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Angola's National Oil, Gas, and Biofuel's Agency has opened blocks for licensing in the Onshore Lower Congo Basin and the Onshore Kwanza Basin as part of its 2020 oil and gas licensing round. This latest call to tender is part of the agency's ongoing 2019–2025 hydrocarbons licensing strategy. The Onshore Lower Congo Basin Blocks include CON1, CON5, and CON6; while the Onshore Kwanza Basin Blocks comprise KON5, KON6, KON8, KON9, KON17, and KON20. The round aims to expand research and evaluation activities across sedimentary basins, increase geological knowledge of Angola's hydrocarbon potential, and invite a new wave of explorers to yield new discoveries.
Abstract In early 2002 Washington DC policy-makers suggested, that within a generation, Africa might supplant the Middle East as the United States most critically strategic energy supplier. This is a significant departure from the situation, which permeated the previous three decades when the Middle East was perceived as the singularly most important source of world energy. Such potential of Africa, if realized, would have a decided influence on future energy economics and geopolitics. Grandiose statements notwithstanding, is Africa (and in this context this implies the Sub-Saharan regions) at the brink of becoming an energy superpower? Does Africa have the potential reserves, production capability and capacity for such a role? This is not just an issue of geology but also one that touches on the rest of the development of the continent, its economic and political future. This paper presents an in-depth investigation of the true energy potential of Africa. One obvious focus is the potential of deep- and ultra-deep-water production, spanning almost the entire Western Coast of Africa. Areas of interest involve the deep waters off the Gulf of Guinea and the continental shelves and include the inland basins of Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Sao Tome and Principe, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo and Angola. We are proposing here a number of mechanisms of potential production and couplets of exploitation, i.e., optimum and likely ways to link producers with consumers, taking into account distances and hydrocarbon volumes and incorporating regional integration and co-operation. Finally, we are offering conclusions and recommendations that will enhance sustainable energy development in Africa, and continuous availability of uninterrupted global supply of oil and gas, which indeed will usher the era of Africa as an energy superpower. Introduction Indisputable estimates of oil and gas resources have always been difficult everywhere. One of the most frequent problems is the definition of hydrocarbon reserves, which has always generated classification problems and debates. The dynamic nature of classifying oil and gas resources is the reason for this confusion, a situation that causes considerable problems from economic to social and political when they are applied to entire countries and even continents. Oil and gas reserves as currently reported by conventional information sources such as trade journals appear to be almost always shortsighted and conservative to the extreme. As usual, the greatest cause of controversy in determining the quantities of oil and gas resources and reserves is the collision among hydrocarbons-in-place, potential reserves and proven reserves. If Africa, as we believe, is the next energy superpower, then an in-depth investigation is necessary for the understanding of its hydrocarbon potential. We will use in our analysis the term potential and this expresses both the probability and uncertainty that is inherent to this type of work. We have used a flowchart (Fig.A-1 in the Appendix), which illustrates this probability and uncertainty, and also shows the pathway and connectivity of resources and reserves classification. As should be expected, Hydrocarbon Resources, i.e., hydrocarbons-in-place are at the lowest level of the flowchart, while Proved Developed Producing (PDP) Reserves are at the top of the chart. As it is well understood in the petroleum industry, hydrocarbon resources and reserves have the ability to move from a lower potential level to a higher potential level as a result of: technological advancement, economies of scale and petroleum pricing. For example, some of the currently undiscovered hydrocarbon resources have the potential of becoming proven reserves in the near future if a series of activities happen or are likely to happen. Several factors influence the upward movement of petroleum resources, in the flow chart of Fig.A-1 in the Appendix:Geological (risk and complexity) Factor Political and Fiscal Environment Factor. Accessibility and Remoteness Factor Technological Factor Economic Factor - petroleum prices and adequate investments for exploration and production.