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...igh temperatures from already relatively low initial levels. A variety of cure systems are used for FKM elastomers, including peroxide, but they require an extended post-curing session to optimize their ...ding considerably to manufacturing process costs. As a result, the cost for an equivalent volume of FKM elastomer may range from 20 to several hundred times that of a conventional NBR. This makes all but...ump stators, and even those that are viable carry a high cost premium. The primary advantage of an FKM elastomer is the increased heat and chemical resistance. ...
In downhole applications, most progressive cavity (PC) pump failures involve the stator elastomer and often result from chemical or physical elastomer breakdown induced by the wellbore environment. Successful use of PC pumps, particularly in the more severe downhole environments, requires proper elastomer selection and appropriate pump sizing and operation. PC pump manufacturers continue to develop and test new elastomers; over time, these efforts have resulted in performance improvements and an expanded range of practical applications. Despite this success, the elastomer component still continues to impose severe restrictions on PC pump use, especially in applications with lighter oils or higher temperatures. The performance of an elastomer in a PCP application depends heavily on its mechanical and chemical properties.
...ts for HNBR elastomers are 125 C [265 F] (sulfur cured) and 150 C [318 F] (peroxide cured); and for FKM elastomers, 200 C [425 F]. High temperature resistance typically comes at the expense of other desi...
Elevated-temperature applications can be divided into medium- and high-temperature categories. The medium-temperature category covers deeper-well applications with natural, higher-temperature reservoir conditions ranging from 40 C [104 F] to 100 C [212 F]. Field experience has proved that progressive cavity (PC) pumps can be used successfully in wells producing fluids within this temperature range if the fluid temperatures remain relatively constant. However, to achieve reasonable run lives in such wells, additional attention must be given to elastomer and pump model selection, pump sizing practices, and system operation. The importance of these considerations rises substantially as temperatures increase toward the higher end of this range.