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...The seven volume Petroleum Engineering Handbook (PEH) published by the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE). The Petroleum Engineering Handbook has lon...d Petrophysics Volume VI: Emerging and Peripheral Technologies Volume VII: Indexes and Standards PEH:Acoustic Logging ...PEH:Artificial Lift Systems ...
The seven volume Petroleum Engineering Handbook (PEH) published by the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE). The Petroleum Engineering Handbook has long been recognized as a valuable, comprehensive reference book that offers practical day-to-day applications for students and experienced engineering professionals alike. This new edition, the first since 1987, has been greatly expanded and consists of seven volumes.
In the early days of the oil industry, saline water or brine frequently was produced from a well along with oil, and as the oil-production rate declined, the water-production rate often would increase. This water typically was disposed of by dumping it into nearby streams or rivers. In the 1920s, the practice began of reinjecting the produced water into porous and permeable subsurface formations, including the reservoir interval from which the oil and water originally had come. By the 1930s, reinjection of produced water had become a common oilfield practice. Reinjection of water was first done systematically in the Bradford oil field of Pennsylvania, U.S.A. There, the initial "circle-flood" approach was replaced by a "line flood," in which two rows of producing wells were staggered on both sides of an equally spaced row of water-injection wells. In the 1920s, besides the line flood, a "five-spot" well layout was used (so named because its pattern is like that of the five spots on ...
Remedial cementing requires as much technical, engineering, and operational experience, as primary cementing but is often done when wellbore conditions are unknown or out of control, and when wasted rig time and escalating costs force poor decisions and high risk. Squeeze cementing is a "correction" process that is usually only necessary to correct a problem in the wellbore. Before using a squeeze application, a series of decisions must be made to determine (1) if a problem exists, (2) the magnitude of the problem, (3) if squeeze cementing will correct it, (4) the risk factors present, and (5) if economics will support it. Most squeeze applications are unnecessary because they result from poor primary-cement-job evaluations or job diagnostics. Squeeze cementing is a dehydration process.
This chapter concerns the use of water injection to increase the production from oil reservoirs, and the technologies that have been developed over the past 50 years to evaluate, design, operate, and monitor such projects. Use of water to increase oil production is known as "secondary recovery" and typically follows "primary production," which uses the reservoir's natural energy (fluid and rock expansion, solution-gas drive, gravity drainage, and aquifer influx) to produce oil. The principal reason for waterflooding an oil reservoir is to increase the oil-production rate and, ultimately, the oil recovery. This is accomplished by "voidage replacement"--injection of water to increase the reservoir pressure to its initial level and maintain it near that pressure. The water displaces oil from the pore spaces, but the efficiency of such displacement depends on many factors (e.g., oil viscosity and rock characteristics).
Factors that have the greatest influence on the selection of the most cost-effective pump type include capacity, TDH, maintenance, viscosity, and capacity control. Within the general type selections, a particular construction style is most influenced by discharge pressure, NPSHA, fluid temperature, and space and weight limitations.
Introduction Perforating is a process used to establish a flow path between the near reservoir and the wellbore. It normally involves initiating a hole from the wellbore through the casing and any cement sheath into the producing zone. The effectiveness of this process depends on the care and design of the perforating procedure. Because a high percentage of current wells use a cased-hole completion, the importance of the design and application of the perforating process cannot be overstated. Perforations are an elemental piece of the inflow section of the well and have significant impact on the total completion efficiency. This chapter describes the methods of creating the best flow path for a particular completion. It also contains information on completion diagnostics and candidate selection for situations in which reperforating could improve production. The intent of this chapter is to familiarize the engineer with methods and techniques to improve the flow path, not all of which involve perforating equipment. Establishing an optimum flow path requires the execution of a number of critical steps. These critical operations are identified throughout the chapter and are used in design, quality control inspection, and quality control. A brief description is needed of the alternative completion methods to cased, cemented, and perforated completions. Openhole completions offer several options that should not be ignored in a quest for a high efficiency flow connection to the reservoir.
The term "petrophysics" was coined by G.E. Archie and J.H.M.A. Thomeer in a quiet bistro in The Hague. By their definition, petrophysics is the study of the physical and chemical properties of rocks and their contained fluids. It emphasizes those properties relating to the pore system and its fluid distribution and flow characteristics. These properties and their relationships are used to identify and evaluate hydrocarbon reservoirs, hydrocarbon sources, seals, and aquifers. The petrophysicist provides answer products needed and used by team members, as well as physical and chemical insights needed by other teammates. The reservoir and fluid characteristics to be determined are thickness (bed boundaries), lithology (rock type), porosity, fluid saturations and pressures, fluid identification and characterization, permeability (absolute), and fractional flow (oil, gas, water). It is easy to define these characteristics and to appreciate their part in the assessment of reserves. The difficult part comes in determining their actual value at a level of certainty needed to make economic decisions leading to development and production. The seven characteristics listed are interdependent (i.e., to properly determine porosity from a wireline log, one must know the lithology, fluid saturations, and fluid types). The science of petrophysics is then used to unscramble the hidden world of rock and fluid properties in reservoirs from just below the Earth's surface to ones more than four miles deep. The petrophysicist then takes on many characteristics of the fictional sleuth Sherlock Holmes to extrapolate, from the most meager of clues, the true picture of the subsurface reservoir using dogged determination to wrest all possible information from the available data, all the while enjoying the thrill of the hunt. How does the petrophysicist solve this difficult problem? Archie's general method is to subdivide the problem into smaller segments and iterate using all data until all data agree. One starting point is to determine rock types (petrofacies) wherein we identify pore type, pore size distribution, pore throat type, and pore throat distribution.
This chapter provides an overview of the primary categories of natural gas compressor services and a description of the different classifications and types of compressors available to the industry. Adiabatic and polytropic compression theory are discussed with supporting definition of terminology. Specific topics relating to compression theory include power requirement, isentropic exponent, compressibility factor, intercooling, adiabatic and polytropic efficiency, actual and standard volume flow rates, mass flow rates, inlet and discharge pressures, inlet and discharge temperatures, and adiabatic and polytropic head. Major components and construction features of centrifugal and reciprocating compressors are emphasized. Installation, safety, and maintenance considerations also are discussed. For centrifugal compressors, the performance characteristic curve is presented with emphasis on process control of capacity by speed variation, suction throttling, or variable inlet guide vanes. Process control to avoid operation in a damaging surge condition is also addressed. The discussion on reciprocating compressors includes a description of process configuration for multistage units, as well as an explanation of the concepts of speed control, inlet throttling, recycling, pressure relief, blowdown, and distance piece venting and draining. Compressors used in the oil and gas industry are divided into six groups according to their intended service. These are flash gas compressors, gas lift compressors, reinjection compressors, booster compressors, vapor-recovery compressors, and casinghead compressors. Flash gas compressors are used in oil handling facilities to compress gas that is "flashed" from a hydrocarbon liquid when the liquid flows from a higher pressure to a lower pressure separator. Flash gas compressors typically handle low flow rates and produce high compression ratios.
Chemical treatment with demulsifiers is used to counteract the natural surfactants present, and wetting agents or other chemicals sometimes are used to carry the suspended solids into the water layer. The presence of a band of emulsion in centrifuged samples indicates that further chemical treatment might be needed.