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The INPEX-led Ichthys LNG project in Australia was recognized by the 2021 International Petroleum Technology Conference (IPTC) Excellence in Project Integration Award, which highlights projects with budgets of at least $500 million that have demonstrated distinction throughout the entire exploration and production value chain. The announcement was made during the 2021 IPTC Opening Ceremony on 23 March. The award is given to a project that adds value to the industry and exemplified strong teamwork, solid geoscience knowledge, reservoir and production engineering acumen, determined and watchful construction, and outstanding facilities engineering practices. Ichthys is ranked among the most significant oil and gas projects in the world. A joint venture between INPEX group companies (the operator), major partner Total, and the Australian subsidiaries of CPC Corporation Taiwan, Tokyo Gas, Osaka Gas, Kansai Electric Power, JERA, and Toho Gas, Ichthys LNG is expected to produce 8.9 mtpa of LNG and 1.65 mtpa of LPG, along with more than 100,000 bbl of condensate per day at peak.
A trio of finalists is in contention for the 2021 International Petroleum Technology Conference (IPTC) Excellence in Project Integration Award highlighting projects with budgets of at least $500 million that have demonstrated distinction throughout the entire exploration and production value chain. The IPTC Excellence in Project Integration Award is given to a project that adds value to the industry and exemplified strong teamwork, solid geoscience knowledge, reservoir and production engineering acumen, determined and watchful construction, and outstanding facilities engineering practices. The three nominees are Total's Culzean development in the UK North Sea, the INPEX-led Ichthys LNG project in Australia, and Saudi Aramco's Khurais Arab Light Increment in Saudi Arabia. The project included a newbuild drill rig, a three-platform processing complex, a newbuild FSO and over 60 km of large-bore gas export pipeline, and was delivered safely, ahead of schedule as well as under budget. Ichthys is ranked among the most significant oil and gas projects in the world. A joint venture between INPEX group companies (the operator), major partner Total, and the Australian subsidiaries of CPC Corporation Taiwan, Tokyo Gas, Osaka Gas, Kansai Electric Power, JERA and Toho Gas, Ichthys LNG is expected to produce 8.9 mtpa of LNG and 1.65 mtpa of LPG, along with more than 100,000 bbl of condensate per day at peak.
In efforts to preserve cash and repair busted balance sheets in reaction to depressed prices, companies are continuing to withdraw capital and curtail investments worldwide. Oil and gas companies are selling off assets with recoverable reserves of more than 5 billion bbl of liquids and 7.5 billion BOED of natural gas, Rystad Energy estimates. While some divestments were announced before the COVID-19 crash, more were added in its aftermath. The research and consultancy group examined divestment opportunities announced since the fourth quarter of 2019 that exclude unconventional and US onshore assets. An estimated 104,000 square miles of exploration acreage, including potential exploration license sales, are also up for grabs by majors, E&Ps, industrial companies, and integrated companies.
The US may become the global leader in liquefied natural gas (LNG) exports, according to a new report by the International Energy Agency (IEA). To ascend to the top spot, US LNG shipments must surpass today's leading exporters, Australia and Qatar. In an announcement made on Thursday, the IEA called US LNG a "catalyst for change" and highlighted how production from tight shale gas fields is transforming the world's natural gas marketplace. The Paris-based organization also said the country's exports will help fuel economic growth in developing countries. "The US shale revolution shows no sign of running out of steam and its effects are now amplified by a second revolution of rising LNG supplies," said Fatih Birol, the executive director of the IEA.
Qatar's hold on the title of the world's largest exporter of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is loosening as new projects in Australia ramp up. Australia first surpassed Qatar in LNG export capacity and actual shipments in the months of November 2018 and April 2019. Within the next year though Australia is expected to consistently export more LNG that Qatar, according to the US Energy Information Administration (EIA). The major milestone has been nearly a decade in the making. The EIA notes that Australia's export capacity was 2.6 Bcf/D in 2011, which has increased to over 11.4 Bcf/D this year.
DNV GL estimates that gas is set to overtake oil as the world's primary energy source by the middle of the next decade, with upstream gas capital expenditure reaching $1.13 trillion in 2025. To fuel this rise in demand, energy will need to make a considerable boost to investment in infrastructure. The report also said the midstream sector will need to invest considerably in connecting shifting sources of gas with changing demand centers, which means a significant increase in LNG production. Following the report's release Hans Kristian Danielsen, DNV's VP of marketing and sales, discussed the forecast for growth in LNG capacity, and how shifts in gas transportation trends may drive the globalization of markets for gas trading. DNV estimates an average 2.4% annual increase in seaborne natural gas trade (LNG and liquefied petroleum gas combined) from 385 million tonnes per annum (mtpa) to 780 mtpa by 2015.
ABSTRACT In this research, the investigation on simulation of sloshing pressure based on SPH is mainly demonstrated. Two different boundary conditions, dynamic boundary conditions (DBC) and dummy particle conditions (DPC), are utilized in the SPH models. The benchmark test with respect to the traditional 2D rectangular tank is firstly conducted. Then, simulations based on two boundary conditions are performed for 3D spherical shape MOSS-Type tank. The corresponding model tests are carried out to verify the performance of numerical simulation. Smoothed boundary model (SBM) is used to better illustrate the 3D spherical shape and the predicted pressure based on DBC and DPC can be enhanced by SBM. Finally, the influence of particle shift algorithm on the prediction of surface pressure is discussed. INTRODUCTION With the increasing demand of Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) and growing LNG exportation from the United States, Australia and other countries, how to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the in-tank LNG sloshing influence on the LNG ship motion and structural strength is always a challenging concern. Conventional scale model test is the most straightforward approach to study the sloshing behavior. However, performing model test usually involves huge budget and large amount of time and scale effect can not be considered as well. To overcome the shortage of model test, as an alternative solution, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been successfully utilized in sloshing research in recent decades. Many studies have demonstrated the accuracy of the Eulerian grid-based fluid model for sloshing simulations. Kishev et al. (2006) successfully used the constraint interpolation profile method to tackle the 2D violent sloshing problem. The popular finite volume method (FVM) solver OpenFOAM has been widely used to investigate sloshing behavior (Li et al., 2011; Moirod et al., 2010; Jiang et al., 2015). Lee et al. (2007) used the commercial FVM solver FLOW-3D to examine the parametric sensitivity of the sloshing force in liquefied natural gas (LNG). In the above FVM models, establishing how to obtain the free surface is usually the crucial problem. Although this problem can be solved by volume-of-fluid (VOF) theory or level-set (LS) theory, new problems may be introduced as VOF is essentially a step function, and the law of mass conservation is usually violated in LS models. Furthermore, numerically capturing the fluid surface and updating the fluid mesh make the numerical model more complex and more time consuming.
Lee, Seungjoo (Samsung Heavy Industries Co., Ltd) | Kim, Sangmyung (Samsung Heavy Industries Co., Ltd) | Kim, Minjin (Samsung Heavy Industries Co., Ltd) | Oh, Seungmin (Samsung Heavy Industries Co., Ltd) | Stephens, Andy (Shell International Trading & Shipping Co. Ltd)
The Prelude FLNG is the first application of a cryogenic containment system in the largest turret moored offshore LNG/LPG and condensate production system suitable for a cyclonic environment. This paper discusses the rigorous safety processes, specialized technologies and the innovation required to realize a hull design suitable for a floating LNG facility. The Prelude hull evolved from innovation, continuous improvement and best offshore and LNG Carrier engineering practice. Prelude has been subject to extensive analytical and model studies to realize the design. The analysis of global motions, structural analysis and cargo tank fluid motions has resulted in a cargo tank arrangement of 2-rows each of 5 tanks which allows partial filling in the offshore environment.
Rigorous safety assessment required a new LNG cargo tank dome to be developed to protect against blast pressures and maintain integrity of the cargo tanks. Operational safety has also driven design to ensure maintainability in the field. The world's first 2-row 5 cargo tank arrangement utilizing membrane containment technology solved several requirements. Maximizes storage capacity within hull sizing constraints, provides a flat deck for process design, provides an optimized hull design to satisfy topside and hull loads. The hull comprises a complete double hull at the bottom, side and deck, a novel centre line ballast tank separating the two rows of cargo tanks and cofferdams between tanks.
The centre line ballast tank arrangement enables a significant proportion of the topsides module weight to be directly opposed by buoyancy forces. To satisfy stringent safety requirements, the double deck is designed to absorb process explosion events and provides space to locate the cargo tank L/G domes. The tank domes located between the main-deck and the cargo tank are filled with N2 gas to improve detectability of LNG leakage. Such a novel design has not been applied on standard LNG carriers and required diligent application of the IGC code to prove the design. Shell, Samsung Heavy Industry and GTT successfully achieved and constructed a cargo containment system with safe dome design on the Prelude FLNG. From engineering stage to the cold test into the tank, enormous building works have been conducted in South Korea, and then the offshore execution for LNG/LPG offtake in Australia was successfully carried out.
Technology Focus In 2019, the US experienced the lowest natural gas prices since 2016. This was despite natural gas consumption increasing in the residential and commercial sector by 2% (between October and December) according to the US Energy Information Administration (EIA). In July and August, the electric generation sector also experienced an increase in natural gas consumption because of above-average humidity levels in the Midwest and Northeast. Natural gas inventories at the end of March recorded the lowest levels since 2014 during withdrawal season, whereas the injection season recorded the second-highest levels from sustained growth in natural gas production. This trend of low gas prices was because of natural gas production growth, as prices continued to decline through the rest of 2019. The EIA forecasts an increase in natural gas consumption by 1.4 Bcf/D (1.7%) in 2020. The average US natural gas price is projected to fall by 9% to $2.33/million British thermal units (MMBtu) in 2020. The EIA said it expects continued growth in natural gas production in 2020 in response to improved drilling, increased associated gas production, and increased Appalachian and Permian pipeline take-away capacity. As of 3 February, Henry Hub spot price closed at $1.82/MMBtu, $0.87 lower than the same time last year. Weather temperatures were warmer than expected, except in the Northeast and Midwest where it was colder than expected, hence affecting winter demand. Globally, the Paris-based International Energy Agency’s 5-year forecast shows natural gas demand driven by Asia-Pacific growth, with the region accounting for approximately 60% of the total gas consumption forecasted increase through 2024. China is expected to be at the forefront of this demand growth because it is expected to constitute approximately 40% of the total gas demand increase through 2024. The global liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) market has continued to grow reasonably in the past decade, and the US, as a result of its strong domestic LPG production, has ascended in recent years as the largest LPG producer and exporter in the world. The Asia-Pacific region, because of its growing population, constitutes the highest market share of the global LPG consumption. The global LPG market trend is predominantly supply-driven by natural gas and crude oil but not so much from refining. According to IHS Markit, LPG demand in Asia-Pacific grew approximately 3.5% in 2018 and has continued to maintain its steady growth in 2019. Global supplies of LPG are expected to rise approximately 5% to 325 million tonnes in 2020. By region, approximately 28% of the global supplies will be from the US and approximately 20% from the Middle East. Asia-Pacific will continue to be the main driver for LPG demand growth, accounting for approximately 45% (4.6 million B/D) of the global demand. The prominent increase in US LPG exports has resulted in significant changes in the LPG global trade flow patterns in recent years, demonstrating a shift from a dependency on exports from the Middle East. More can be learned by attending the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition in Denver on 5–7 October and the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition in Perth, Australia, on 8–11 September. Recommended additional reading at OnePetro: www.onepetro.org. SPE 195759 Solutions for Seal Gas Leakage Recovery in Methane Compression: Integration Into Processing Lines or Gas Valorization Systems by Filippo Conforti, Baker Hughes, et al. SPE 197582 Running Sour Hydrocarbon Assets: Eni’s Story of Experience by Luciano Scataglini, Eni, et al. SPE 195555 Experimental Investigation of Integrity Issues of Underground Gas Storage Containing Hydrogen by Erik Clemens Boersheim, Clausthal University of Technology, et al.
Abstract Today, increasing prosperity of developing economies is considered as the main reason for increasing world energy demand and renewable energy will be the fastest growing source of energy. It is forecast that despite increasing share of renewables in energy consumption, demand for oil and other gaseous fuels will not decline till 2040. To cater for increasing demand for hydrocarbon liquids and natural gas world is going to witness increased production through mega projects under US tight oil, OPEC and expansion of liquefied natural gas (LNG) production from US shale, North Sea, Asia and Africa. These mega projects are in various stages of conceptualization, planning, construction and operations. In this study four categories of oil and gas megaprojects have been discussed taking guidance from a report " Spotlight on Oil and Gas Megaprojects" prepared by Ernst and Young Global Limited in 2014. The Ernst & Young study identified 365 projects with individual CAPEX of multi-billion dollars in petroleum sector related to upstream, LNG, refining and pipelines. Cumulative projects’ CAPEX was approximately USD 2.6 trillion and included only those which were in planning or construction phase. According to the report, average cost of such projects varies in the range of USD 6 – 11 billion which is matching with CAPEX of projects identified for this study. All four projects studied have started commercial operations recently, as listed below: Upstream Wellhead Project – Clair Ridge production, Major UK North Sea development – CAPEX ~ USD 6 billion LNG Liquefaction Terminal – Prelude FLNG project, Browse Basin, Australia – CAPEX ~ USD 10 billion Gas Pipeline Construction – Trans-Anatolian Natural Gas Pipeline, Turkey – CAPEX ~ USD 8 Billion Petroleum Refinery Installation – Pengerang Refinery Complex, Malaysia – CAPEX ~ USD 27 Billion It is well known today that era of " easy hydrocarbons" is approaching its end. Petroleum sector players are now planning to diversify their portfolios by tapping into emerging opportunities in unconventional oil and gas like shale gas, Oil sands, Light tight oil, Coal seam gas, LNG liquefaction, Ultra-deep water, the Arctic etc. All these unconventional hydrocarbon production technologies require mega-projects for their commercial implementation. Mega-projects are becoming a norm in petroleum sector despite high CAPEX and having long lead times for reaching commercial operations. FID for such project is driven by commercial deployment of technological advanced methods for unconventional hydrocarbon recovery with major focus on offshore development. Deployment of pooled resources by multinational Joint Ventures using their experience to implement innovative technological solutions is a recipe of successful project implementation. Oil and gas megaprojects have four distinct characteristics – high investment costs, long lead time, relatively higher technical risks and geopolitical influences. Four successfully completed projects have been found to have common traits which point towards dependency of project success on sincere commitment as well as capability of project owners to neutralize intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors that impede project implementation during project lifecycle.