Kychkin, A. V. (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm) | Volodin, V. D. (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm) | Sharonov, A. A. (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm) | Belonogov, A. V. (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm) | Krivoshchekov, S. N. (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm) | Turbakov, M. S. (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm) | Shcherbakov, A. A. (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm)
The pdf file of this paper is in Russian.
The efficiency of the hydrocarbon deposits development is determined by recovery factor of oil or gas and the amount of material costs for the development of mineral resources and their exploitation - profitability of the project. Today, science and technology allows to develop economically feasible deposits with hard to recover reserves by applying methods of stimulation to the well, one of the most popular is the construction of wells with horizontal profiles. Drilling of directional and horizontal wells require the use of special drilling equipment - rotary-steerable systems (RSS) to control the trajectory of the wellbore in real time. Today the market offers a large number of equipment for directional drilling the main is a foreign proceeding. Work with such systems need to attract highly qualified personnel, and often foreign experts. In this regard, the development of a remote monitoring and control system of the trajectory of the wellbore hardware and software while drilling wells using RSS is an actual scientific and practical task. The paper presents the set-theoretic model of the synthesis of the structure of remote monitoring and control system of the trajectory of the wellbore hardware and software while drilling wells using the rotary steerable systems. Approach to systematize the creation of software and hardware systems structure for monitoring and control provides qualitative information and algorithmic environment that meets all the requirements of modern standards. On the basis of the proposed model the structure of the complex is designed, which includes a set of submersible units, executive and implementing measurement and control system, communication system, scheduling system. The structure of hardware and software has a modular principle of organization, it involves building up features, including the introduction of additional telemetry parameters, has the mainstream and alternative information channels, advanced power system components, including redundant power supplies.
Эффективность разработки месторождений углеводородов определяется коэффициентом извлечения нефти или газа и количеством материальных затрат на освоение недр и их эксплуатацию – рентабельностью проекта. В настоящее время развитие науки и техники позволяет экономически обоснованно разрабатывать залежи с трудноизвлекаемыми запасами за счет применения методов интенсификации притока к скважине, одним из самых распространенных является строительство скважин с горизонтальными профилями. Проводка наклонно направленных и горизонтальных скважин требует применения специального бурового оборудования – роторных управляемых систем (РУС), позволяющих контролировать траекторию ствола скважины в режиме реального времени. На рынке представлен широкий ассортимент оборудования для направленного бурения, в основном зарубежного производства. Для работы с такими системами требуется привлечение высококвалифицированного персонала и часто зарубежных специалистов. В связи с этим разработка программно-аппаратного комплекса удаленного мониторинга и управления траекторией ствола скважины при бурении скважин с использованием РУС является актуальной научно-практической задачей. Предложена теоретико-множественная модель синтеза структуры программно-аппаратного комплекса удаленного мониторинга и управления траекторией ствола скважины при бурении скважин с применением РУС. Такой подход к систематизации создания структур программно-аппаратных комплексов мониторинга и управления позволяет получить качественную информационно-алгоритмическую среду, отвечающую всем требованиям современных стандартов. На основе предложенной модели разработана структура комплекса, включающего набор погружных блоков, реализующих исполнительную и измерительно-управляющую системы, систему передачи информации, систему диспетчеризации. Разработанная структура программно-аппаратного комплекса обладает модульным принципом организации, подразумевает наращивание функциональных возможностей, в том числе введение дополнительных параметров телеметрии, имеет основный и альтернативный каналы передачи информации, развитую систему энергоснабжения компонентов, включая резервные источники питания.
Technological advancement in sensors, digital electronics and wireless communications have enabled development of low cost and low power wireless sensors and networks, thereby enabling a paradigm shift in autonomous monitoring and control for a wide range of applications in the oil and gas industry. These applications can be found all across the industry including supply chain, refineries/petrochemical plants, pipelines, exploration, drilling, production and transportation. One of the challenges is powering up these sensor/control devices. Despite the ultra-low power consumption of wireless nodes and the high energy density of batteries, they still have limited stored energy and, therefore, a limited lifetime. In many scenarios, the battery replacement of sensors could be a very time consuming task and even uneconomical and unmanageable. To tackle these issues and enable fully autonomous and maintenance free wireless sensing and control, a continuous source of energy is required.
We have investigated Energy Harvesting as the potential solution for providing reliable and long-term power for sensors by scavenging various ambient energy sources such as environmental/machine vibrations, thermal sources, flow, solar, wind energy and converting it to useable electrical energy. This paper provides a survey of energy harvesting techniques including mechanical (piezoelectric, electrostatic, electromagnetic and magentostrictive), thermal (thermoelectric, pyroelectric), light, and various state-of-the-art technologies. The requirements and technical challenges, along with financial drivers and benefits, are addressed. Various ambient energy sources present at the surface and their usage for different applications in the oil and gas industry are identified and discussed in detail.
Finally, recommendations are made for improvement and achieving the goal of practical implementation of energy harvesting to enable self-powered remote and wireless monitoring and control in oil and gas. Although the energy harvesting market is rapidly increasing because of its growing demand in various industries, the technology hasn't been thoroughly investigated for oil and gas applications.
Downstream Refineries and Chemical Plants have benefited from real time optimization systems (RTO) for the last 30 years. Downstream RTO is a well established and permanent fixture in many plants - the "way we do things ‘round here!??. Upstream E&P operations have "come to this party?? much more recently and are using RTO more sparingly, even though the economic and HSSE benefits can be very significant.
There are key differences between downstream and upstream. For example, downstream facilities do not deal with sub-surface uncertainties, multiphase flow and isolated/harsh environments; while upstream operations do not usually have to deal with complex chemical processes.
Integrated Oil Companies run upstream and downstream operations and integration of tools/practices across both regimes is often perceived to be of significant value. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast downstream and upstream RTO learnings with a view to identifying and describing:
• similarities in production unit operations e.g. fluid separation, compression etc.;
• key differences between production unit operations;
• cultural differences between operations;
• RTO activities from a technical perspective;
• RTO business benefits and how these might be leveraged and sustained in both directions.
What will emerge from this analysis will be a comparison, highlighting points of commonality and differences, leading to a better understanding of how RTO can be more effectively exploited in the upstream business - the cheapest oil available!
Specifically, it is concluded that RTO in upstream operations is feasible and lucrative, but is relatively rare with sustainability a challenge. Downstream RTO is more common and sustainable, significantly less lucrative, but a "must do?? to compete in a highly competitive, margin constrained business.
Cramer, Ron (Shell Global Solutions) | Mehrotra, Shailendra (Shell) | Goh, Keat-Choon (Shell Global Solutions Intl BV) | Steover, Matt (Shell Global Solutions US Inc) | Berendschot, Leo F. (Shell Global Solutions)
Downstream Refineries and Chemical Plants have benefited from real time optimization systems (RTO) for the last 30 years. Downstream RTO is a well established and permanent fixture in many plants - the "way we do things'round here!". Upstream E&P operations have "come to this party" much more recently and are using RTO more sparingly, even though the economic and HSSE benefits can be very significant. There are key differences between downstream and upstream. For example, downstream facilities do not deal with subsurface uncertainties, multiphase flow and isolated/harsh environments; while upstream operations do not usually have to deal with complex chemical processes. Integrated Oil Companies run upstream and downstream operations and integration of tools/practices across both regimes is often perceived to be of significant value. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast downstream and upstream RTO learnings with a view to identifying and describing: - similarities in production unit operations e.g.
Aoki, K. (Dept. of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University) | Mito, Y. (Dept. of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University) | Mori, T. (Kojima Technical Research Institute, Tokyo) | Maejima, T. (Tokyo Electric Power Company)
This article is a synopsis of paper SPE 49186, "Intelligent System for Monitoring and Control of Downhole Oil/Water Separation Applications," by J.H.B. Sampaio Jr., SPE, J.C.R. Placido, SPE, and S.N. Ferreira, Petrobras, originally presented at the 1998 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 27-30 September.
The paper describes the comprehensive Monitoring and Control System developed for Shell's Auger Tension Leg Platform. The platform includes a large production facility, a full capability drilling rig and marine and utility support system. The Monitoring and Control System consists of a host computer system networked to programmable logic controllers which handle the various processes, and several specialized subsystems. The Monitoring and Control System represents a relatively seamless integration of many diverse systems. Commonality of hardware and operator interfaces ensures operator effectiveness, minimizes training, and enhances safety. The design approach taken with this system has application to large, complex facilities. With a suitable communications system, the system can be applied to facilities which are geographically separate. The system is centralized and gathers virtually all process and other operational data into a central monitoring and control room. More than 40 PLCs, all of the same family, along with several specialized subsystems are networked via fiber optics to the redundant host computer system. The system integrates marine, utility and production systems into an effective tool for managing platform operation.
The Auger Tension Leg Platform (TLP), installed in 2860 ft. of water in December 1993, combines marine, utility and power generation systems with a drilling rig and a process facility capable of handling peak production of approximately 46,000 barrels of oil per day and 125 million cubic feet of natural gas per day. Twelve tendons and eight lateral mooring lines secure and position the 66,000 ton floating structure.