are two general classes of petroleum waxes. Wa...
Deposition of the high-molecular-weight components of petroleum fluids as solid precipitates in surface facilities, pipelines, downhole tubulars, and within the reservoir are well-recognized production problems. The deposits also can contain resins, crude oil, fines, scales, and water. Asphaltenes and waxes are a general category of solids and, thus, cover a wide range of materials. Understanding the fundamental characteristics that define the nature of asphaltenes and waxes is valuable in reducing or avoiding the production impacts of their deposition. This page examines the general chemical classifications and types of asphaltenes and waxes, in addition to their solidification behaviors.
...nsate gas. (Source: The Properties of Petroleum Fluids, second edition, by William D. McCain Jr. Copyright Pennwell Books, 1990.) Fig. 2 – Phase diagram of a wet gas.(Source: The Properties of Petroleum... Fluids, second edition, by William D. McCain Jr. Copyright Pennwell Books, 1990.) Fig. 3 – Phase diagram of a dry gas. (Source: The Properties of Petroleu...m Fluids, second edition, by William D. McCain Jr. Copyright Pennwell Books, 1990.) A retrograde-condensate fluid has a phase envelope such that reservoir temp...
Natural petroleum gases contain varying amounts of different (primarily alkane) hydrocarbon compounds and one or more inorganic compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen (N2), and water. Characterizing, measuring, and correlating the physical properties of natural gases must take into account this variety of constituents. A dry-gas reservoir is defined as producing a single composition of gas that is constant in the reservoir, wellbore, and lease-separation equipment throughout the life of a field. Some liquids may be recovered by processing in a gas plant. A wet-gas reservoir is defined as producing a single gas composition to the producing well perforations throughout its life.
...Assn., 1978; all rights, including translation into other languages, reserved under the Universal Copyright Convention, the Berne Convention for the Protection of Library and Artistic Works, and the Internat...ional and Pan American Copyright Conventions.) Many older oilfield installations use open-delta transformer connections. The only w...
The electrical-distribution system furnishes electrical power and partial protection of the electrified oil field and consists of a primary system and a secondary system. It is important to the economics and longevity of the overall system that distribution be designed adequately before installation. To reduce power losses, electricity distributed to an oil field is brought to the field at higher voltages of between 4,000 and 15,000 V. This higher-voltage distribution system is called a primary system. Higher voltages allow the use of smaller conductors, but require more expensive transformers.
...ry W. Lake, Editor-in-Chief Volume IV - Production Operations Engineering Joe Dunn Clegg, Editor Copyright 2006, Society of Petroleum Engineers Chapter 14 – Hydraulic Pumping in Oil Wells James Fretwell, ...IPR. Figs. 14.1 through14.11 and14.13 through14.21 are reprinted with permission from Weatherford. Copyright 2004 by Weatherford U.S., L.P. All rights reserved. Weatherford U.S., L.P. disclaims all responsi...
The two basic types of installations are the "fixed"-pump and the "free"-pump design. In the fixed installation, the downhole pump is attached to the end of a tubing string and run into the well. Free-pump installations are designed to allow the downhole pump to be circulated into and out of the well inside the power-fluid string, or it can also be installed and retrieved by wireline operations. Figure 1.2-Free and fixed hydraulic downhole pumping installations. Figure 1.3-Free pump (pump in-and-out operation).
...g Handbook Larry W. Lake, Editor-in-Chief Volume I – General Engineering John R. Fanchi, Editor Copyright 2007, Society of Petroleum Engineers Chapter 8 – Phase Diagrams F.M. Orr, Jr. and K. Jessen, Stan...
The number of components present in a system determines the maximum number of phases that can coexist at fixed temperature and pressure. The phase rule of Gibbs states that the number of independent variables that must be specified to determine the intensive state of the system is given by ....................(8.1) For a single-component system, the maximum number of phases occurs when there are no constraints (Nc 0) and no degrees of freedom (F 0). Thus, the maximum number of possible phases is three. If only two phases are present in a pure component system, then either the temperature or the pressure can be chosen.