|Theme||Visible||Selectable||Appearance||Zoom Range (now: 0)|
Learn more about training courses being offered. Learn more about training courses being offered. This course covers the fundamental principles concerning how hydraulic fracturing treatments can be used to stimulate oil and gas wells. It includes discussions on how to select wells for stimulation, what controls fracture propagation, fracture width, etc., how to develop data sets, and how to calculate fracture dimensions. The course also covers information concerning fracturing fluids, propping agents, and how to design and pump successful fracturing treatments. Learn more about training courses being offered. Current and future SPE Section and Student Chapter leaders are invited to engage and share. Every attendee leaves energised with a full list of ideas and a support network of fellow leaders. Those sections and student chapters actively participating in this workshop have consistently been recognized with awards as the best in SPE. SPE Cares is a global volunteering drive aimed at promoting, supporting and participating in community services at the SPE section and student chapter’s level. On its official launch this year at ATCE Dubai, SPE Cares will conduct a “Give a Ghaf” Tree Planting Programme to help preserve Ghaf’s cultural and ecological heritage. The Ghaf tree is an indigenous species, specific to UAE, Oman and Saudi Arabia. It is a drought tolerant, evergreen tree that can survive a harsh desert environment. The initiative not only aims to hold events/activities at ATCE, but also recognise community service that SPE members are already conducting in their respective student chapters and professional sections. The KEY Club, open daily, is an exclusive lounge for key SPE members. The lounge is open to those with 25 years or more of continuous membership, Century Club members, current and former SPE Board officers and directors, Honorary and Distinguished Members, as well as this year’s SPE International Award Winners and Distinguished Lecturers. DSATS (SPE’s Drilling Systems Automation Technical Section) will hold a half-day symposium featuring keynote presentations on urban automation. This symposium will explore technologies being used in developing smart cities through the automation of their infrastructure, transportation systems, energy distribution, water systems, street lighting, refuse collection, etc. These efforts rely on many of the same tools needed for drilling systems automation yielding increased efficiencies, lower maintenance and reduced emissions. Their knowledge and experience can guide the path being travelled by the oilfield drilling industry.
Using drilling data and a downhole acoustic signal, developers aim to assess unconventional fracture networks in real time and give engineers ability to customize each stage. Techniques for well-abandonment log evaluations have been studied in the Gulf of Mexico since 2012. The new methods described in this paper consist of adding nuclear sensors to supplement the acoustic measurements and introduce novel processing methods. Since 2007, an operator in Nigeria has registered a significant increase of oil-spill events caused by sabotage and oil-theft activities. The technology presented here allows detecting and locating leaks taking place at a distance from the sensor of up to 35 km.
Advanced machine-learning methods combined with aspects of game theory are helping operators understand the drivers of water production and improve forecasting and economics in unconventional basins. Recent research has put extensive focus on the magic of graphene in drilling fluids. Graphene, because of its thermal, electrical, chemical, and mechanical properties, improves mudcake stability and minimizes fluid loss that eventually reduces formation damage. Not all friction reducers are created equal. With dozens of varieties on the market, industry research suggests that oil and gas companies be choosy. Twelve organizations—universities and private technology companies—will conduct research and development on emerging shale plays and technologies covering everything from digital pressure-sensing to smart microchip proppant.
ConocoPhillips Promises Big Changes as It Acquires Concho in $9.7-Billion Deal ConocoPhillips promised more than just growth and costs savings when it announced a deal to acquire Concho. Tracking down fugitive emissions has traditionally relied on small-scale detection efforts. This new project seeks to buck the trend by covering the Permian Basin with sensors. The cementing services market size in the US is expected to drop 50% year-on-year from 2019.
Technology to interrogate perforations to quantify cluster efficiency in limited entry, plug and perf completions has improved in operational efficiency, image quality and quantity. The entire pipe wall of the lateral is now visually imaged, and the discovery of significant casing erosion damage caused by leaking frac plugs during stimulations is easily observable, often multiple times in the same well. The effect of a breached casing with significant erosion between stages could potentially divert proppant from the intended perforation targets leading to reduced cluster efficiency and uncertainty of proppant distribution results.
Video images have been used for several years to evaluate proppant distribution. The recent introduction of array side-view camera technology now provides highly detailed images of the full 360 circumference of the wellbore over extended intervals. Image logging methods for unconventional wells have changed from capturing a limited number of images of individual perforations through a small ‘spy hole’ to a complete panoramic view of the entire wellbore. Perforations, connections and everything in between can be efficiently imaged and analysed. Enhanced processing methods have additionally improved visualization of results and allowed quantification of areas of interest with image-based dimensioning.
Greatly enhanced borehole image coverage has allowed the discovery of unintended interactions that can be very detrimental to fracture treatments. Evidence of these unwanted effects that were previously difficult to diagnose are now uncovered during routine fracture diagnostics. Evidence includes
Erosion at plug setting depths has been observed in a relatively high proportion of wells Multiple casing breaches have also been observed in some wells with as many as 35% of plug setting depths subject to this issue The areal extent of erosion at plugs has been measured in the range of 10% of the casing circumference up to 100% full parting While the exact effects on the fracture treatment of potentially large volumes of fluid and proppant being diverted away from their intended target has not yet been quantified the catastrophic effect on well integrity is very clear.
Erosion at plug setting depths has been observed in a relatively high proportion of wells
Multiple casing breaches have also been observed in some wells with as many as 35% of plug setting depths subject to this issue
The areal extent of erosion at plugs has been measured in the range of 10% of the casing circumference up to 100% full parting
While the exact effects on the fracture treatment of potentially large volumes of fluid and proppant being diverted away from their intended target has not yet been quantified the catastrophic effect on well integrity is very clear.
Examples, analysis methods, results, primary conclusions, and other relevant findings are discussed in detail.
The technology we discuss is undoubtedly helping raise awareness in the industry of the potential extent of this previously under-diagnosed issue. Increased awareness and improved understanding of the issue will lead operators to better equipment selection, enhanced procedures and ultimately more productive and profitable wells. Hydraulic fracture performance will improve while cases of compromised well integrity will decline.
Pearson, C. Mark (Liberty Resources) | Fowler, Garrett (ResFrac) | Stribling, K. Michelle (Proptester) | McChesney, Jeromy (Liberty Resources) | McClure, Mark (ResFrac) | McGuigan, Tom (US Ceramics) | Anschutz, Don (PropTester) | Wildt, Pat (PropTester)
In conventional formations it has long been established that designing fracture treatments with improved near-wellbore conductivity generates improved production and economic returns. This is accomplished by pumping treatments with increased proppant concentration in the final stages (the traditional proppant ramp design), and in some cases by changing proppant size or type in the final stages to effect greater near-wellbore conductivity - commonly referred to as a "tail-in" design. These designs overcome the impacts of greater near-wellbore pressure loss during production caused by flow concentration in the near-wellbore region compared to distal parts of the fracture.
For vertical wells and crosslinked fracture fluid treatments, the fluid flow and suspended proppant transport is effectively "piston" flow and it was a relatively straight forward matter to engineer the near-wellbore region with a tail-in of higher conductivity proppant. For unconventional reservoirs, with multi-stage horizontal completions using slickwater fluids, it has not been obvious how best to create this improved near-wellbore conductivity and most operators have employed a "one size fits all" strategy of pumping a single proppant type unless there was perhaps a need for flowback control in which case a resin coated proppant might be used as a tail-in.
This paper reports the results of two projects to address the engineering of the near-wellbore fracture conductivity for horizontal well fracturing. Firstly, a series of laboratory tests were run in a 10 ft. × 20 ft. slot wall to visualize near-wellbore proppant duning and layering associated with both "lead-in" and "tail-in" designs. The impacts of these depositions were then quantified using a 3D hydraulic fracture / reservoir simulation code for a variety of stimulation designs in the Middle Bakken and Three Forks formations of the Williston Basin.
The results of this work show that well stimulation treatments in liquid-rich unconventional formations would benefit from a combination of small (5 to 10%) lead-ins and tail-ins of high conductivity ceramic proppant. This minimizes the effects of radial flow convergence in the transverse fractures generated from the horizontal well and maximizes the economic benefit of the well stimulation. In addition to paying out the small cost increase in only 1 to 2 months, the proppant bands of higher conductivity ceramic help mitigate the effects of longer-term sand crushing and degradation on near-wellbore plugging and thus increases 3-year cumulative free cash flow and the Estimated Ultimate Recovery (EUR) of the well.
We use a high-quality dataset in the Bakken Shale to calibrate a numerical model to a complex and diverse set of parent/child observations. Two vertical wells (V1 and V2) were drilled 1000 ft and 1200 ft away from a legacy well with 10 years of production, H1. A DFIT was performed in the V1, followed by a 24 hour low-rate injection in the H1 (a microseismic depletion delineation, MDD, test). Subsequently, a small frac job was performed in the V1, followed by DFITs in the V1 and V2. The dataset yields a diversity of data to calibrate a numerical model: historical production of the H1, pressure response in the H1 from the MDD injection and the V1 fracture treatment, production rate uplift in the H1 following the V1 frac, microseismic, and pressure response during the three DFITs. The entire dataset was history matched in a single continuous simulation with a numerical simulator that fully integrates hydraulic fracture and reservoir simulation. The simulation was set up to closely match a geologic model that was built in prior work. The integrated simulation allows simulation of the fractures reopening around the H1 as a consequence of the MDD, the transport of proppant from the V1 to the H1 well, and the subsequent communication and poroelastic stress response. The Biot coefficient was calibrated to match the observed change in stress at the H1 well after ten years of depletion. The fracture toughness was calibrated to match the observed fracture geometry from the microseismic around the V1 well during fracturing. A proppant transport parameter called ‘maximum immobilized proppant’ was tuned to the production and DFIT data. The match to the V2 DFIT suggests that it is not directly in contact with the V1 fracture, even though the wells are relatively close together along fracture strike. The initial V1 DFIT suggests that it has, at most, weak contact with the H1. The second V1 DFIT, performed after the fracturing treatment, demonstrates communication with the H1, and consequently, depletion. The observations demonstrate that the H1 was able to produce from the previously undepleted rock around the V1, even though it was 1000 ft away. Overall, the results indicate that Bakken wells can achieve substantial (at least 1000 ft) effective half-length, that frac hits on parent wells in the Bakken do not necessarily result in production degradation and can even increase production, that the apparent Biot coefficient is relatively low (∼0.34), that the amount of proppant trapping due to localized screenout is relatively low (but nonzero), and this entire, complex dataset can be explained using a planar fracture modeling approach.