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Jacques, Antoine (TOTAL SE) | Jaffrezic, Vincent (TOTAL SE) | Brouard, Benoit (Brouard Consulting) | Ahmed, Shafiq (ADNOC Off Shore) | Serry, Amr Mohamed (ADNOC Off Shore) | Nguyen, Raymond (ADNOC Off Shore) | Bigno, Yann (ADNOC Off Shore)
Abstract In current economic and environmental contexts, the optimization of long, horizontal well completion and the maximization of individual well performance are becoming increasingly important. The challenge is to be able to start improving the production efficiency while designing an adapted completion for each well without compromising the project economy. The cost-effective formation evaluation technique described in this paper allows rapid identification of dynamic heterogeneities along the reservoir after the drilling of a horizontal well. This key information then can be used to optimize well completion and treatment. This new approach, called WTLog, combines well testing and logging techniques and was introduced initially for the optimization of unconventional well completion (Jacques et al., 2019 and Manivannan et al. 2019). The log begins by circulating a low-viscosity liquid that can be injected in the formation through the mud cake. The brine circulation operation is run at the end of the drilling phase, after reaching TD of the drain while maintaining a constant wellhead pressure at the wellhead. The constant pressure control can be applied without a specific additional choke device when Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD) is used to drill the formation section. The inlet and outlet flowrates are measured accurately, and their difference corresponds to the apparent formation-injection rate. The depth of the interface between the two liquids inside the borehole is estimated from the flowrates and pressure measured at the wellhead. Combining these data allows derivation of the low-viscosity/liquid-injection profile along the open hole. A permeability log then can be derived by inversion. Well Test Logging has been applied successfully for the first time on two horizontal wells in a conventional carbonate reservoir. The interpretation results were benchmarked to static conventional openhole logs and validated against the data log obtained by the dynamic production log tool (PLT) performed after well start-up. This technique opens new perspectives for optimizing well completion in these carbonate-fractured formations for which porosity logs might not be a good permeability indicator and where conductive fractures seen on image logs are not always indicative of future production.
Zhang, D. Leslie (CNPC USA Corp.) | Qi, Chunyan (Beijing Huamei Century International Technology Co.) | Shi, Xiaodong (Exploration and Development Research Institute of Daqing Oilfield Company Ltd.) | Zhan, Jianfei (Exploration and Development Research Institute of Daqing Oilfield Company Ltd.) | Han, Xue (Exploration and Development Research Institute of Daqing Oilfield Company Ltd.) | Li, Xiangyun (Beijing Huamei Century International Technology Co. Ltd.) | Wang, Ze (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Bai, Baojun (Missouri University of Science and Technology)
Abstract Relative permeability is one of the most important petrophysical parameters to evaluate a reservoir’s production during primary and subsequent secondary or enhanced oil recovery processes. Yet measured relative permeability data for tight oil reservoirs are very scarce to find in the literature, mainly because the measurement is difficult and time consuming to make. In this paper the protocol and results of water/oil, surfactant /oil, CO2/oil, and N2/oil relative permeability are presented, and compared to the digital core analysis results where wettability was set to water-wet or mixed-wet, as well as the Brooks-Corey model. Amott-Harvey wettability index was measured to explain the differences. The target formation is a sandstone tight oil formation located in Songliao Basin, China. Its permeability is mostly in the 0.01-5mD range. Core and oil samples from the target formation were used in the wettability and relative permeability determination. Relative permeability was measured at reservoir conditions using a customized core flow setup. Core samples were cleaned then wettability restored. To match the reservoir fluid viscosity and avoid changing wettability, stock tank oil was blended with kerosene to reservoir fluid viscosity at reservoir temperature. Relative permeability was measured using the unsteady-state method. Amott-Harvey wettability index was measured on core samples from the same formation at reservoir temperature. Amott-Harvey wettability index results show that the restored wettability ranged from water-wet to oil-wet, with most samples being mixed-wt. The addition of non-ionic surfactant promoted wettability change toward more water-wetness. However, anionic surfactant had little effect on reversing wettability. Oil relative permeability (Kro) results obtained from the digital rock analysis (DRA) assuming uniform water-wetness are consistent with relative permeability calculated from mercury injection capillary pressure using Brooks-Corey model. When wettability of the digital rock model was set to mixed-wet, the resulted Kro matches the measured Kro of a sister plug to the sample used to build the digital rock model, which is consistent with the wettability measurements. The addition of surfactants increased both water and oil relative permeability through wettability alteration and IFT reduction. CO2 flood was conducted as an immiscible flood due to reservoir pressure lower than MMP. CO2 flood left high residual oil saturation compared with water floods. N2 flood left even more oil behind compared with CO2 flood. Relative permeability provides key input parameters for formation evaluation and the subsequent EOR processes such as huff-n-puff operations. There are very little published relative permeability data for tight oil reservoirs. This work extends the relative permeability database, and is a starting point for future EOR work.
Abstract With this paper, we demonstrate how CoreDNA, a trans-disciplinary suite of high-resolution, non-destructive measurements performed on whole cores at the onset of core analysis programs, helps operation geologists and petrophysicists with an innovative, cost effective and objective way to characterize the reservoir quality of highly laminated hydrocarbon-bearing formations where the standard practice (systematic plugging every foot) fails to provide a correct estimate. The case study focuses on core data from three wells intersecting formations characterized by very thin (millimetre-scale) sand and clay/silt laminations where the resolution of conventional wireline and lab gamma ray logs were not sufficiently sharp for an effective evaluation of reservoir quality. Although a high volume of routine core analysis data was already available for these wells, the remaining uncertainty on reservoir evaluation was deemed high enough by the study team to motivate the acquisition of additional data comprising ultra-high resolution pictures (1.8μm/px) and topographic maps created from micron-accurate laser scans. We explain how continuous profiles of grain size indicators could be used for the prediction of permeability variations across these laminated formations and for the definition of a permeability cut-off for the identification of poor vs good reservoir ratios compatible with the reservoir characteristics. CoreDNA test procedures are specifically designed to greatly accelerate the deliverables of core analysis, so that petrophysical evaluation may start right from the moment cores arrive from the well site, which is usually month before routine core analysis results are known. In the context of this paper, CoreDNA results were confirmed a-posteriori by the permeability measured on plugs samples from the two first wells. In the third well however, some marked differences were observed: although permeability ranges were found similar by the two methods, the distribution of permeability values obtained from routine core analysis conducted according to standard guidelines (one sample per foot) gave a more optimistic picture of permeability (90% rock above the 1mD cut-off) than the alternative approach based on high resolution continuous grain size data (70% rock above the 1mD cut-off). From the above findings, we conclude that a standard 1-ft interval for plug acquisition is not enough to fully characterise the distribution of permeability in highly laminated formations. Alternatively, a continuous profile of permeability index based on high resolution grain size measurements offers a fast and cost-efficient solution to obtain representative reservoir quality data, which enable objective well and reservoir management decisions few days after barrel opening without compromising core integrity for further studies.
Abstract Fracture growth in layered formations with depth-dependent properties has been a topic of interest amongst researchers because of its critical influence on well performance. This paper revisits some of the existing height-growth models and discusses the evaluation process of a new and modified model developed after incorporating additional constraints.The net-pressure is the primary driver behind fracture propagation and the pressure distribution in the fracture plays an important role in vertical propagation, as it supplies the necessary energy for fracture advancement in the presence of opposing forces. The workflow adopted for this study included developing a preliminary model that solves a system of non-linear equations iteratively to arrive at fracture height versus net pressure mapping. The theoretical results were then compared to those available in the literature. The solution set was then extended to a 100-layer model after incorporating additional constraints using superposition techniques.The predicted outcomes were finally compared to the fracture height observations made in the field on several treatments. A reasonable agreement between model-predicted and observed height was observed when a comparison between the two was made, for most cases.The majority of these treatments were pumped in vertical wells, at low injection rates of up to 8.0 bbl/min (0.021 m/s) where net pressures were intentionally restricted to 250 psi (1.72 MPa) in order to prevent fracture rotation to the horizontal plane.The leak-off was minimal given the low permeability formations. In some cases, however, the pumping parameters and fluid imparted pressure distribution appeared to dominate. Overall, it was apparent that for a slowly advancing fracture front, which is the case in low injection rate treatments, the fracture height could be predicted with reasonable accuracy. This condition could also be met in high rate treatments pumped down multiple perforation clusters such as in horizontal wells, though fracture-height measurement may not be as straightforward as in vertical wells. The model developed under the current study is suitable for vertical wells where fracture treatments are pumped at low injection rates. The solid-mechanics solution that is presented here is independent of pumping parameters and can be readily implemented to assist in selection of critical design parameters prior to the job, with a wide range of applicability worldwide.
Elsayed, Mahmoud (King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals) | El-Husseiny, Ammar (King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (Corresponding author) | Kwak, Hyung (email: firstname.lastname@example.org)) | Hussaini, Syed Rizwanullah (Saudi Aramco) | Mahmoud, Mohamed (King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals)
Summary In-situ evaluation of fracture tortuosity (i.e., pore geometry complexity and roughness) and preferential orientation is crucial for fluid flow simulation and production forecast in subsurface water and hydrocarbon reservoirs. This is particularly significant for naturally fractured reservoirs or postacid fracturing because of the strong permeability anisotropy. However, such downhole in-situ characterization remains a challenge. This study presents a new method for evaluating fracture tortuosity and preferential orientation based on the pulsed field gradient (PFG) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique. Such an approach provides diffusion tortuosity, τd, defined as the ratio of bulk fluid diffusion coefficient to the restricted diffusion coefficient in the porous media. In the PFG NMR technique, the magnetic field gradient can be applied in different directions, and therefore anisotropy in diffusion coefficient and τd can be evaluated. Three 3D printed samples, characterized by well controlled variable fracture tortuosity, one fractured sandstone, and three acidized carbonate samples with wormhole were used in this study. PFG NMR measurements were performed using both 2- and 12-MHz NMR instruments to obtain τd in the three different principal directions. The results obtained from the NMR measurements were compared with fracture tortuosity and preferential orientation determined from the microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) images of the samples. The results showed that τd increases as the fracture tortuosity and pore geometry complexity increases, showing good agreement with the image-based geometric tortuosity values. Moreover, the lowest τd values were found to coincide with the preferential direction of fracture surfaces and wormhole body for a given sample, whereas the maximum τd values correspond to the nonconnected pathway directions. These results suggest that the implantation of directional restricted diffusion measurements on the NMR well logging tools would offer a possibility of probing tortuosity and determining preferential fluid flow direction via direct downhole measurements.
Xu, Guoqing (Sinopec Research Institute of Petroleum Engineering (Corresponding author) | Han, Yujiao (email: email@example.com)) | Jiang, Yun (Sinopec Research Institute of Petroleum Engineering) | Shi, Yang (Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina (Corresponding author) | Wang, Mingxian (email: firstname.lastname@example.org)) | Zeng, XingHang (Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina (Corresponding author)
Summary Spontaneous imbibition (SI) is regarded as an effective method to improve the oil recovery in a tight sandstone reservoir, which leads to a significant change in fracturing design and flowback treatment. However, a longtime shut-in period would aggravate the retention of fracturing fluid, which is in contradiction with high production in the field. It is imperative to understand how SI works during shut-in time, so as to maximize the effect of imbibition in oil recovery enhancement. In this study, a series of experiments were conducted to simulate the status of residual oil saturation so that the inner mechanism of imbibition on oil recovery can be investigated. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) was used to provide direct observation of phase changes in different pore sizes. The experimental results show a positive effect of imbibition on residual oil reduction. This phenomenon further elucidates the observations made during the well shut-in, soaking period, and low flowback efficiency. This study aims to understand the mechanism of SI behavior and help to improve the accuracy of production prediction.
Summary Seawater injection is widely used to improve oil recovery in offshore oil reservoirs. However, injecting seawater into reservoirs can cause many flow-assurance issues, such as scaling and reservoir souring, which are strongly related to the percentage of seawater breakthrough. Thermodynamic models have been developed to evaluate the effects of barite deposition on oil production, but the reservoir stripping effect has not been fully considered. In this study, a new model that incorporates both chemical reaction (barium and sulfate reaction) and physical reactions (ion adsorption/desorption) is developed to investigate the in-situbarite-deposition process. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, ion adsorption/desorption is integrated by coupling the adsorption/desorption isotherm to the reservoir simulator. The barium and sulfate chemical reaction is modeled by incorporating the solubility product constant into the model. The model accuracy is verified through convergence rate tests and comparison with the coreflood experimental results. The simulation results of both barium and sulfate concentration profiles are greatly improved by integrating the ion adsorption/desorption process. The new physicochemical model is further used to investigate barite deposition under various scenarios. Simulation results indicate that most barite deposits are in the deep reservoir for the areal model. Barite that deposits in the reservoir before seawater breakthrough accounts for 45% of total barite deposition and the barite deposited during the seawater-breakthrough period makes up 54%, while the deposition during the tailing period, where the seawater fraction is larger than 95%, is negligible. For a homogeneous reservoir, the barite-deposition period at the near-wellbore area of the producer is between 30% and 65% of the seawater-breakthrough percentage, and heterogeneity leads to a broader deposition period. For vertical heterogeneous reservoirs, a considerable amount of barite forms in the wellbore, which accounts for 17% of total barite deposition. Based on the accurate simulation of barium and sulfate transport in the reservoir, barium and sulfate concentration profiles can be used to determine the seawater-breakthrough percentage and help optimize production operations that aim to mitigate flow assuranceissues.
Wang, Yijun (State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University) | Kang, Yili (State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University Corresponding author) | You, Lijun (email: email@example.com) ) | Xu, Chengyuan (State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University) | Yan, Xiaopeng (State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University) | Lin, Chong (State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University)
Summary Severe formation damage often occurs during the drilling process, which significantly impedes the timely discovery, accurate evaluation, and efficient development of deep tight clastic gas reservoirs. The addition of formation protection additives into drilling fluid after diagnosing the damage mechanism is the most popular technique for formation damage control (FDC). However, the implementation of traditional FDC measures does not consider the multiscale damage characteristics of the reservoir. The present study aims at filling this gap by providing a complete and systematic damage control methodology based on multiscale FDC theory. First, the characteristics of multiscale seepage channels were described through petrology, petrophysics, and well-history data. Subsequently, based on laboratory formation damage evaluation experiments, the formation damage mechanism of each seepage scale was determined. Finally, based on the multiscale formation damage mechanism, a systematic multiscale FDC technology was proposed. Through the use of optimized drilling fluid based on multiscale FDC theory, high-permeability recovery ratio (PRR), high-pressure bearing capacity of plugging zone, and low cumulative filtration loss were observed by laboratory validation experiments. Shorter drilling cycle, less drill-in-fluid loss, lower skin factor, and higher production rates were obtained by using the optimized FDC drilling fluid in field application. This multiscale FDC theory shows excellent results in minimizing formation damage, maintaining original production capacity, and effectively developing gas reservoirs with multiscale pore structure characteristics.
Liu, Jingshou (China University of Petroleum, East China) | Ding, Wenlong (Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Deep Oil and Gas) | Yang, Haimeng (and Key Laboratory of Deep-Earth Dynamics of Ministry of Natural Resources, Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences (Corresponding author) | Liu, Yang (email: firstname.lastname@example.org))
Summary Fractured reservoirs account for more than one-half of the global oil and gas output and thus play a pivotal role in the world’s energy structure. Under diagenesis, rocks become dense, and tectonic fractures easily form under subsequent tectonic movement. These tectonic fractures are the main seepage conduits of tight sandstone reservoirs and are important determinants of whether a tight sandstone reservoir can have high, stable oil and gas production. The influence of multistage tectonic movement has led to well-developed fractures in the Ordos Basin in central China. In the process of reservoir development, the effective stress on the fracture surface increases because of the decrease in pore pressure, and the fracture aperture, porosity, and permeability also change accordingly. Therefore, modeling of the dual porosity and dual permeability of fractured reservoirs requires a dynamic 4D modeling process related to time. In this paper, we propose a 4D modeling method of dual porosity and dual permeability in fractured tight sandstone reservoirs. First, the porosity and permeability distribution of the reservoir matrix are established based on reservoir modeling. Based on geomechanical modeling, the density and occurrence of natural fractures are predicted by the paleostress field. The in-situ stress field is used to analyze the fracture aperture, and the variation in the fracture aperture during the development process is analyzed along with the variation in the in-situ stress in the development process to realize 4D modeling of the porosity and permeability of fractured reservoirs. The total porosity of the fracture is 0 to 8 × 10%, and the principal value of the planar permeability of the fracture is 0 to 3 × 10 µm; the principal value of the fracture permeability is concentrated in the direction of 65 to 70° east-northeast. The simulated fracture porosity stress sensitivity index is distributed between 0 and 0.2, and the fracture permeability stress sensitivity index is distributed between 0 and 0.4. The Young’s modulus of the rock, in-situ stress parameters, and sound velocity in the rock are important factors affecting the fracture stress sensitivity.
Alkinani, Husam (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Al-Hameedi, Abo Taleb (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Dunn-Norman, Shari (Missouri University of Science and Technology)
Abstract One of the most vital reservoir properties is permeability. It is usually measured using core samples with two major measurement methods; using gas or using liquid. The purpose of this work is to use a data-driven recurrent neural network model to estimate the equivalent liquid permeability based on gas permeability. By using this model, the equivalent liquid permeability can be predicted for the permeability of core samples with rich clay minerals measured using gas (or any core sample that is measured using gas). This will give an alternative way to the currently used method (Klinkenberg method). Core sample data measurements of more than 500 cores were obtained from limestone formations. The data went through a processing step to eliminate any measurement errors. Then, the data were clustered into training, validation, and testing. After many iterations, a decision was made to have a network with four hidden layer and twenty neurons in each hidden layer, and four delays in the input and the output. The findings showed that the network had stopped training after nine epochs with a validation mean squared error (MSE) of 5.3. The model exhibited excellent performance during training, validation, and testing with an overall R2 of 0.91 which is excellent. These findings prove that the model can closely track the actual equivalent liquid permeability measurements using the gas permeability measurements data within a reasonable margin of error. With the rise of machine learning and other artificial intelligence (AI) methods as well as the potential application in the petroleum industry, these methodologies can revolutionize the industry and save time and money.