Wilson, Glenn (Halliburton) | Marchant, David (Computational Geosciences) | Haber, Eldad (University of British Colombia) | Clegg, Nigel (Halliburton) | Zurcher, Derick (Halliburton) | Rawsthorne, Luke (AkerBP) | Kunnas, Jari (Halliburton)
Ultradeep resistivity logging-while-drilling (LWD) is now a routine service for real-time well landing,geosteering, and reservoir and fluid contact evaluation. Progressing beyond layered earth inversions to three-dimensional (3D) inversions helps improve real-time decisions to deliver better well placement, completion, and production. To this end, the first real-time 3D inversion of ultradeep resistivity LWD data is realized by exploiting the fact that the sensitive volume of a given transmitter-receiver pair is far smaller than the total logging volume. This implies that the global mesh can be decoupled into multiple independent, localized inversion and modeling meshes that are tractable for the efficient solution of the forward and inverse problems in real time using moderate computer resources. The authors' implementation is based on a 3D finite-volume method discretized on locally refined octree meshes. It uses the regularized Gauss-Newton method for minimizing the objective function for data subsets on local inversion meshes, which iteratively update the global mesh. Nonlinear Kalman filtering is applied using prior information on each local inversion mesh from the updated global mesh to introduce new observations optimally. A model study and a case study of trilateral well placement in a mature reservoir in the Norwegian Continental Shelf demonstrate the efficacy of the method. Run times on modest computer resources enable the first real-time 3D inversion of ultradeep resistivity LWD data.
Gelman, Andriy (Schlumberger) | Maeso, Carlos (Schlumberger) | Godet, Vincent (Schlumberger) | Padin, Exequiel (Schlumberger) | Tarrius, Mathieu (Schlumberger) | Sun, Yong (Schlumberger) | Auchere, Jean-Christophe (Schlumberger) | A, Adrian (Schlumberger) | Wibowo, Vera (Schlumberger) | Shrivastava, Chandramani (Schlumberger)
This paper presents a novel borehole image compression algorithm for real-time (RT) logging while drilling (LWD). The compression scheme is designed to optimize the critical information required for RT decision making at low telemetry bandwidths. In the proposed algorithm we estimate the structure of the image (i.e. the amplitude and phase shift of the dip) and modify the encoding dictionary based on the features. The resulting dictionary resembles sinusoidal features, thus optimizing the reconstruction of bedding or other planar features in deviated wells. The dictionary is designed using a modified version of the 2D discrete wavelet transform (DWT). This approach has a low encoding complexity and supports the integration of directional information into the transform. Since feature estimation is a challenging step, we use a classifier to identify when directional information should be added to the transform or whether a conventional implementation is used. The algorithm has been implemented in both oil-and water-based mud LWD imager tools, where the low encoding complexity has facilitated the implementation in legacy tools with limited computation resources. We present field test results comparing the borehole images from RT and recorded mode (RM) data from one of the industry's first RT LWD resistivity images obtained from a well drilled using oil-based mud.
Obtaining high-resolution borehole images in oil-based mud (OBM) from logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools has been made possible through the recent development of ultrasonic imaging technologies. High-resolution acoustic impedance images enable reservoir evaluation through the identification of faults and fractures, bedding and laminations, and assessment of rock fabric. This paper presents examples of high-resolution images from a 4¾-in. ultrasonic imaging tool in OBM applications and discusses their value in assessing reservoir quality.
This paper provides details of field trials of an LWD ultrasonic imaging tool for use in boreholes ranging from 5¾ to 6¾ in. High-resolution images detailing both borehole caliper and acoustic impedance in both vertical and horizontal wellbores are shown, illustrating the high level of formation evaluation now available when OBM is used. The methodology used to address the impact of tool motion on the impedance images will also be covered. The value of real-time data on borehole stability assessment will be discussed, along with additional applications made possible from the real-time data, such as wellbore placement enhancement.
Both real-time and recorded data from field trials show the potential applications for the ultrasonic imaging tool. High-resolution impedance images covering different formations and lithologies show bedding planes and laminations and enable the calculation of stratigraphic dip, while the identification and assessment of fractures show the potential to aid operators during the development of their hydraulic fracturing program. Borehole caliper and shape assessment in real time can be used to modify the drilling parameters and to adjust mud weight, while providing an input into geomechanics assessment.
The LWD logs presented illustrate the factors that influence data quality and the methodology used to ensure high-resolution images are available in both vertical and high-angle wellbores using OBM. A direct comparison between data acquired while drilling and while re-logging sections is shown, highlighting the repeatability of the measurement while also illustrating the impact of time-since-drilled on the borehole. A comparison with wireline measurements highlights the potential for using the high-resolution LWD images as an alternative to wireline, where cost and risk of deploying the wireline may be high.
The ability to collect high-resolution images in OBM in wellbores ranging from 5¾ to 6¾ in. ensures that increased reservoir characterization is possible, leading to significant improvements in determining the viability of unconventional and other challenging reservoirs. The high-resolution amplitude images are comparable with those available on wireline technologies, and the real-time application of borehole size and shape for input into wellbore stability and geomechanics analysis ensures that common drilling hazards can be avoided.
Geosteering and real time reservoir characterization were used to reduce the uncertainty. Reservoirs consisting of heterogeneous carbonates and shaly sands pose formation evaluation challenges for conventional logging-while-drilling (LWD) measurements. Magnetic resonance techniques hold promise for improving understanding of these reservoirs.
Results to date are compared with previous performance in the Gulf of Thailand (GoT). Reservoirs consisting of heterogeneous carbonates and shaly sands pose formation evaluation challenges for conventional logging-while-drilling (LWD) measurements. Magnetic resonance techniques hold promise for improving understanding of these reservoirs. This paper discusses ultradeep directional-resistivity (DDR) logging-while-drilling (LWD) measurements for high-angle and horizontal wells that have been applied recently with success on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS). Determining the fluid properties of a reservoir by using pressure/volume/temperature (PVT) analysis is essential to petroleum reservoir studies, production equipment design, and reservoir recovery efficiency estimation.
Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment. SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. A technique using a suite of logs that are part of the drilling BHA. The formation properties are measured while drilling (although 40 to 60 feet back from the bit) and the information is pulsed to the surface.
MWD is now standard practice in offshore directional wells, where the tool cost is offset by rig time and wellbore stability considerations if other tools are used. The measurements are made downhole, stored in solid-state memory for some time and later transmitted to the surface. Data transmission methods vary from company to company, but usually involve digitally encoding data and transmitting to the surface as pressure pulses in the mud system. These pressures may be positive, negative or continuous sine waves. MWD tools that measure formation parameters (resistivity, porosity, sonic velocity, gamma ray) are referred to as logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools.
Use of magnetic-resonance-image (MRI) logging is growing as a logging while drilling (LWD) tool. The use of chemical nuclear sources downhole has been a logistical and management headache. MRI, by measuring in real time the free-fluid, capillary-bound-water, and clay-based-water volumes, offers an alternative, lithology-independent porosity measurement in complex lithologies. It can be used for geosteering and geostopping when sufficient productive formation has been exposed to the wellbore. Like most measurements, at an initial phase there are specialist applications that are more susceptible to realizing the value of magnetic-resonance logging.
Logging while drilling (LWD) refers to the addition of wireline-quality formation measurements to the directional data of a Measurement While Drilling (MWD) service. Although attempts to deliver LWD serices date back to the 1920's, the first viable tools were by J.J. Arps in the 1960's, but these did not become a commercial service. The growth of MWD in the late 1970's and early 1980's delivered the first commercial LWD services by the major service providers. The initial tools were natural gamma and resistivity, and these made geosteering possible, as horizontal drilling grew.