Weidle, William Scott (Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division, West Bethesda, USA) | Suzuki, Keisuke (Naval Systems Research Center, Acquisition, Technology and Logistics Agency, Ministry of Defense, Tokyo, Japan) | Miyauchi, Yoshiki (Naval Systems Research Center, Acquisition, Technology and Logistics Agency, Ministry of Defense, Tokyo, Japan) | Field, Parker (Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division, West Bethesda, USA) | Lovenbury, James (Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division, West Bethesda, USA)
This paper summarizes knowledge gained from a five-year study of trimaran ship design, including ship concept development, scaled model experiments and numerical simulations of hydrodynamic and structural performance. Two design concepts for trimaran warships were generated through parallel tradeoff studies and design efforts in the US and Japan. A series of trimaran hull form models were constructed which included several hull shapes and side hull positions relative to the center hull. Performance evaluations included calm-water resistance and propulsion, seakeeping in regular and irregular seas at multiple headings, wave-induced bending moments and secondary loads, and free-running maneuvering. Fatigue experiments on aluminum trimaran structural details were also conducted.
There are currently two types of relative permeability models that are used to model gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments: fully empirical parameter-fitting models [such as the University of Tokyo model (Masuda et al. 1997) and the Brooks and Corey model (Brooks and Corey 1964)] and partially empirical models [such as the Kozeny and Carman model (Wyllie and Gardner 1958) and capillary-tube-based models that assume only a single phase]. This study proposes an analytical model to estimate relative permeability of gas and water in a hydrate-bearing porous medium without curve fitting or use of any empirical parameters. The model is derived by conserving the momentum balance with the steady-state form of the Navier-Stokes equation for gas/water flow in a hydrate-bearing porous medium. The model is validated against a number of laboratory studies and is shown to perform better than most empirical models over a full range of experimental data. The proposed model is an analytical function of rock properties (average pore size and shape, porosity, irreducible water saturation, and saturation of hydrate), fluid properties (gas/water saturations and viscosities), and the hydrate-growth pattern [pore filling (PF), wall coating (WC), and a combination of PF and WC]. The benefits of the proposed model include sensitivity analysis of relevant physical parameters on relative permeability and estimation of rock parameters (such as porosity, pore size, and residual water saturation) using inverse modeling. The model can also be used to estimate two-phase permeability in a permeable medium without hydrates.
The proposed model was used to analyze the effects of pore shapes, the hydrate-growth pattern, variable gas saturation, and wettability on relative permeability. The sensitivity results produced by the proposed model were verified using observations from other studies that investigated similar problems using either experiments or computationally expensive pore-scale simulations.
Yoneda, Jun (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology) | Takiguchi, Akira (West Japan Engineering Consultants) | Ishibashi, Toshimasa (West Japan Engineering Consultants) | Yasui, Aya (West Japan Engineering Consultants) | Mori, Jiro (West Japan Engineering Consultants) | Kakumoto, Masayo (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology) | Aoki, Kazuo (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology) | Tenma, Norio (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology)
During gas production from offshore gas-HBS, there are concerns regarding the settlement of the seabed and the possibility that frictional stress will develop along the production casing. This frictional stress is caused by a change in the effective stress induced by water movement caused by depressurization and dissociation of hydrate as well as gas generation and thermal changes, all of which are interconnected. The authors have developed a multiphase-coupled simulator by use of a finite-element method named COTHMA. Stresses and deformation caused by gas-hydrate production near the production well and deep seabed were predicted using a multiphase simulator coupled with geomechanics for the offshore gas-hydrate-production test in the eastern Nankai Trough. Distributions of hydrate saturation, gas saturation, water pressure, gas pressure, temperature, and stresses were predicted by the simulator. As a result, the dissociation of gas hydrate was predicted within a range of approximately 10 m, but mechanical deformation occurred in a much wider area. The stress localization initially occurred in a sand layer with low hydrate saturation, and compression behavior appeared. Tensile stress was generated in and around the casing shoe as it was pulled vertically downward caused by compaction of the formation. As a result, the possibility of extensive failure of the gravel pack of the well completion was demonstrated. In addition, in a specific layer, where a pressure reduction progressed in the production interval, the compressive force related to frictional stress from the formation increased, and the gravel layer became thin. Settlement of the seafloor caused by depressurization for 6 days was within a few centimeters and an approximate 30 cm for 1 year of continued production.
Investigation of the effectiveness of matrix stimulation treatments for removing drilling induced damage in Akita region in northern Japan is of interest due to the presence of large quantities of acid-sensitive minerals, such as analcime. Feasibility study of the sub-commercial field redevelopment in the Kita-Akita oil field, one of the satellite fields of main Yabase oil fields, which produced from 1957 to 1973, and were plugged and abandoned, were conducted. As a part of the studies, matrix acidizing laboratory experiments were performed. Conventional mud acids and formic-based organic mud acid systems cause significant permeability damage due to instability of analcime in these acids. This study focuses on the development of a treatment fluid that removes drilling-induced damage and is also compatible with the formation.
Petrology studies and core flow tests were used in conjunction with geochemical modeling to achieve this objective. A petrographic analysis on the untreated cores showed abundant tuffaceous pore-filling mineral phases, ranging from 12 to 20% in volume. Smectite clay and microcrystalline quartz are the major constituents as alteration products of volcanic glass. Analcime was present in significant quantities in all samples tested.
Six core flow tests were performed on formation cores to optimize the acid preflush and main acid stage. Permeability change due to the treatment fluids was recorded for the tests. Chemical analysis of the effluent was performed on three core flow tests. Core samples before and after acidization were characterized based on thin section, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and mineral mapping.
Core flow tests with a conventional retarded organic mud acid resulted in only a 75% retained permeability. The permeability damage by the retarded organic mud acid was surprising because it usually performs well in acid-sensitive formations. A chelant based retarded mud acid was tested next and resulted in minor formation damage. It can potentially be used in a field treatment as its high dissolving power is expected to more than compensate for the damage. The highest retained permeability was obtained with an acetic-HF acid system. It was successfully able to remove drilling-induced damage and was also compatible with the native mineralogy. Core flow tests were used to calibrate permeability-porosity relationship used in the geochemical simulator. The geochemical simulator was then used to predict field-level acid response.
The analytic methods presented are general enough to be of interest to sandstone acidizing studies where detailed analysis is needed for damage identification and removal. The fluids developed for this formation area good candidates for other formations where conventional acid systems have not performed well. This study also highlights close collaboration between an operator and service company to find a workable solution to a challenging stimulation requirement.
Morita, Hiromitsu (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)) | Muraoka, Michihiro (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)) | Yamamoto, Yoshitaka (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST))
This paper measures the thermophysical properties of natural methane hydrate (MH)-bearing sediments recovered from the Nankai Trough, Japan. The thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and specific heat of the sample under vertical stress (VS) loading were measured by the hot-disk transient method. The thermal conductivity of the sediments increased with increasing VS. The specific heat and thermal diffusivity have a constant value independent of VS. After MH dissociation, the thermal conductivity and the specific heat dropped significantly, and the thermal diffusivity was increased. In addition, the thermal conductivity, specific heat, and thermal diffusivity were calculated by an estimation model.
Methane hydrate (MH) is expected to be developed as an unconventional natural gas source, replacing existing fossil fuels. MH is a crystalline solid in which cages of hydrogen-bonded water molecules enclose the methane gas molecules. MH is stable in a high-pressure/low-temperature environment. A large amount of MH is known to exist in permafrost on land and in sedimentary layers beneath the seabed (Sloan and Koh, 2007).
The collected seismic data for oil and gas exploration show a wide distribution of bottom-simulating reflections (BSRs) under the seafloor in the Nankai Trough region near the Japan Sea coast. BSRs indicate the lower limit of gas hydrate stability zone in a vertical profile. In 1999, the first Nankai Trough methane hydrate exploration well was drilled. In early 2004, the Japan Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry drilled a multiwell from Tokaioki to Kumano-nada (Tsuji et al., 2009). The core was recovered using a pressure-temperature core sampler, which maintained the in-situ condition of 16 excavation sites at water depths ranging from 720 to 2,030 m in the same year. Recovered core analysis confirmed that the MH-bearing sediments in the Nankai Trough area are pore-filling-type hydrates (Fujii, Nakamizu, et al., 2009; Fujii, Saeki, et al., 2009).
Takabayashi, Katsumo (INPEX) | Shibayama, Akira (INPEX) | Yamada, Tatsuya (ADNOC Offshore) | Kai, Hiroki (INPEX) | Al Hamami, Mohamed Tariq (ADNOC Offshore) | Al Jasmi, Sami (ADNOC Offshore) | Al Rougha, Hamad Bu (ADNOC Offshore) | Yonebayashi, Hideharu (INPEX)
This study aims to improve asphaltene-risk evaluation using long-term data. Temporal changes in asphaltene risks with gas injection were evaluated. In reservoirs under gas injection, the in-situ fluid component gradually changes by multiple contact with the injected gas. Those compositional changes affect asphaltene stability, causing difficulty in risk prediction using asphaltene models. This study aims to reduce the risk uncertainty depending on operational-condition changes.
Periodic upgrading of asphaltene models is essential for understanding the time-dependent changes of asphaltene risks. In a previous study, the asphaltene risk was evaluated for an offshore oil field in 2008 using the cubic-plus-association equation-of-state (EOS) models and using all the available data at the time. Additional experimental data were subsequently collected for a gas-injection plan. An additional study was performed that incorporated and compared the data sets.
According to the previous study recommendation, additional asphaltene laboratory studies were conducted using the newly collected samples. All the asphaltene-onset pressures (AOPs) detected in the new samples were higher than those found in the previous study. A large difference was observed between the past and recent AOPs in the lower reservoir even though the samples were collected from the same well. The asphaltene-precipitation risk increases considerably because the new study detected AOP at the reservoir temperature, whereas no AOPs were detected in the previous study. The difference may be attributed to saturation-pressure increase. Next, the numerical asphaltene models were revised; the re-evaluated asphaltene-risk estimations were higher in the lower reservoir and slightly higher in the upper reservoir than the past ones. The reference sample fluids were collected from two different wells with different asphaltene and methane (C1) contents. The reliability of the new asphaltene laboratory results was increased by applying multiple data interpretation. Thus, the difference between the past and recent results can be attributed to fluid alteration with time. On the basis of the analysis in this study, the risk rating was updated to slightly higher than in the previous evaluation, emphasizing the importance of regular monitoring of asphaltene risks.
This study provides valuable findings of time-lapse evaluation of asphaltene-precipitation risks for a reservoir under gas injection. The evaluations currently conducted in the industry are snapshots of instantaneous risks. Through the entire field life, the risks have varied depending on the operating conditions. This study demonstrates that risk estimates can change in a unique field with identical work flow by analyzing data collected at different times. Finally, this study demonstrates the importance of time-dependent reservoir-fluid properties.
Yilong Yuan, Tianfu Xu, Yingli Xia, and Xin Xin, Jilin University Summary Marine-gas-hydrate-drilling exploration at the Eastern Nankai Trough of Japan revealed the variable distribution of hydrate accumulations, which are composed of alternating beds of sand, silt, and clay in sediments, with vertically varying porosity, permeability, and hydrate saturation. The main purposes of this work are to evaluate gas productivity and identify the multiphase-flow behavior from the sedimentary-complex hydrate reservoir by depressurization through a conventional vertical well. We first established a historymatching model by incorporating the available geological data at the offshore-production test site in the Eastern Nankai Trough. The reservoir model was validated by matching the fluid-flow rates at a production well and temperature changes at a monitoring well during a field test. The modeling results indicate that the hydrate-dissociation zone is strongly affected by the reservoir heterogeneity and shows a unique dissociation front. The gas-production rate is expected to increase with time and reach the considerable value of 3.6 10 The numerical model, using a simplified description of porosity, permeability, and hydrate saturation, leads to significant underestimation of gas productivity from the sedimentary-complex hydrate reservoir. Introduction Methane hydrate (MH) is expected to be an alternative energy source, with extensive distribution in nature in permafrost and in marine sediments. The evaluation results indicate that the global quantity of hydrocarbon-gas hydrates exceeds the total energy content of the known conventional fossil-fuel resources (Reagan et al. 2010; Moridis and Reagan 2011a; Li et al. 2016).
Ma, Chong (National Maritime Research Institute) | Oka, Masayoshi (National Maritime Research Institute) | Ando, Takahiro (National Maritime Research Institute) | Matsubara, Naoya (Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.)
A new concept of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) tank shape has been proposed based on the conventional Moss tank to improve the tank storage efficiency. In this research, a series of model tests are conducted for both new shape and conventional spherical shape tank with imposed regular and irregular sway motion. Corresponding numerical simulation based on smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method is carried out and its prediction accuracy is discussed by comparing with the model test results and other numerical simulation based on finite volume method (FVM).
Surfactin is an anionic surfactant generated by bacteria. Although it has high ability to decrease interfacial tension (IFT) between oil and water, it binds with bivalent cations and forms precipitation. Because the precipitation causes the significant reduction of reservoir permeability, surfactin cannot be applied to EOR in oil reservoir whose bivalent cations concentration is more than 100 ppm. This study investigated methods for applying surfactin to reservoir containing bivalent cations with high concentration.
Screening of an effective binding inhibitor was carried out by measuring turbidity of the solution containing 0.3 wt% of surfactin, 900 ppm of calcium ion, and inhibitor candidates such as alcohols, chelating agents, cationic surfactants, and ion capturing substances. Influence of the inhibitors on surfactin capacity for decreasing IFT was also evaluated by measuring IFT between the solution and oil. The best inhibitor was finally selected through the injectivity tests using Berea sandstone core which was saturated with calcium solution. EOR potential of the solution containing the inhibitor was evaluated by the core flooding experiments.
Citric acid and trisodium citrate inhibited binding of surfactin with calcium ion with lower concentration such as 0.6 wt%, they were selected as potential inhibitors and subjected to the IFT measurements. Both of them had strong potential as co-surfactants of the surfactin because IFT was greatly decreased to less than 0.1 mN/m which was less than a tenth as compared with IFT between the pure surfactin solution and oil. Trisodium citrate however caused significant permeability reduction on the injectivity tests whereas citric acid could be injected into the core without permeability reduction. The high pH value of trisodium citrate solution might cause the dissolution of ferrum and aluminum in the core and the colloids of ferrous hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide were formed in the core, which brought the significant permeability reduction. Citric acid was selected as the best inhibitor and subjected to the core flooding experiments. 25 % of oil remaining after primary recovery was recovered by injecting the solution containing 0.3 wt% of surfactin, 0.6 wt% of citric acid and 900 ppm of calcium ion. Rise in the differential pressure was not found during the injection of the solution, which suggested that citric acid was effective for inhibiting the precipitation in oil reservoir. Moreover, 25 % of recovery factor was 5 % higher than the recovery factor obtained by injecting pure surfactin solution. Citric acid is also effective for enhancing the surfactin capacity for increasing the recovery factor.
Citric acid has dual role as the binding inhibitor and co-surfactant. Because citric acid is environmentally friendly and cheap chemical, it can be promising additive which increase the applicable reservoir and potential of surfactant EOR.
Naka, Ryosuke (Hokkaido University) | Tatekawa, Takuto (Hokkaido University) | Kodama, Jun-ichi (Hokkaido University) | Sugawara, Takayuki (Hokkaido University) | Itakura, Ken-ichi (Muroran Institute of Technology) | Hamanaka, Akihiro (Kyushu University) | Deguchi, Gota (NPO Underground Resources Innovation Network)
Underground Coal Gasification is expected to be efficient technique for coal energy recovery from deep or complex coal seam since directional drilling technique is advancing in these days. Authors have been performing small-scale UCG model tests to clear gasification and combustion process in UCG. Then, we found that radial cracks were initiated from the cavity formed in the artificial coal seam. Understanding mechanism of the crack initiation is important for clarification of the detail process of combustion and gasification and assessment for environmental risks. In this study, thermal stress analysis was performed on the small-scale UCG model tests to consider the initiation mechanism of the cracks by assuming that combustion and gasification of coal were progressing through the following three processes which are often observed in coal carbonization: (A) thermal expansion, (B) softening and melting and (C) thermal contraction. It was found that tensile stress was induced in the vicinity of the cavity in the tangential direction in process C. Direction of principal stress in the coal was almost parallel to tangential or radial direction of the cavity and the magnitude of it exceeded coal tensile strength. It was also found that tensile stress zone was extended into deeper coal seam with increase in temperature and time and compressive stress zone was formed outside of the tensile stress zone. It can be considered that the radial cracks initiated at the surface of the cavity since tangential tensile stress exceeded tensile strength of coal. Then, radial cracks were arrested at the boundary of tensile stress zone and compressive stress zone after they were propagating in coal seam.
Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is a technique to use coal energy more efficiently and cheaply. In UCG, oxidant is injected into underground through an injection well to gasify coal seam, and syngas is recovered from a production well (Fig. 1). It is expected that UCG increases available amount of coal energy because even low-grade, complex and deep coal can be used by UCG.
It is pointed out that UCG has risks of surface subsidence and groundwater pollution because cracks are likely to initiate in coal seam by combustion and gasification. Therefore, clarification of initiation and growth mechanisms of the cracks is significant for stability assessment of ground as well as assessing environmental risks.
We performed small-scale UCG model tests on massive coal and crushed coal samples to clear gasification and combustion process in UCG. It was found that radical cracks were initiated in an artificial coal seam made by massive coal as well as crushed coal (Fig. 2 (Kodama et al., 2016)). Similar radial cracks were also observed in large-scale UCG model test (NPO Underground Resources Innovation Network, 2016).