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...le. Problems with these guns have centered on: Once on depth, charges are fired by an initiator or detonator. ...Detonator systems have been redesigned in recent years to improve safety and to prevent several perforating p...re problems, and temperature effects. Any wireline-conveyed, hollow-carrier gun should have a detonator system that will not allow the charges to fire if the gun is completely or partially filled with wa...
The most important consideration in selecting a perforator is choosing a gun system that matches the requirements dictated by the completion. On the larger diameter, thick-walled guns, there is much less distortion than on the small, thin-walled through-tubing guns. In wells in which clearances between the gun and tubulars are critical, the amount of distortion of the gun should be determined from the service company before the gun is used. Figure 1 shows a gun swell after firing in a low-pressure test. Gun bowing is often noted in small guns of 2 1/8 in. Figure 1--Gun swell after firing in a low-pressure test.
...Gun swell after firing in a low-pressure test. Once on depth, charges are fired by an initiator or detonator. ...Detonator systems have been redesigned in recent years to improve safety and to prevent several perforating p...problems, and temperature effects.  Any wireline-conveyed, hollow-carrier gun should have a detonator system that will not allow the charges to fire if the gun is completely or partially filled with wa...
Introduction Perforating is a process used to establish a flow path between the near reservoir and the wellbore. It normally involves initiating a hole from the wellbore through the casing and any cement sheath into the producing zone. The effectiveness of this process depends on the care and design of the perforating procedure. Because a high percentage of current wells use a cased-hole completion, the importance of the design and application of the perforating process cannot be overstated. Perforations are an elemental piece of the inflow section of the well and have significant impact on the total completion efficiency. This chapter describes the methods of creating the best flow path for a particular completion. It also contains information on completion diagnostics and candidate selection for situations in which reperforating could improve production. The intent of this chapter is to familiarize the engineer with methods and techniques to improve the flow path, not all of which involve perforating equipment. Establishing an optimum flow path requires the execution of a number of critical steps. These critical operations are identified throughout the chapter and are used in design, quality control inspection, and quality control. A brief description is needed of the alternative completion methods to cased, cemented, and perforated completions. Openhole completions offer several options that should not be ignored in a quest for a high efficiency flow connection to the reservoir.
...a. Booster or Bi-directional booster a device designed to carry forward the explosive energy of the detonator and detonating cord to the next component in an explosive train. Normally used when perforating dev...
..., but usually reliable, sequence of events. The sequence begins with the firing of the initiator or detonator cap, which ignites the detonation cord at high energy, followed by the initiation of the charges. T...
Bullet gun, abrasive, water jets, and shaped charges are perforating methods used to initiate a hole from the wellbore through the casing and any cement sheath into the producing zone. Bullet speed exiting the barrel is usually approximately 900 m/s (3000 ft/sec). Penetration is easiest in low alloy, thinner walled pipe [H-40, to K-55, and L-80 American Petroleum Institute (API) casing series pipe grades]. Penetration in higher strength casing alloy pipe and harder formations is more difficult in most cases and not feasible in others. When successful, the bullet creates a very round entrance hole but may often create a hole with sharp internal burrs.