The paper considers the technologies of the perspective marine industrial complex of aquaculture with energy supply from renewable sources. Technological schemes of structures and devices of the onshore plant for the cultivation of hydrobionts, a marine underwater farm and a supply vessel for working with marine plantations are presented. A universal autonomous mobile wave device is presented as a variant of using the energy of waves of the open ocean.
Currently, self-contained, civilian, volatile devices for navigational equipment of the seas, research submarine and surface autonomous devices, mainly receive power from batteries. The number of these facilities is more than one million and the priority task is to prevent adverse ecological consequences of energy supply for the world ocean, regardless of costs. For these purposes, separate developments are used for solar energy, wind energy, waves, currents, temperature differences and salinity of sea water. The optimal result will be the transfer of production and processing ships to hydrogen technologies. A more complex factor threatening the Earth's ecology is due to the rapid growth of industrial coastal marine aquaculture enterprises.
PERSPECTIVE COMPLEX OF MARICULTURE
A comprehensive program for the development of marine aquaculture technologies is required, taking into account the need for clean energy and the future creation of marine underwater plantations, while preserving the coastal environment and local aquatic organisms.Modular plant for breeding hydrobionts
The future network complex developed by Loshchenkov, Knyazhev (2014) for the coasts of the Far East of Russia can serve as a contribution to the development of the Program. The complex contains a coastal enterprise for the cultivation of hydrobionts, bottom plantations in the natural environment and underwater plantations in the water column in the shelf zone.
Coastal breeding plant, due to placement in remote, inaccessible ecologically clean areas of the coast, with valuable local species, is semi-automatic, in a modular design. The plant is located, after studying local geological, meteorological, hydrological and hydrobiological parameters in the places of maximum energy flows, Pool modules and energy modules are manufactured depending on the type of hydrobiont and local natural renewable energy sources. The scheme of the plant for the cultivation of hydrobionts on island of Popov of the Peter the Great Gulf developed for the mariculture enterprise is shown in Fig. 1.
The renewable energy sector is showing strong global growth, especially wind and solar power, but oil shows no sign of losing market share in the global energy mix, particularly after the steep drop in oil prices over the past 2 years. Investment in renewable energy reached an all-time high in 2015, with developing countries spending more than developed countries for the first time. Spending on renewable energy hit USD 286 billion last year, 3% higher than its previous record spend in 2011, according to data from the United Nations Environment Program and the Frankfurt School of Finance & Management. That is in sharp contrast with the steep cuts in capital spending in oil and gas projects since the drop in hydrocarbon prices began, although spending in renewables overall pales in comparison with oil and gas capital expenditure (capex). More than USD 150 billion was cut from oil and gas capex in 2015, with additional cuts evident this year.
The current electricity peak demand in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is about 55 Gigawatt (GW) out of which 72% is used for Heat Ventilation and Air conditioning system (HVAC). The peak demand is projected to reach 120 GW by the year 2032. The Saudi Government initiated a massive program to improve HVAC energy consumption efficiency in 2007. Furthermore, the new initiative under King Salman for renewable energy has been adopted in this study as part of the vision 2030 in which more details are still yet to be announced. For this purpose, the following suggested model were tested on each house to facilitate a multiple sizable savonius vertical wind turbines with an integrated PV (BIPV) system, which will be designed to fully cover the annual household energy needs. The turbines can be installed in and around any public area such as parks, roads, public facilities, or business offices. Aeroleaf Wind Turbines were designed to produce power up to 300 watts for each turbine. Low wind speed start-up, working with any wind direction, and the less noise were some advantage of VAWT- Savonius model. The results showed that the power output, with speed of minimum speed of 12-15 m/s generate 40-80 watts with an efficiency of 31~35%. In addition to the BIPV system, the model incorporated the use of PCM materials and solar hybrid air conditioning. The results gained from previous analysis showed a 20% reduction of cooling load when utilizing PCMs materials in comparison to standard construction materials. Moreover, the use of solar hybrid conditioning results showed that EER 5.41% and 12.24 % COP, while the consumption of power reach to 5.35%.
A new remote onshore well site development requires electrical energy to power instrumentation, cathodic protection and communications equipment. Although this equipment is generally not power intensive, it is still a common practice to deploy transmission lines to connect the well site to the electrical grid, no matter how far away it can be. This procedure is usually expensive and time consuming.
In this study, we propose a distributed energy generation scheme using a solar photovoltaic (PV) microgrid which can be rapidly deployed and can power one or several well sites. For this purpose, we utilized the microgrid modeling software HOMER (Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources), which allowed us to develop a techno-economical evaluation as well as an environmental impact study of the initiative. Furthermore, we present the conceptual design of the system, which can be easily scaled to the power requirements of any number of well sites.
Using this approach, we show the feasibility of a remote area renewable energy microgrid along with its levelized cost of energy (LCOE). In addition, we show that this method can significantly reduce the reliance on conventional sources of energy, while maintaining the reliability of the system.
In summary, this proposal depicts how onshore surface equipment power requirements can be reliably met by using distributed energy generation. The use of renewable energies provides an alternative path which enables energy efficiency optimization while providing a reduction in CO2 emissions through a clean environmental solution.
Providing power to upstream instrumentation can prove to be challenging depending on the load requirements, geographical location and environmental conditions of a given scenario. In remote areas, where no power grid is available, the following questions arise: Can renewable energies provide reliable off-grid, continuous power supply to meet load requirements at a competitive cost? Can emissions be reduced by displacing hydrocarbon consumption required to provide power via conventional means?
As the concept of sustainable development gains acceptance, the petroleum industry is increasingly challenged to find its place in this movement. Environmental and social demands are becoming more stringent, and new competition is presenting itself DuPont CEO Jack Krol recently pointed out, "environmental conservation is the major business opportunity of the next century."
One of the easiest ways to participate in sustainable development is by investing in it. Investments can take place globally, in industries that range from new product development to fish farming. For example, the replacement of petrochemicals by plant-based alternatives presents a niche that could benefit from the experience of the petroleum industry. The same is true for the solar industry. What the petroleum industry has to gain from this activity is exposure to markets that will be identified as the drivers of sustainable development. This is not the traditional "checkbook" approach to bankrolling a local social services infrastructure or community program. Rather, these are integrated mechanisms which deploy modest capital to generate financial, environmental and social returns for the investor and investee. Some of the negative impacts of the petroleum industry, such as natural resource extractions, community dislocation, habitat disruption, and accidental environmental emergencies can also be counter-balanced with quantifiable benefits achieved through sustainable development instruments.
Environmental Enterprises Assistance Fund has developed proven mechanisms to support the growth of indigenous private sector enterprises by creating venture capital funds. These funds invest only in businesses that meet strict environmental and economic goals -- such as selective forestry and organic agriculture -- and are leveraged by the capital of other investors, such as the World Bank. These funds allow investors to reposition themselves in anticipation of market changes that call for greater environmental and social sensitivity.