Carbon capture and storage - No abstract available.
Morris, J.P. (Schlumberger Doll Research Center) | Hao, Y. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) | Foxall, W. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) | McNab, W. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory)
Du, Jing (Pinnacle - A Halliburton Service) | McColpin, Glenn R. (Pinnacle - A Halliburton Service) | Davis, Eric J. (Pinnacle - A Halliburton Service) | Marsic, Scott (Pinnacle - A Halliburton Service)
Morris, J.P. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) | McNab, W.W. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) | Johnson, S.M. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) | Hao, Y. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory)
Fossil fuel fired plants are responsible for the one third of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions which thought to be a major contributor to the current rise in the Earth's surface temperature.
Reducing CO2 atmospheric concentrations by capturing emissions at the source—power plants or chemical units—and then storing them in subsurface reservoirs is thought by many scientists to be a reliable solution until emission-free energy sources are developed and viable. The current options for captured CO2 utilization are; Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR), Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery (ECBM), Enhanced Gas Recovery (EGR), Food processing applications, Mineral products, Fertilizer manufacture, Algae growth promoter, Enhanced plant growth. The capture and storage of CO2 continues to accelerate as new projects are initiated and existing projects confirm the development scenarios.
A crucial element in CO2 storage is reliable monitoring of CO2 migration behavior and storage volumes. An innovative seismic monitoring techniques, has recently been awarded a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project that will examine the application of time-lapse (4D) seismic technology and advanced reservoir simulation to optimize CO2 EOR operations. Well design, cementing, completions techniques and long life cycle mechanical integrity assurance are currently subject of many R&D projects.
Industry expertise also is being tapped in CO2 projects across Europe and in Australia, including four major EU proposals under the Framework Program Six and the Australian CO2CRC Otway Project. These projects address pertinent issues in CO2 capture and storage such as site selection, storage monitoring and verification techniques, developing local CO2 storage sites from hydrogen- and power-generation plants, and industry training.
In our paper framework of CO2 sequestration and vital aspects such as; site selection, reservoir characterization, modeling of storage and long term leakage monitoring techniques will be illustrated.
The prospect of global warming is a matter of genuine public concern. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been increasing since industrialization in the 19th century, and consensus is forming that mankind is having a visible impact on the world's climate. It is generally acknowledged that the most important environmental impact of fossil fuel burning is an increased global warming from the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This warming occurs when the added greenhouse gases trap more of the earth's outgoing heat radiation.
There is a wide consensus from extensive research in the last three decades that rapid climate change is already happening, that global average temperatures are increasing at unprecedented rates. In parallel, CO2 emissions from anthropogenic sources have also been increasing in the same time frame and these are known to produce a greenhouse effect.
The greatest contributor to global warming over the past century has been carbon dioxide, mostly from deforestation and fossil fuel burning. Methane is second and arises from coal deposits, leaking natural gas pipelines, landfills, forest fires, wetlands, rice growing, and cattle rising. Nitrous oxide, also known as "laughing gas,?? is third and arises from agricultural practices, fuel burning and industrial processes (Figure 1).
The foremost contributor to increased atmospheric CO2 is fossil fuel combustion for power generation, transport, industry, and domestic use. Energy from fossil fuels has provided a high standard of living in industrialized countries and the demand for energy continues to grow as developing countries seek to raise their standards of living.