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From a conceptual point of view, progressive vortex pumps are rotodynamic devices that elevate fluid mixtures by converting kinetic energy to potential energy, which is a result of an inducing vortex within each pumping stage. The solution proposed in this paper was inspired by pumps used in the automotive industry (Lochman and Bryce 1980; Yu 1995) and adapted for pumping multiphase mixtures from oil-producing reservoirs. There is a brief description about some specificities of the progressive vortex pump (including features of the production scenario, surface and subsurface installations, and the results observed during the first 4 months of operation), which was installed in an unprecedented way in an oil production well. This paper also addresses some relative advantages of PVP over other artificial lift pumping methods, such as electric submersible pumping (ESP). However, overall efficiency needs to be improved when compared to competing methods such as ESP.
With all the emphasis placed on artificial-lift run-life improvement, you might wonder if there are any tricks left in that bag. I contend there is one really big secret left—and it is hiding in plain sight. That trick is to use international standards as the foundation of your reliability program.
A Chinese proverb says, “The journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step.” There are many steps in the long journey toward maximizing run life, including proper installation, operation, training, surveillance, audits, service-quality reviews, teardowns, and root-cause analysis. But, the first step should be to identify the requirements for your artificial-lift system and to communicate those requirements effectively to the vendor. In many cases, this is the most challenging step, largely because operators and suppliers often speak different languages.
Fortunately, international standards are there for us to bridge that language gap. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) defines a standard as “a document that provides requirements, specifications, guidelines, or characteristics that can be used consistently to ensure that materials, products, processes, and services are fit for their purpose.” Today, the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the ISO provide such standards for electrical submersible pumps, progressing-cavity pumps, sucker-rod pumps, gas lift, and plunger lift, and API complements their standards with recommended practices that provide guidance from industry experts in the use of such technologies.
A surprisingly small number of operators purchase monogrammed equipment or even reference the standards in their purchasing documents or contracts. This is unfortunate because standards can make everyone’s lives much easier, allowing operators and suppliers to speak the same language by providing consistent nomenclature, definitions, and performance ratings for equipment. Operators have greater peace of mind knowing their equipment is supported by sound engineering practices and will perform as promised. When standards are referenced in requests for proposal, vendors are able to provide responses that are more appropriate for the application, resulting in a greater chance of success in the field. Operators can also make an apples-to-apples comparison when evaluating the proposals they receive. Standards help level the playing field, enabling suppliers to segment the market more effectively. And they enable manufacturers to implement consistent, effective quality-assurance processes while avoiding the time and expense of custom solutions.
So, who writes all of these standards, anyway? The short answer is that we all do. API and ISO committees are generally composed of subject-matter experts rep-resenting an equal number of operators and vendors, often from different parts of the world. You can join one of these committees to help improve a particular standard. The key to making standards work for all of us is to use them. The more we use standards in our business, the better they will become over time.
Recommended additional reading at OnePetro: www.onepetro.org.
SPE 190920 Visualizing Rod Design and Analysis Through the Wave Equation by Walter Phillips, 3DWellbore.com
SPE 190950 Effect of Gas Lift Design in Unconventional Wells—A Delaware Basin Operator’s Perspective by Subash K. Kannan, Anadarko, et al.
SPE 192511 ESP Run-Life Improvement Through Auditing of ESP Workshops by Tamer Edries, Khalda Petroleum, et al.
With all the emphasis placed on artificial-lift run-life improvement, you might wonder if there are any tricks left in that bag. I contend there is one really big secret left—and it is hiding in plain sight. That trick is to use international standards as the foundation of your reliability program. A Chinese proverb says, “The journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step.” There are many steps in the long journey toward maximizing run life, including proper installation, operation, training, surveillance, audits, service-quality reviews, teardowns, and root-cause analysis.
When there is sufficient pressure in the reservoir, the oil come naturally surface. In most cases, artificial lift is needed. The artificial lift supports pressure or extra energy to increase the flow of well fluids to the surface or facility. Examples of artificial lift include rod pumps, gas lift, progressing cavity pump and electrical submersible pumping systems. Artificial lift is needed in wells when there is insufficient pressure in the reservoir to lift the liquid to the surface or facility, however is often used in naturally flowing wells, to raise the flow rate.
The electrical submersible pumping systems deliver an effective and economical means of lifting large volumes of fluids from great depths under a variety of well conditions. Electrical submersible pump has major components such as motor, seal / protector section, intake, pump, downhole monitoring tool electric power cable, surface motor controllers and transformers. Production by electrical submerge pump systems has common used in oil industry and has many advantages like wide flow range, reliability, efficiency, production optimization and etc. In order to sustainable oil production, their service life are so crucial. The purpose of this paper is to outline statistically effects of motor service life to motor loading and motor heating due to tubing failures with field data.
Excessive motor heat affects the motor performance and in the long term its service life. Motor loading causes motor heat so motor loading rate is decisive parameter for motor service life. In this paper, motor loading and its service life were studied according to simple regression analyze in two ways, firstly direct relation and secondly correlated of fluid parameters, such as temperature and water cut. Finally, relation and results between tubing failure and motor service life are investigated.
The Adiyaman fields are located in the southeast of Turkey. The first oil field was discovered in Adiyaman in 1971. Since 1971, more than 45 fields were discovered and 210 MMBOPD was produced. Recoverable oil quantity is 224 MM barrel oil based on reservoir calculations. Recently, even the fact that daily production is more than 190 Mbbl and net crude oil production is more than 9,700 bbl. It shows that 95 per cent of fluid is disposal water. In the Adıyaman district, 279 wells in 40 fields; 99 sucker rod pump wells produce 8,859 bbl/day water and oil (2,145 bbl/day); 95 progressing cavity pump wells produce 47,623 bbl/day water and oil (4,305 bbl/day) and 82 electrical submersible pump wells produce 133,958 bbl/day water and oil (3,940 bbl/day) and 3 artesian wells.
In last 30 years, motor failure rate is 24 per cent in overall 800 electrical submersible pump failures. Motor loading and service life has a meaningful linear relation according to simple regression analysis. Firstly, coefficient of determination, R2, is 0.4013 for motor loading and service life as shown in Graph 1. Secondly, R2 is 0.5336 for motor loading which is correlated of fluid parameters, and service life as shown in Graph 2. According to field data, so as to reach longest service life, motor loading rate should be designed between 75-80 per cent for Adiyaman Fields. While loading of motor is increasing, slip/speed of motor is slightly decreasing. By selecting higher motor power rate, both 1 per cent more production and longer service life could be provided. 13 per cent of motor failures were caused by tubing failure. For this reason to protect motor, downhole monitoring tool should be used. 22 per cent motor failure has tubing failure in previous pull out of hole. For these motors, last mean time between failures is decreasing exponentially. Otherwise, next design, those motors should be rerun in hole with 60-70 per cent motor loading.
Eighty per cent of motor electrical failures are a result of stator winding burnout. (Franklin Aid). Motor rate and type selection is so significant point to support long service life and continuous production. It is important to note that motor temperature rise is a function of horsepower load. According to field data, 60-70 per cent motor loading is best value for Adiyaman Fields, 250 F reservoir temperatures, and 90 per cent water cut to reach longest service life.
Al-Baomar, Istejdad (Petroleum Development Oman) | Andrade, Antonio (Petroleum Development Oman) | Al-Sawafi, Mohammed (Petroleum Development Oman) | Velazco Quesada, Conny (Petroleum Development Oman) | Al-Bimani, Atika (Petroleum Development Oman) | Al-Balushi, Issa (Petroleum Development Oman) | Moreno Gomez, Carlos (Petroleum Development Oman) | Al-Busaidi, Salim (Petroleum Development Oman) | Murad, Mohammed (Petroleum Development Oman) | Yahyai, Ahmed (Petroleum Development Oman) | Mahrooqi, Majid (Petroleum Development Oman) | Riyami, Abdullah (Petroleum Development Oman) | Mujaini, Rahima (Petroleum Development Oman) | Kumar, Nitish (Weatherford) | Gala, Rahul (Weatherford) | Marin, Eduardo (Weatherford)
The objective is to increase production and run life of 1200 Progressive Cavity Pumps (PCP) wells for Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) which contributes 19% of its total production. This project also intends to improve efficiency in the management of continuously growing (100+ annually) PCP population utilizing improved surveillance and optimization techniques through automated physics-based models linked with real time data and advanced data analysis.
The primary challenge in accomplishing automated well modeling was data collection from right corporate databases with good quality. Proper workflows were designed for vendors to enter identified 42 critical data from installation/commissioning reports. Catalogs and engineering validations were prepared to ensure data consistency and highlight human errors during data-entry.
The Well Management system (WMS) was integrated with corporate databases to read required data and perform additional data quality checks/validation while building the PCP model. Furthermore, WMS was enabled to utilize measured gross, Torque, RPM and Intake pressure or fluid level to tune model automatically in real time to reflect actual well conditions.
A pilot was conducted on 14 PCP wells to establish a system that automatically generates and updates well models to provide complete accessibility of available invested resources to production engineers.8% net oil gain was identified from 50% of these wells based on optimization sensitivities.
Full Time Engineer's actual work hours reduced from 8 hours to 15 minutes for PCP optimization, hence enabled quick decisions making process. Inferred production calculation enabled engineers to monitor well performance and estimate daily production allocation between distant well tests.Simultaneously, PDO corporate database data quality issues were identified for improvements, with subsequent positive feedbacks from the automated well modeling process.
This project achieved complete standardization of PCP activities from design to commission using well-defined standard operating process and provided one version of truth to PDO engineers.Integrating physics based well model, well test information and real time data from sensors into a single platform has been able to identify hidden opportunities for production gain, perform proactive well diagnostics and increase engineers’ productive time.
Furthermore, automated well modeling has delivered benefits across multiple streams by building a platform for future data analytics projects with improved overall data quality of PDO corporate databases. Transitioning from need based well modeling using stand-alone applications and utilizing heterogeneous data from different sources to an integrated and automated Well management System has created an environment for the company to achieve their goals of accelerated net oil gain, improved run life and faster decision-making process.
Wang, Shuolong (College of Petroleum Engineering, China University of Petroleum-Beijing) | Wu, Xiaodong (College of Petroleum Engineering, China University of Petroleum-Beijing) | Han, Guoqing (College of Petroleum Engineering, China University of Petroleum-Beijing) | Zhang, XiShun (Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, China National Petroleum Corporation) | Ren, Zebin (College of Petroleum Engineering, China University of Petroleum-Beijing) | Zhu, Zhiyong (College of Petroleum Engineering, China University of Petroleum-Beijing) | Tang, Jingfei (Schlumberger) | Zhong, Ziyao (College of Petroleum Engineering, China University of Petroleum-Beijing)
Pump efficiency is an important indicator to reflect the utilization ratio and management level of pumping outfit. A reasonable theoretical model of pump efficiency is of great significance to improve lifting efficiency and optimize structure parameters of sliding vane pump. On the basis of the mechanical structure and working principle of SVP, the analytic model of volumetric efficiency is established from the perspective of leakage and degree of fullness respectively. The analytic model of mechanical efficiency for SVP is established considering viscous friction and contact friction. Based on the theoretical model, the influence of structural parameters (inlet/outlet opening angle,rotor-groove radius, vane number) of SVP on pump efficiency was analyzed. The research shows that the pump efficiency increases with the increase of opening angle, and with the increase of displacement, the difference of pump efficiency decreases.Meanwhile, the pump efficiency will increase with the rotor-groove radius and vane number decrease, so on the premise of meeting the requirements of pump weight and sand control, the rotor-groove radius and vane number should be as smaller as possible.
The PDF file of this paper is in Russian.
In 2018, the Mekhfond corporate information system was put into commercial operation in 17 companies of the Rosneft Oil Company group. The goal of the project of the Mekhfond information system is to increase the efficiency of management of the mechanized stock due to standardization, automation and increase in the efficiency of monitoring processes, analysis and adoption of technological solutions on the operation of a mechanized well stock. IS includes tools for automation of the calculation and selection of equipment for the extraction of hydrocarbons (electrical submersible pump unit, sucker-rod pumping units, sucker-rod screw pumps, electric progressive cavity pumps), taking into account energy consumption parameters and complicating factors. IS provides the specialists of the technological service of oil and gas companies, R&D institutes, the Central Office of Rosneft Oil Company with the possibility to operate on a single information field when solving business tasks related to the management of equipment operation, management of the well stock and technical modes. The article outlines the composition of the Mekhfond information system, describes the purpose of such subsystems as Management of the mechanized stock, Equipment design and the modules included in these subsystems. Following the results of the implementation of the basic functionality, the working time of workflow personnel in the in Rosneft Oil Company is optimized and the quality of monitoring of the mechanized stock operation is improved due to the automation of the analysis, calculations of submersible equipment, determination of complicating factors and identification of wells with deviations from the technological modes of operation. As part of the development of the Mekhfond IS, over 35 functional changes and additions to the information system are planned to be implemented within next 5 years, including those aimed at developing artificial intelligence of decision-making when working with the mechanized stock.
В 2018 г. в 17 дочерних обществах ПАО «НК «Роснефть» в промышленную эксплуатацию введена корпоративная информационная система (ИС) «Мехфонд». Целью проекта ИС «Мехфонд» является повышение эффективности управления механизированным фондом за счет стандартизации, автоматизации и повышения эффективности процессов мониторинга, анализа и принятия технологических решений по эксплуатации механизированного фонда скважин. ИС обеспечивает возможность работы специалистов технологической службы нефтегазодобывающих обществ, научно-исследовательских институтов, центрального аппарата ПАО «НК «Роснефть» в едином информационном поле при решении бизнес - задач, относящихся к управлению эксплуатацией оборудования, управлению фондом скважин и технологическими режимами. В ИС реализована автоматизация расчета и подбора оборудования для процессов добычи углеводородного сырья (установок электроцентробежных (УЭЦН), скважинных штанговых (УСШН), штанговых винтовых (УШВН) и электровинтовых (УЭВН) насосов) с учетом параметров энергопотребления и осложняющих факторов. В статье представлен состав ИС «Мехфонд», дано описание назначения подсистем «Управление механизированным фондом», «Дизайн оборудования» и входящих в них модулей. По итогам внедрения базового функционала обеспечена оптимизация рабочего времени технологического персонала в дочерних обществах ПАО «НК «Роснефть» и повышение качества мониторинга работы механизированного фонда за счет автоматизации анализа, расчетов скважинного оборудования, определения осложняющих факторов и выявления скважин с отклонениями от технологических режимов работы. В рамках развития ИС «Мехфонд» на ближайшие 5 лет запланировано к реализации более 35 функциональных изменений и дополнений, в том числе направленных на развитие искусственного интеллекта.
The development of a new low-carbon operation mode of artificial lift in high-water-cut oilfields, is significant for reducing energy consumption, improving operation efficiency and lowering production costs of oilfields. The annual electric consumption of the oilfield is increasing year by year. In 2016, the total electric consumption exceeded 35 billion kWh, of which the mechanical production system accounts for 57%.
The rodless artificial lift eliminates the use of the sucker rod, and reduces the installed motor power over 50%. The electric consumption is greatly decreased, while tremendous gain is seen in the system efficiency. Moreover, the application performance is especially good for low-production wells. Under such circumstances, the operation cost of the oilfield declines. The current rodless artificial lift is basically based on two types of pumps, namely submersible plunger pump and submersible direct-drive screw pump.
The submersible plunger pump lifts liquid via vertical reciprocation of the moving body driven by the motor, with daily electric consumption of an individual well decreasing by 46%, from 133.4 kWh to 72.5 kWh. The reduced annual electric cost per well is RMB 14,000, and the annual single-well carbon emission falls by 17.5 tons. As for the submersible direct-drive screw pump, the rotation of the pump is directly motivated by the downhole submersible motor, through which the downhole liquid is elevated to the surface. The daily electric consumption of an individual well decreases by 38.4%, from 224kWh to 138kWh, contributing to the annual electric cost reduction per well of RMB 13,600 and annual carbon emission decline per well of 17.1 tons.
The application of the two types of rodless artificial lift has taken initial shape. The submersible plunger pump has been applied to over 200 wells, and the submersible direct-drive screw pump, over 60 wells. The new low-carbon operation mode of artificial lift is critical for the energy saving, efficiency improvement and consequent cost reduction of oilfields, particularly in cases of the industry downturn triggered by low oil prices.
Operators generally want to reduce well downtime and repair/replacement costs by improving the reliability of their Artificial lift (AL) systems. In order to understand if actions taken to improve reliability are effective, one must track the AL system run-life. This paper discusses run-life measures commonly used in the AL industry and provides recommendations for when each run-life measure should be used. Synthetic data, generated using random runtime and failure data from known statistical distributions, is used to illustrate the effect of various factors, such as selecting equipment with higher inherent reliability, on the resulting measured run-life. This paper also presents several pitfalls that should be avoided when selecting run-life measures for comparing equipment or implementing operator-vendor alliance contracts.
The Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) bestowed technical awards on members whose outstanding contributions to SPE and the petroleum industry merited special distinction. Recipients of the 2013 SPE international awards were recognized at the SPE Annual Reception and Banquet held Tuesday, 1 October at the 2013 Annual Technical Conference & Exhibition in New Orleans, Louisiana. Alhanati, managing director at C-FER Technologies, in Edmonton, Canada, began his career in 1983 as a petroleum engineer at Petrobras. The author or coauthor of 16 SPE papers and coauthor of a chapter in the SPE Handbook on PCP (progressing cavity pump) Systems, he also served as an SPE DL during 2008–09. He served as chair of the SPE Brazil Section during 1993–94, served on various SPE committees and subcommittees, and taught several courses throughout the world on PCP and ESP (electric submersible pump) systems.