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Automated image-processing algorithms can improve the quality and speed in classifying the morphology of heterogeneous carbonate rock. Several commercial products have produced petrophysical properties from 2D images and, to a lesser extent, from 3D images. Duri Field in Indonesia is the largest active steamflood project in the world. The field produces 73,000 BOPD, and 10,000 optimization jobs are executed annually to support base production. Fluid saturation isn't what it used to be when it comes to unconventional reservoirs.
A new open innovation studio aims to use crowdsourcing to redefine the future of oil and gas exploration. In tectonically influenced regions, potential hydrocarbon traps are subject to complex states of stress. This paper presents a coupled 3D fluid-flow and geomechanics simulator developed to model induced seismicity resulting from wastewater injection. Knowing which horizon crude oil flows from and in what proportions has been a major challenge for shale producers. Increasingly, they are turning to new technology to find the answer.
The US Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) has issued a final environmental impact statement (PEIS) for proposed geological and geophysical surveys of the Gulf of Mexico regarding possible oil and gas development. Because marine seismic surveys are critical in finding offshore oil and gas, The International Association of Oil and Gas Producers and the International Association of Geophysical Contractors have collaborated on a position paper that assesses the effect of such work on marine mammals.
This page pulls together technology-focused articles from various departments within JPT. The complete paper reviews the results of gas hydrate engineering and production testing studies associated with northern Canada and Alaska. Automated image-processing algorithms can improve the quality and speed in classifying the morphology of heterogeneous carbonate rock. Several commercial products have produced petrophysical properties from 2D images and, to a lesser extent, from 3D images. The complete paper provides an approach using machine-learning and sequence-mining algorithms for predicting and classifying the next operation based on textual descriptions. Imagine the time when we are no longer concerned about the digital-transformation issues we face today, such as data availability, security, and many others. This would be the time when companies make the best out of digital infrastructure. This era might be here sooner than expected. The complete paper describes the hurdles that have prevented single-trip installation of upper and lower completions in the complex world of subsea and deepwater applications and examines the processes, technologies, and risk-mitigation steps that took a concept from pilot to successful deployment. Specifically targeting ingrained thinking, the selected papers demonstrate the game-changing results that can be achieved even when targeting long-established norms. They demonstrate everything that our industry should be proud of and what we strive for. With reduced new unconventional well activity, practices such as frac-hit mitigation—pressurization of parent wells during child-well fracture stimulation—have become increasingly important to reduce parent-well proppant cleanouts as well as to maximize production from both parent and child wells. Sand control has evolved over the years; however, the fundamentals of screen sizing have not changed. Particle-size distribution remains the basis for most designs.
The memorandum of understanding with Microsoft follows a conditional investment decision made in May by Equinor, Shell, and Total. Pending Norwegian government approval, the final investment decision for the project is expected in late 2020 with startup expected in 2024. The tech giant and supermajor have been working on cloud solutions already, but in a new agreement, they will combine their talents to create new technologies for oil and gas as well as energy consumers. A new open innovation studio aims to use crowdsourcing to redefine the future of oil and gas exploration. To provide condition monitoring and combat fouling, the robot clings and moves along the hull walls.
Presentation 3: What We Now Know or Think We Know About Induced Seismicity in Texas? Induced seismicity from the injection of fluids into the earth remains a significant concern for oilfield activities such as saltwater disposal and hydraulic fracturing operations. The number of induced earthquakes occurring in the oil and gas producing regions of the Central United States and Western Canada has been declining over the past few years, highlighting the successful implementation of improved regulations and effective operational practices. However, technical engineering and geoscience challenges remain. This opening session will explore the current state of learnings and progress since the last workshop in November 2017, and highlight forward opportunities and challenges.
We use integrated micro-CT, thin section, XRF, SEM, and acoustic microscopy to quantify the controls on the acoustic properties of source rock reservoirs. At the smallest length scale a scanning acoustic microscope is used to measure velocities of individual laminae within unconventional samples. For unconventional reservoirs, in which typical particle and pore sizes are substantially smaller than 20 microns (i.e. the resolution of the acoustic microscope using a 20MHz probe), the difference in travel time between the first arrivals from the top and bottom surfaces of the sample provides an accurate measure of the velocity of each layer. The small feature size compared to the acoustic microscope wavelength eliminates the need for ray tracing.
To upscale this data, one inch diameter core plugs are first micro-CT scanned and their acoustic properties are measured as received. After CT scanning, end trim and axial thin section and SEM mounts are prepared. The entire end trim, or 1" axial slice, is ion milled in preparation for SEM and acoustic microscopy. Large area image mosaics are produced using low voltage SE imaging for characterizing porosity, and BSE imaging for characterization of organic content and mineralogy. Scanning CL imaging and image analysis are utilized to differentiate between detrital and authigenic phases. Energy dispersive x-ray mapping is also used for the identification of major mineral phases. The resulting suite of mosaic images are analyzed using University of Houston developed image analysis software. Segmented volumes of porosity, TOC, and mineral phases are determined for each layer type in the sample. After the SEM imaging is complete, the velocity of each layer type is measured on the same sample volume using scanning acoustic microscopy.
A Backus average of the measured velocities of each layer type agrees well with laboratory measurements made at the core plug scale for measurement performed perpendicular to bedding. We illustrate the correlations between segmented porosity, TOC, and mineralogy on the acoustic properties of each layer type. Mineral phases included in the modeling are clay minerals, pyrite, carbonate, and quartz. We include, where possible, the differentiation of authigenic quartz and detrital carbonate phases. Velocities for each layer type are mapped to the microCT data for the core plug. We illustrate the technique applied in several highly heterogeneous formations including the Niobrara, Haynesville, Barnett, Woodford, and Eagle Ford.
As maturity increases, the location of organic material will shift from predominantly bedding plane parallel oriented laminae, to interparticle pores, as kerogen is thermally altered to bitumen. This results in distinct changes in the vertical acoustic velocity signal and in the observed anisotropy. By observing changes in acoustic velocity signals and relating them to bulk mineralogy, TOC and maturity, models can be calibrated to determine the presence and distribution of organic material.