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There has been recognition in the oil and gas and mineral extractive industries for some time that a set of unified common standard definitions is required that can be applied consistently by international financial, regulatory, and reporting entities. An agreed set of definitions would benefit all stakeholders and provide increased - Consistency - Transparency - Reliability A milestone in standardization was achieved in 1997 when SPE and the World Petroleum Council (WPC) jointly approved the "Petroleum Reserves Definitions." Since then, SPE has been continuously engaged in keeping the definitions updated. The definitions were updated in 2000 and approved by SPE, WPC, and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) as the "Petroleum Resources Classification System and Definitions." These were updated further in 2007 and approved by SPE, WPC, AAPG, and the Society of Petroleum Evaluation Engineers (SPEE). This culminated in the publication of the current "Petroleum Resources Management System," globally known as PRMS. PRMS has been acknowledged as the oil and gas industry standard for reference and has been used by the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) as a guide for their updated rules, "Modernization of Oil and Gas Reporting," published 31 December 2008. SPE recognized that new applications guidelines were required for the PRMS that would supersede the 2001 Guidelines for the Evaluation of Petroleum Reserves and Resources. The original guidelines document was the starting point for this work, and has been updated significantly with addition of the following new chapters: - Estimation of Petroleum Resources Using Deterministic Procedures (Chap.
Reservoir depletion results in changes in effective stresses, which may lead to significant changes in reservoir permeability. These changes are associated with matrix compaction, fracture closure and potential slip. A depletion-induced increase in effective stresses often leads to a decrease in permeability. However, the opposite is observed to happen in some fractured gas reservoirs with an organic rock matrix that exhibits strong sorption-mechanical coupling. During depletion, an adsorbed portion of the gas desorbs from micropores resulting in shrinkage of the organic components in the rock matrix, effective stress relaxation and a potential increase in fracture permeability. The objective of this study is to develop a reservoir simulator with a full mechanical coupling accounting for sorption-induced change of stresses. This paper aims to estimate the influence of the parameters affecting reservoir permeability and to predict its evolution during reservoir depletion. We compare two natural gas fields with strong (San Juan coal basin) and weak (Barnett shale formation) sorption-mechanical coupling. The results of the study highlight the interplay between mechanical moduli, swelling isotherm parameters, and fracture compressibility in determining the impact of desorption on fracture permeability evolution during depletion.
Natural gas consumption currently constitutes a fifth of the total energy sources . About a half of nonassociated gas accrues to non-conventional gas reservoirs, mainly organic shales and coal seams . Non-conventional tight reservoirs have an extremely low permeability, a fair portion of which pertains to fractures as main fluid conduits. The openings of these fractures are dictated by lithology and the reservoir stresses, which may alter during reservoir development [2-5]. Two competitive geomechanical processes are known to affect stresses during depletion in organic-rich rocks: pressure drawdown and desorption-induced shrinkage. The latter is of significant importance in coals because sorbed gas constitutes more than 50% of total gas in place and desorption induces a substantial amount of rock shrinkage [6-8]. Sorbed gas in hydrocarbon-bearing shales constitutes 5-15% of the total gas in place. Sorption capacity is usually proportional to total organic carbon (TOC) in shales . Decreases in pore pressure associated with reservoir depletion cause increases in effective stresses, which often leads to fracture closure and a decrease in permeability. In contrast, desorption and matrix shrinkage result in a drop in effective stresses and an increase in permeability [8, 10, 11].
Microseismic monitoring of hydraulic fracturing in unconventional reservoirs is a valuable tool for delineating the effectiveness of stimulations, completions, and overall field development. Important information, such as fracture azimuth, fracture length, height growth, staging effectiveness, and many other geometric parameters, can typically be determined from good quality data sets. In addition, there are parameters now being extracted from microseismic data sets, or correlated with microseismic data, to infer other properties of the stimulation/completion system, such as stimulated reservoir volume (SRV), discrete fracture networks (DFNs), structural effects, proppant placement, permeability, fracture opening and closure, geohazards, and others. Much of the information obtained in this way is based on solid geomechanical or seismological principles, but some of it is speculative as well.
This paper reviews published data where microseismic results have been validated by experiments using some type of ground-truth or alternative measurement procedure, discusses the geomechanics and seismological mechanisms that can be reasonably considered in evaluating the likelihood of inferring given properties, and appraises the uncertainties associated with monitoring and the effect on any inferences about fracture behavior. Considerable data now exist from tiltmeters, fiber-optic sensing, tracers, pressure sensors, multi-well-pad experiments, and production interference that can be used to aid the validation assessment.
Relatively limited microseismic results have actually been validated in any consistent manner. Fracture azimuth from microseismic has been verified across a wide range of reservoir types using multiple techniques. Good validation of fracture length and height were performed in sandstones for planar fractures; fracture length and height in typical horizontal completions with multiple fractures or complexity have a lesser degree of verification. Other parameters, such as complexity, discrete fracture networks, source parameters, and SRV, have little supporting evidence to provide validation, even though they might have sound physical principles underlying their application. It is clear that microseismic monitoring would benefit from more attention to validation testing. In many cases, the data might be available but have not been used for validation purposes, or such results have not been published.