This seminar will teach participants how to identify, evaluate, and quantify risk and uncertainty in everyday oil and gas economic situations. It reviews the development of pragmatic tools, methods, and understandings for professionals that are applicable to companies of all sizes. The seminar also briefly reviews statistics, the relationship between risk and return, and hedging and future markets. Strategic thinking and planning are key elements in an organisation’s journey to maximise value to shareholders, customers, and employees. Through this workshop, attendees will go through the different processes involved in strategic planning including the elements of organisational SWOT, business scenario and options development, elaboration of strategic options and communication to stakeholders.
Decisions in E&P ventures are affected by Bias, Blindness, and Illusions (BBI) which permeate our analyses, interpretations and decisions. This one-day course examines the influence of these cognitive pitfalls and presents techniques that can be used to mitigate their impact. Bias refers to errors in thinking whereby interpretations and judgments are drawn in an illogical fashion. Blindness is the condition where we fail to see an unexpected event in plain sight. Illusions refer to misleading beliefs based on a false impression of reality.
The need to develop new tools that allow reservoir engineers to optimize reservoir performance is becoming more demanding by the day. One of the most challenging and influential problems facing reservoir engineers is well placement optimization.
The North Kuwait field (NKF) consists of six fields containing four naturally fractured carbonate formations. The reservoirs are composed of relatively tight limestone and dolomite embedded with anhydrate and shale. The fields are divided into isolated compartments based on fault zones and supported by a combination of different fluid compositions, initial pressures, and estimated free-water levels. Due to natural complexity, tightness, and high drilling costs of wells in the NKF, it is very important to identify the sweet spots and the optimum well locations.
This paper presents two intelligent methods that use dynamic numerical simulation model results and static reservoir properties to identify zones with a high-production potential: reservoir opportunity index (ROI) and simulation opportunity index (SOI). The Petrel* E&P software platform was chosen as the integrated platform to implement the workflow. The fit-for-purpose time dependent 2D maps generated by the Petrel platform facilitated the decision-making process used for locating new wells in the dominant flow system and provided immense support for field-development plans.
The difference between the two methods is insignificant because of reservoir tightness, limited interference, and natural uncertainty on compartmentalization. At this stage, pressure is not a key parameter. As a result, unlike brown fields, less weight was given to simulated pressure, and SOI was used to select the well locations.
The results of this study show that implementing these workflows and obtaining the resulting maps significantly improve the selection process to identify the most productive areas and layers in a field. Also, the optimum numbers of wells using this method obtained in less time and with fewer resources are compared with results using traditional industry approaches.
North Kuwait had discovered several deep reservoirs during 1960s which were not considered for development production till 2010 because of higher priority given to the major reservoirs such as Mauddud and Burgan. Zubair and Ratawi are two such new reservoirs, taken up for fast track development since last 2 years.
In order to achieve the production target for the asset, ZU/RT need to be brought to production. A complete evaluation of all geological/ Geophysical data was done for all penetration through ZU/RT. All testing results available during the exploratory wells were comprehensively gathered and evaluated. Based on the data, fast track well release, drilling & completion were initiated. The objective was to gain production as well as data to reduce the uncertainty for further development and reservoir modeling work. The initial results indicated tremendous challenges in terms of fluid regime as well as reservoir rock properties.
The production, at the beginning of the project, was zero, which has now been increased to about 20 MBOPD within a year. Integrated team work and calculated risks helped to achieve this milestone.
The paper aims to share the challenges and the lessons learnt during the production delivery from the new reservoirs in North Kuwait.
Geological Background/ Setting
Sabiriyah Zubair is a minor reservoir of clastic type, which was on low priority for development/ production since discovered druing 60s.. This is a relatively small reservoir in terms of size and potential, as compared to other major reservoirs in Sabiriyah field viz. Mauddud & Burgans. However, the accomplished intial tests at two wells (SA-00271 and SA-0278) indicate that the reservoir has mobile oil and can participate to contribute to NK overall production. Currently 7 wells are flowing to Gathering centre at total rate of about 10 MBOPD.
The State of Kuwait, one of the most prolific oil provinces of the world, has witnessed extensive exploration activity in the past seven decades. These efforts have culminated in the identification of most of the conventional hydrocarbon plays in this area. However, sizable potential still exists in the hitherto less explored unconventional reservoirs and one such play that is being pursued is the fracture associated Minagish-Makhul section of Lower Cretaceous. Key for identifying fracture plays is found in the ability to understand and map subtle faults and minor lineaments.
The Lower Cretaceous section in Kuwait suffers from poor seismic resolution and is contaminated by multiples at a number of places. Subtlety of the faulting further compounds the problem of fault mapping in this section. To overcome the limitations posed by the data, unconventional workflows and multi-attribute 3-D volume techniques were employed for fault mapping. Seismic data were flattened to the nearest good reflector, i.e., the seismic event corresponding to the Gotnia Formation which is below the zone of interest, prior to fault mapping.
Data enhancement techniques such as spectral decomposition and data analysis techniques like amplitude attributes were applied on this flattened volume in the zone of interest. Simultaneous visualization of these different data sets has brought out lineaments that were lost in the conventional approaches. Due care was taken to avoid replication of faults from below by smoothening the horizon corresponding to the Gotnia Formation. Application of this technique was also found to be invaluable in identification of stratigraphic features. This paper elaborates the methodology adopted in this technique of fault and stratigraphic feature mapping and illustrates the results obtained. Recent well penetrations have encountered fractured intervals in the Minagish-Makhul section as predicted, based on the fault mapping carried out using this method.
Data sharing is an integral component of strategies to support critical decisions during the life of field value chain. Petroleum organizations face major challenges in the integration of legacy database systems to support an effective methodology for maximizing asset value. Case histories are presented that show effective integration of data, information, and knowledge in the asset value chain.