In 2016, the IMO has decided that the global fuel Sulphur limit of 0.50% on marine fuel oil would enter into force on 1 January 2020 ("IMO 2020 Global Sulphur Cap"). It is one of the biggest challenges for the marine industry that it had experienced in the modern era for its magnitude and urgency. Then in 2018, the IMO adopted an initial strategy of the reduction of greenhouse gas emission from international shipping in 2018 ("IMO GHG Initial Strategy"). It is a landmark decision by the IMO as it envisions a reduction gross greenhouse gas emission from international shipping and phase them out entirely for the first time. The IMO GHG Initial Strategy is not imminent comparing with the IMO 2020 Global Sulphur Cap, but it would be more serious and strenuous for its technical difficulties or practicability. By this presentation, we are going to describe where we are and where we are headed as to this topic by illustrating history and background, on-going discussions and trend on incremental reinforcement of environmental restriction in the maritime sector, possible options and solutions and those innovation gaps and so on.
Up until recently, the monitoring of greenhouse gases with satellites had been limited to a regional or global scale. Because of the low spatial resolution of scientific satellites looking at gases, attributing emissions to specific facilities had so far not been possible. GHGSat changed that narrative with its first satellite GHGSat-D in June 2016, the first and only in the world specifically designed to monitor emissions directly from industrial sites, with a spatial resolution of less than 50m. The system makes it possible for oil and gas companies to keep a frequent eye on their facilities scattered across vast areas at the lowest cost possible since all measurements are performed remotely with no need to access the sites.
We present recent single pass measurements taken with our demonstration satellite in the Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) band, showing evidence of point source emission plumes at facilities such as underground coal mine vents and oil and gas facilities.
The lessons learned from GHGSat-D in the last three years making over 4,000 measurements at hundreds of facilities around the world have been incorporated into our second satellite scheduled for launch in August 2019. As a result, GHGSat-C1 is expected to improve on the performance of its predecessor by an order of magnitude. We will present some of the first results from this second satellite.
Finally, we introduce some of the innovative products and applications we are developing using analytics, artificial intelligence and machine learning to better serve our customers with actionable insight and optimize the operation of our system. The ability of the technology to work together with other sources of data (such as other satellites, drones or ground measurements) in an effective tiered monitoring system will also be demonstrated.
And apart from just visualizing gas, new age thermal cameras can provide lot of value through operational efficiency and safety in a variety of applications such as Furnace applications, Fire prevention, Fire fighting, electrical/ mechanical/refractor, continuous monitoring, tank inspection and flare stack monitoring along with IR window details. By T. P. Singh, Director (Ins) - Emerging Countries, FLIR Systems, Inc. Full paper Details The modern oil and gas industry's practices - from extraction to refining - are depended on to be socially and environmentally responsible in terms of ecological mindfulness, regulatory compliance, and the safety of both workers and the communities surrounding operations. Thermal imaging, also called infrared (IR) thermography, provides a vehicle toward ensuring all these aims are met, while providing a tangible and justifiable return on investment (ROI). While optical gas imaging (OGI) plays the most recognized role in the oil and gas industry, thermal cameras can serve a variety of non-gas imaging applications in the industry as well. This article discusses basic concepts of infrared technology and provides specific applications info that details the advantages of using thermal imaging over alternative technologies or methods. Lets discuss basics first and then we move to different applications.
Siddique, Abdul Hasib (Khalifa University of Science and Technology) | Rodrigues, Clarence (Khalifa University of Science and Technology) | Simmons, Rodney (Khalifa University of Science and Technology)
Excessive heat in an oil/natural gas (ONG) drilling environment can have negative effects on workers, production levels and work efficiency. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) borders the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf, and sits between Oman and Saudi Arabia. The summer temperature in the UAE can go as high as 51°C, which is extremely high for continuous outside work, especially considering that a 12-hour work shift is normal on the rigs. Due to global warming, average ambient temperatures in the summer are now generally higher than what have been experienced in the past. Although the differences are of only a few degrees, these small differences can make a big change in the work environment. Hence, companies have been trying to come up with engineering and administrative controls to reduce the effect of summer heat in this region. Photovoltaic (PV) array shades have been proposed in this paper to improve conditions for the worker. The Thermal Work Limit (TWL) has been evaluated in this study to understand the ability of PV shades in reducing thermal load on the body. TWLs have also been calculated without the shade and then compared against semi-indoor condition available on the rig. A model of PV shades has been designed to reduce the effect of heat stress keeping in mind the complexity of a rig move and other rig activities. Benefits of rooftop PV systems for area cooling are validated through previous studies and modeling. Heat flux modeling shows that solar panels can lower a roof's underside temperature by ~3°C. The PV array can also help in reducing heat loss during the cold winter nights. This paper also discusses the how this reduction of daily variability in surface temperatures under the PV shade helps to reduce worker's thermal stress.
Over 70% of South Australia's demand today is supplied from renewable energy sources and is forecast to reach 100% by 2025, 7 years ahead of schedule. Large industries such as oil and gas have also transformed their vision to ensure utilization of renewable energy sources to provide a cost effective, clean and reliable day to day operations. This paper will therefore present a case study where renewable energy became the enabler for clean oil extraction and economic growth more broadly.
Renewable energy technologies have been at the forefront amongst South Australia's commercial and residential consumers. Large industries such as oil and gas have committed to green, clean methodologies to support their operations when extracting crude oil from wells. The use of solar and battery storage has presented an obvious solution given the proof and reliability of the technology to enable a reduction in carbon emissions and cost while extracting resources from deep wells. A pilot renewable energy off-grid project was successfully completed in South Australia and has proven successful which has now resulted in significant funding being allocated to convert an additional 56 sites.
The successful trial conducted in the State of South Australia allowed for oil pumps to be powered 100% using renewable energy which resulted in a reduction of CO2 emissions and operational costs incurred from the supply and transfer of fuel to the pumps. It is estimated that the adoption of renewable energy for oil extraction will result in an approximate saving of 140 barrels of oil per day which is currently used to fuel pumps and generators at these remote sites. Assuming an average price market of $50 (US) per barrel, this equates to $2.25m (US) per day with consideration to approximately 10% unavailability due to maintenance. The forecast saving of $2.25m (US) is intentionally calculated using market value to reinforce the potential additional revenue to be had from savings on oil consumption during the crude oil extraction process.
In addition to the above forecast savings, a further $70,000 (US) per annum could be saved purely from the use of diesel generators currently being used to supply pumps, this assumes the cost per generator is $190 (US) per day for operations excluding maintenance costs and associated overheads.
With the above in mind and the successful trials under way in Australia, there are a further 208 pumps which are currently in scope across the continent to be converted in an effort to reduce production costs, emissions and ensure a low maintenance operational strategy is in place as well as a low carbon strategy. (Australian Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA), 2019).
The financial savings above are forecast to increase with decreased requirements for high cost operational maintenance when compared to conventional sources being used to date in the oil industry.
When considering the financial viability of renewable energy solutions, in addition to the environmental and social benefits, it has been determined that for a single oil pump, the forecast payback period on investments made does not exceed 4 years.
Considering solar systems have a lifespan of 25 years, this means that the remaining operating of solar panels, that is in excess of 20 years will be solely revenue generating years. Taking also into account the 25 years of running for both systems, conventional vs. renewable energy, the forecast levelized cost of energy (LCOE) is $1.3 (US)/kWh vs. 14c (US)/kWh respectively.
This means over a 25-year period, with renewable energy it is forecast that the cost to maintain supply to oil pumps would be 10% of what it could be if conventional sources were used, notwithstanding the lack of electrical redundancy on site, associated maintenance costs and also the forecast reduction of carbon emissions per site.
By applying some of the analyses and key findings, it is necessary to see the oil and gas industries adopt renewable energy strategies to ensure low cost and reliable technologies for oil and gas productions and enable new opportunities for economic growth while ensuring continued commitment to address environmental and social challenges of tomorrow.
For the second YEPP event in 2005, Wim Turkenburg, Professor at the Copernicus Inst. of Sustainable Development and Innovation Science, Technology, and Society Div. of Utrecht U., gave a comprehensive lecture on CO2 emission reduction. Thirty-six young (and some more experienced) professionals of the E&P industry in The Hague and surrounding area attended. In 2001, fossil fuels made up almost 80% of our world's energy consumption, and CO2 emissions are related mainly to the consumption of fossil fuels. Because western countries cause 58.6% of global CO2 emissions and the emerging regions in Asia Pacific are rapidly gaining ground, those consumers should take the lead in reducing emissions and their adverse effect on global climate change, he said. Energy conservation and the use of renewables would lead to the largest drop in emissions, but CO2 recovery and storage remains a good number three on the list of methods that should be tried, he said.
Stanford University's Natural Gas Initiative and the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) are calling engineers and technology developers to submit proposals for the mobile methane leak monitoring technology competition. The oil and gas industry accounts for about one-third of all methane emissions in the US, but with natural gas prices at record lows--about $3 per million cubic feet--the economic incentive to employ expensive leak solutions is reduced. Therefore, in the co-sponsored Mobile Monitoring Challenge, Stanford University and EDF are calling for promising solutions for methane leak detection that are rapid, low-cost, and mobile. This challenge will be an independent and peer-reviewed effort to test methane detection and quantification technologies. Selected teams will participate in single-partial blind study of controlled methane releases over a 3-week period in early 2018.
Offshore oil and gas installations are (by their nature) located in remote locations that are both difficult and costly to access. While such challenges exist, the operate & maintain requirements associated with such assets are consistent and must be addressed, requiring operators to identify the most efficient form of service to reduce staffing levels, risk and cost.
Offshore hydrocarbon production assets commonly incorporate equipment and processes that can lead to significant (fugitive) gas emissions. The consequences are both economic and social (environmental) in nature, requiring operators to perform emissions surveys with the objective of leak identification and remediation within the shortest possible timeframe. The frequency of this activity is naturally limited and must be balanced with the staffing and operating needs of the broader facility, which in-turn can lead to sub-optimal leak detection to fix timing and reliability.
Addressing the three key challenges of access productivity, detection reliability and results quantification, Worley has developed a remote sensing platform that incorporates the use of productive remote access equipment such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and in-situ monitoring, with machine based emissions detection and algorithmic quantification to provide a solution that allows the operator to increase survey frequency, obtain more reliable results at lower cost, and perform the work in a manner consistent with safe and low-risk operations.
In both testing and field deployments, the results have provided for significant reductions in both false positive and negatives and have produced datasets that allow for accurate indications of greenhouse gas reduction via comparison of volumetric emissions before and after leak repair activity has taken place.
The technology is largely mathematical, utilizing coded routines for machine learning to perform gas detection under (initially) supervised modeling conditions, and algorithmic gas dispersion models for further emission quantification. The performance of the survey is typically carried out through the integration of existing, proven manufactured sensing equipment across several types of UAV or in-situ monitors which collect field data for transmission to a cloud-based portal which further processes the results.
The approach has been shown effective in accessing hard or costly to reach areas, improving survey productivities, while the data processing and quantification allows the operator to benefit from improved measurability and prioritize leak repair accordingly.
Innovation is critical to the future success of the oil and gas industry (
As a way of addressing this, the TechX programme at the Oil & Gas Technology Centre has launched TechX Ventures in July 2018 – a partnership with Deep Science Ventures (DSV) – that combines deep science with engineering to create the next generation of start-up companies with technologies that will position the oil and gas industry for a sustainable future in a low carbon economy.
The start of the programme was a workshop held with industry, academia and the scientific community, to identify areas where new thinking and technology could open up significant opportunities. Three challenge themes were developed, each of which became an opportunity areas for DSV to address. These are:
As part of the TechX Ventures programme, DSV recruited thirty scientists and engineering experts from across the world to tackle the opportunity areas and at the end of the nine-month programme a total of six new start-up companies with new intellectual property were created and invested in by DSV. Of these six, two were selected to join the coveted TechX Pioneer accelerator programme run by OGTC in Aberdeen. These companies are called Eltera and Optic Earth.
As a result of the 2016 Paris agreement, the challenge of climate change and the imperative of moving to a low carbon economy has intensified. This challenge has been added to the traditional objectives of affordable and secure energy sources. These three criteria are the basis for the Energy Transition. Increasingly, investors, consumers and policy makers are looking to energy businesses to reflect all these criteria as the basis of their company culture and objectives.
This paper looks to explore opportunities for the UK oil and gas industry to further align itself with the drivers set out above and continue to promote investment into a sector that is key to delivering the Energy Transition:
Improved communication of carbon reduction and mitigation efforts at both a national and global level Increased collaborative efforts aimed at reducing emissions resulting from exploration and production offshore The potential for UKCS oil & gas companies’ involvement in carbon mitigation and storage
Improved communication of carbon reduction and mitigation efforts at both a national and global level
Increased collaborative efforts aimed at reducing emissions resulting from exploration and production offshore
The potential for UKCS oil & gas companies’ involvement in carbon mitigation and storage
Over recent years, the offshore UKCS oil and gas sector has focused on improving cost efficiency in its offshore operations. This implies a commitment to continuously improve environmental performance despite the challenges of doing so in a maturing oil and gas basin, where maximising economic recovery from fields requires greater effort. Notwithstanding these challenges, the overall long-term trends in environmental performance are improving as a result of efforts by the industry.
Moving forwards, the benefits of effective emissions management will continue to intensify, beyond the regulatory requirements of environmental protection, as a result of two key drivers:
To maintain investor and public confidence – reducing both the carbon footprint of operations and carbon intensity of products used by consumers, will help position companies for a lower carbon economy. The business case - EU ETS Phase IV is modelled to cost the sector £2.2 billion from 2021 to 2030 as the cost of allowances is projected to increase combined with the reduction in free allowances. Therefore, reducing emissions at installations will continue to be imperative for improved environment performance as well as the continued economic viability of the installation.
To maintain investor and public confidence – reducing both the carbon footprint of operations and carbon intensity of products used by consumers, will help position companies for a lower carbon economy.
The business case - EU ETS Phase IV is modelled to cost the sector £2.2 billion from 2021 to 2030 as the cost of allowances is projected to increase combined with the reduction in free allowances. Therefore, reducing emissions at installations will continue to be imperative for improved environment performance as well as the continued economic viability of the installation.
The sector must therefore continue to adapt to these ongoing fundamental changes that are taking place in energy supply more widely. As with any industry, businesses need to respond to shifting economic and societal demands and the consequent changes in energy needs. Hence, the effective management of emissions must proliferate through both operations (exploration, production and transportation of hydrocarbons), and use of the products delivered.