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Yang, Ruiyue (China University of Petroleum) | Chunyang, Hong (China University of Petroleum) | Huang, Zhongwei (China University of Petroleum) | Wen, Haitao (China University of Petroleum) | Li, Xiaojiang (Sinopec Research Institute of Petroleum Engineering) | Huang, Pengpeng (China University of Petroleum) | Liu, Wei (China University of Petroleum) | Chen, Jianxiang (China University of Petroleum)
Summary Multistage hydraulic fracturing is widely used in developing tight reservoirs. However, the economic and environmental burden of freshwater souring, transportation, treatment, and disposal in hydraulic fracturing operations has been a topic of great importance to the energy industry and public alike. Waterless fracturing is one possible method of solving these water-related issues. Liquid nitrogen (LN 2) is considered a promising alternate fracturing fluid that can create fractures by coupled hydraulic/thermal loadings and, more importantly, pose no threats to the environment. However, there are few laboratory experiments that use LN 2 directly as a fracturing fluid. In this work, we examine the performance of LN 2 fracturing based on a newly developed cryogenic-fracturing system under truetriaxial loadings. The breakdown pressure and fracture morphologies are compared with water fracturing. Moreover, fracture-initiation behavior under cryogenic in-situ conditions revealed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) is presented, and the role of thermal stress is quantified by a coupled thermoporoelastic-damage numerical simulation. Finally, the potential application considerations of LN 2 fracturing in the field site are discussed. The results demonstrate that LN 2 fracturing can lower fracture initiation and propagation pressure and generate higher conductive fractures with numerous thermally induced cracks in the vicinity of the wellbore. Thermal gradient could generate enormously high-tensile hoop stress and bring about extensive rock damage. Fracture-propagation direction is inclined to be influenced by the thermal stress. Furthermore, phase transition during the fracturing process and low fluid viscosity of LN 2 can also facilitate the fracture propagation and network generation. The key findings obtained in this work are expected to provide a viable alternative for the sustainable development of tight-reservoir resources in an efficient and environmentally acceptable way. Introduction The commercial development of shale gas/oil, tight gas/oil, coalbed methane (CBM), and other low-permeability reservoirs relies on multistage fracturing in horizontal wells. However, massive hydraulic fracturing using water-based fluid has caused economic and environmental burdens.
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There has been recognition in the oil and gas and mineral extractive industries for some time that a set of unified common standard definitions is required that can be applied consistently by international financial, regulatory, and reporting entities. An agreed set of definitions would benefit all stakeholders and provide increased - Consistency - Transparency - Reliability A milestone in standardization was achieved in 1997 when SPE and the World Petroleum Council (WPC) jointly approved the "Petroleum Reserves Definitions." Since then, SPE has been continuously engaged in keeping the definitions updated. The definitions were updated in 2000 and approved by SPE, WPC, and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) as the "Petroleum Resources Classification System and Definitions." These were updated further in 2007 and approved by SPE, WPC, AAPG, and the Society of Petroleum Evaluation Engineers (SPEE). This culminated in the publication of the current "Petroleum Resources Management System," globally known as PRMS. PRMS has been acknowledged as the oil and gas industry standard for reference and has been used by the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) as a guide for their updated rules, "Modernization of Oil and Gas Reporting," published 31 December 2008. SPE recognized that new applications guidelines were required for the PRMS that would supersede the 2001 Guidelines for the Evaluation of Petroleum Reserves and Resources. The original guidelines document was the starting point for this work, and has been updated significantly with addition of the following new chapters: - Estimation of Petroleum Resources Using Deterministic Procedures (Chap.