The artificial lift system (AL) is the most efficient production technique in optimizing production from unconventional horizontal oil and gas wells. Nonetheless, due to declining reservoir pressure during the production life of a well, artificial lifting of oil and gas remains a critical issue. Notwithstanding the attempt by several studies in the past few decades to understand and develop cutting-edge technologies to optimize the application of artificial lift in tight formations, there remains differing assessments of the best approach, AL type, optimum time and conditions to install artificial lift during the life of a well. This report presents a comprehensive review of artificial lift systems application with specific focus on tight oil and gas formations across the world. The review focuses on thirty-three (33) successful and unsuccessful fieldtests in unconventional horizontal wells over the past few decades. The purpose is to apprise the industry and academic researchers on the various AL optimization approaches that have been used and suggest AL optimization areas where new technologies can be developed.
Al Jadi, Issa A. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Desai, Sameer Faisal (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Ghanim, Wafaa (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Wazzan, Roqaya M. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al Sabea, Salem H. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al Haddad, Saud M. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Franco, Francy Milena (Schlumberger) | Khor, Siew Hiang (Schlumberger) | Saxena, Aditya (Schlumberger) | Zhang, Qiong Michael (Schlumberger) | Hapsari, Hairuni Safri Tri (Schlumberger) | Elayaat, Ahmed A.Fouad. (Schlumberger) | Bodwadkar, Suhas V. (Schlumberger)
A proven and effective integrated asset modelling (IAM) approach has been adopted to bring multiple interdependent wells, pipelines networks, and process facilities models together into one single truly integrated asset model for the Greater Burgan Oilfield in Kuwait. The integrated wells-network facility models via the IAM platform also includes a water processing facility model which consists of 2 effluent water disposal plants; a crude oil export pipeline network and a water reinjection network model. This paper describes how a representative integrated asset model was developed for the Greater Burgan Oilfield through a model centric approach executed within an Integrated Operational Excellence (IOX) Program towards a Digital Transformation initiative by Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) South and East Kuwait (S&EK) Group together with Schlumberger. It also describes how this tool enables the asset teams to evaluate different operating scenarios to further enhance well performance and the overall asset productivity via rerouting well flow path to an appropriate header, identifying well workover opportunities, reevaluating artificial lift design, adding future wells (for field development) and comprehensive understanding of well integrity and flow assurance studies. The assessment was done not only at a gathering center (GC) level but also asset-wide level where the complete system constraints, interactions and back pressure effects between more than 2000 different wells were fully accounted. The simulated results such as pressure gradient, temperature gradient and erosional velocity ratio gradient across the production networks are presented on the GIS map for easy opportunity identification. The availability of this fully integrated asset model with up-to date calibrated wells and network models and process models enables KOC engineers to better understand current well performance and production potential, identify any possible bottlenecks imposed by the large complex surface network and process facilities of Greater Burgan Oilfield.
Desai, Sameer Faisal (Kuwait Oil Company) | Rane, Nitin M. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Shammari, Baraa S. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Sabea, Salem H. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Naqi, Meqdad (Kuwait Oil Company)
Kuwait Oil Company initiatives for ushering in a new era of digital transformation of its assets to intelligently and optimally manage the Oil and Gas fields were successfully realized with the completion of three pilot projects entitled Kuwait Integrated Digital Fields (KwIDF). This paper discusses major achievements of the Digital Oilfield technology implemented in Burgan KwIDF project and provides an insight on the challenges in operating it.
The Burgan KwIDF pilot successfully transformed GC-1 production asset into a fully instrumented DOF comprising of digital instruments and infrastructure installed at well site and the production facility. Real-time production data is transmitted to a state of the art collaboration center that integrates data continuously with automated workflows for validation, modeling and tuning of well and facility models. Right time decision support information generated from smart visualization tools allow quick actions for production optimization, well and facility management in a collaborative work environment.
There is persistent value realization from KwIDF technology implemented in Burgan field. It has generated substantial cost savings with faster response time in restoring production and reduction in non-productive time. Driven by the digital environment asset production has sustained at target as production gain opportunities are capitalized and losses compensated quickly.
Over the period of time with experience in utilizing the DOF technology it has been observed that the technology sustainment is dependent on the technology providers to a large extent. The main components that require their continuous support are the digital instruments, proprietary software, hardware and related infrastructure. Technical expertise in each domain is necessary for ensuring continuous and smooth operations in the field, wellsite and collaboration centers. Development of an integrated team of domain experts is crucial for successfully managing the DOF operations. Change management initiatives for developing an in house user champion team is mandatory for ensuring sustainment. The important lessons learned and solutions are discussed in detail.
Milazzo Refinery (RaM) has developed a new safety system to minimize the risks related to "hot works" (mainly explosion risks) during normal unit operations. The good practice was for the first time utilized during Fluid Catalytic Cracking pre-turnaround and turnaround phase from Milazzo Refinery. At that time, RaM implemented, for the first time, the integration between the existing network system of fixed hydrocarbon detectors with the welding machines through the Distributor Control System (DCS). This integration allowed to immediately switch off the power supply to the welding machines in case of detection of explosive atmosphere. Moreover, in order to cover as many welding points as possible, several mobile detectors were installed and integrated in the gas detectors system. The whole process is represented in the scheme in Figure 1.
Desai, Sameer Faisal (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al Jadi, Issa (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Ghanim, Wafaa (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al Sabea, Salem H. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Haddad, Saud M. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Franco, Francy Milena (Schlumberger) | Khor, Siew Hiang (Schlumberger) | Bodwadkar, Suhas V. (Schlumberger) | Saxena, Aditya (Schlumberger) | Zhang, Qiong Michael (Schlumberger) | Hapsari, Hairuni Safri Tri (Schlumberger) | Morales, Fernando (Schlumberger) | Halabe, Vijaya (Schlumberger)
Several efforts have been made in the past for generating an Integrated Asset Model (IAM) for the Greater Burgan field in Kuwait with mixed results on sustained utilization and benefits. A new effective full field Integrated Asset Model has now been developed within an Integrated Operational Excellence (IOX) program towards Digital Transformation of the Greater Burgan field. A proven model centric approach has been adopted to bring multiple interdependent wells, pipelines networks, and process facilities models together into one single truly integrated asset model. The IAM platform also includes a water processing facility model which consists of 2 effluent water disposal plants, a crude oil export pipeline network and a water injection network model. Development of this integrated wells-network-facility-crude export-water processing facility-water injection network model incorporating the 14 gathering centers in the South and East Kuwait (SEK) asset focused on providing all the essential valuable inputs to business processes for better asset management, faster and more accurate decision-making and optimizing the hydrocarbon flow path all the way from the reservoir till the export point. The assessment was done at full field level where the complete system constraints, interactions and back pressure effects between more than 2000 different wells were fully accounted up to the crude processing facilities. The availability of this fully integrated asset model with up-todate calibrated wells and network models and process models enables Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) engineers to better understand current well performance and production potential, identify any possible bottlenecks imposed by the large complex surface network and process facilities of Greater Burgan Oilfield. The simulated results such as pressure gradient, temperature gradient and erosional velocity ratio gradient across the production networks are presented on the GIS map for easy opportunity identification.
Schnitzler, Eduardo (Petrobras) | Ferreira Gonçalez, Luciano (Petrobras) | Savoldi Roman, Roger (Petrobras) | Atanásio Santos da Silva Filho, Djalma (Petrobras) | Marques, Marcello (Petrobras) | Corona Esquassante, Ricardo (Petrobras) | Denadai, Nilson José (Petrobras) | Feliciano da Silva, Manoel (Petrobras) | Rosas Gutterres, Fábio (Petrobras) | Signorini Gozzi, Danilo (Petrobras)
Pre-salt heterogeneous carbonate reservoirs typically present long net pays, high production/injection rates and some flow assurance risks. This paper presents general information, results and lessons learned regarding the installation of Intelligent Well Completion (IWC) in Santos Basin Pre-Salt Cluster (SBPSC) wells. It also presents some important improvements to be introduced in the future IWC systems specification and qualification based on the lessons learnt in these projects, setting some new challenges to the industry.
The benefits expected with the use of IWC are achieved at the expense of challenging well engineering, since well completion design becomes more complex and well construction risks increase. Detailed and integrated planning is essential for the success of the operations, starting at the earliest phases of the well design and continued through detailed execution plans. The use of standardized practices and procedures has led to significant increases on installation performance. On the other hand, an open mind and a constant search for improvements allowed new solutions and procedures to be developed throughout the years. Regarding the system integration, a flexible and standardized control architecture was developed to allow combining different IWC providers and subsea vendors, which proved to be a successful approach.
The most important improvement in IWC installation was the anticipation of the acid stimulation, nowadays performed before the vertical Wet Christmas Tree (WCT) installation. In order to achieve this goal some crucial improvements were gradually implemented in the stimulation practices, such as, an initial injectivity increase solution and some new acid diversion solutions, which allowed eliminating the use of coiled tubing and, as a consequence, the need of a subsea test tree. The well design team conducted an integrated risk assessment to properly evaluate the new practices and establish some actions to reduce the risks. Intense communication between production zones was observed during the acid job in some of the initial wells, ruining the gains of the IWC. After a comprehensive analysis, some possible causes were identified and with the new stimulation practices this issue was eliminated.
Over the years, with the introduction of several improvements, some of them presented in this paper, the well completion duration was reduced to less than 50% of the one observed in the initial wells. This major performance increase has been essential to keep this deepwater projects feasible, especially in the oil scenario seen in recent years. Some of the new practices and lessons learned in this 100 wells equipped with IWC has set groundbreaking practices for Brazilian pre-salt fields development and may stand as a reference for the industry in similar deepwater projects. Additional requirements for future systems are expected to improve even further the performance in this scenario.
Nguyen, Dzu (BP) | Macleod, Innis (BP) | Taylor, Donald (BP) | Murray, Laurence (BP) | Zavyalov, Denis (BP) | Booth, Dave (Fircroft Consultant, former BP) | Robertson, Neil (Halliburton) | Smith, Robert (Halliburton) | Joubran, Jonathon (Halliburton) | Allen, Clifford (Halliburton) | Shafei, Sharil Mohd (Halliburton)
The multiple zone water injection project (MZWIP) was initiated to deliver the following key objectives: deliver zonal injection with conformance control and reliable sand management across the major layered sands of the Balakhany unconsolidated reservoirs in the BP operated Azeri-Chirag-Gunashli (ACG) fields in Azerbaijan sector of the Caspian Sea.
Three years after MZWIP implementation, six wells with a total of 14 zones are injecting at required rates with zonal rate live-reporting. To achieve this multizone injection facility, the requirement for a standard ACG sand-control injector design was discounted and a non-standard sand management control technique developed using a cased & perforated (C&P) and downhole flow-control system (DHFC). During this program, BP ACG has successfully installed the world's first 10kpsi three-zone inline variable-choke DHFC wells with distributed temperature sensors (DTS) across all target injection zones.
The choking DHFC provides flexibility in operations and delivers the right rates to the right zones. The DTS provides conformance surveillance, fracture assessment, caprock integrity and sand ingress monitoring capability. A customized topside logic control system provides an automatic shutin of interval control valves (ICVs) during planned or unplanned shutins to stop crossflow and sand ingress and is the primary method of effectively managing sanded annuli.
The development of this MZWI solution has significantly changed the Balakhany development plan and has been quickly expanded across five ACG platforms. Accessing 2nd and 3rd zones in the same wellbore, this C&P DHFC well design is accelerating major oil volumes and will significantly reduce future development costs, maximizing wellbore utility in a slot-constrained platform.
Banack, Ben (Halliburton) | Burke, Lyle H. (Devon Canada Corporation) | Booy, Daniel (C-FER Technologies 1999 Inc.) | Chineme, Emeka (Cenovus Energy) | Lastiwka, Marty (Suncor Energy) | Gaviria, Fernando (Suncor Energy) | Ortiz, Julian D. (ConocoPhillips Canada) | Sanmiguel, Javier (Devon Canada Corporation) | Dewji, Ayshnoor (Halliburton)
It is becoming common to install inflow control devices (ICDs) along steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) production liners to enhance temperature conformance and accelerate depletion. Additionally, some operators advocate the installation of similar outflow control devices (OCDs) along the injection well of the SAGD well pair. Collectively, these inflow and outflow devices are often referred to as FCDs. Industry adoption of flow control devices (FCDs) has increased, and several devices are commercially available for use in SAGD.
In an effort to optimize FCD design and selection, a joint industry partnership (JIP) was formed (
Fiber-optic-based instrumentation was deployed within FCD-equipped wells using permanently installed coiled tubing. Well architecture design changes to a typical completion were not required because fiber-optic sensors are used for most non-FCD wells to collect distributed temperature sensing (DTS) data. Although DTS is a common tool for optimizing SAGD production, it has certain limitations; specifically, temperature changes along production wells do not typically allow a detailed definition or quantification of the inflow distribution along the wellbore.
In addition to DTS, distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) was periodically performed on the FCD wells. DAS logging of SAGD producers has several potential uses, including flow profiling, steam breakthrough and/or noncondensable gas (NCG) detection, multiphase flow characterization, electric submersible pump (ESP) performance, completion failure analysis, and four-dimensional seismic analysis. Although FCD characterization with DAS appears promising, a knowledge gap exists as to how to move beyond qualitative analysis to more quantitative analysis of FCD performance and the lateral emulsion inflow distribution. Pending satisfactory results, DAS logging on active wells can potentially be completed to accelerate improvements of SAGD FCD performance and design as well as increase the efficiency of SAGD recovery through improved steam/oil ratio (SOR) and an associated reduction in greenhouse gases.
This paper describes piloting the collection and analysis of DTS and DAS data to help improve understanding of SAGD inflow distribution. Logs were performed on multiple wells during stable and transient flowing conditions. Early surveillance demonstrated suitability and limitations of fiber-optic-based logging to validate FCD performance in active wells. In addition to field logging, acoustic recording using JIP flow loop testing was completed with accelerometers, geophones, and fiber-optic cables during FCD characterization. The goal was to cross reference the acquired acoustic signals for quantification of flow at devices and validation of performance. An overview of the JIP flow loop FCD acoustic characterization program is described.
The 3D geological model is an important tool, which is used for decision-making process at each step of reservoir lifecycle. In turn the quality of the model as well as field operating efficiency is directly dependent on the geologist's expertise level and requires continuous improvement of professional skills. In the digital technology era the software functions continuously enhance leading to increased number of trainings in order to implement new algorithms in the working process. The aim of the paper is to share the best practices of geological and petrophysical modelling on-job trainings applied in Scientific Technology Centre.
There are several web-resources used in the company in order to store operational regulations, corporate educational trainings, original workflows, created plug-ins etc. By dint of special module in the working software the above mentioned data sources were implemented into the integrated knowledge platform. Now new software functions can be explored on-the-job and without any charges for external trainings. The module affords the development of interactive training cases for new functions study. The results of case accomplishment can be saved and available for competency assesment. Another key aspect of the module is the automatization of model quality control provided by application of guided workflows. Additionally, the solutions for some cases can be found during the crossfunctional co-operation among geologists, petrophysicists and petroleum engineers in online question platform, which is the part of the professional groups.
The unique integrated approach for increasing the quality of geological models through training and education, which is developed and successfully implemented in Scientific Technology Centre, will be beneficial not only for other companies, which plan to create and apply the equivalent employee training system, but also for oil and gas industry in general.
One of the goals cherished by modern organizations is gender balance, as a proven way to enhance productivity, boost the motivation of employees and enrich the leadership pipelines of internal succession plans. The energy sector follows closely this trend, inclusive of major organizations of operations and services, especially in Oil and Gas. And in no other region of the world this is now more visible than in the Middle East, one of the most active and traditionally leading and strategic regions in the segment. This paper summarizes what factors were fundamental for the very visible blooming of the female leadership, particularly in the oil and gas sectorin the Gulf Cooperation Council GCC countries. Certainly, middle-eastern women do not account yet for a large or representative number inthe highest roles of private or National Oil Companiesof their countries, but things are rapidly changing, and the blooming is real.
A comparison of key elements considered diagnostic about the empowerment of women, like female workforce percentages, gender gap indexes, and representation of women in leadership roles in oil and gas are herein analyzed for the GCC, comparing those with figures of other regions of the World. Other indicators were included in the analysis, which proved to be key for developing women's leadership, in particular, communication strategies, empowering plans, training, active and visible endorsement of top leaders and other strategies of governmental agencies and corporations. Definitively, the Middle East, and particularly the GCC countries, in which our study is centered, have boldly address cultural issues and traditional barriers, to produce step-changes that are quickly transforming the oil and organizations in all countries of the region. A forecast of opportunities for women's leadership in the upstream and downstream sectors of the oil industry in the future is proposed, in a story of learned best practices worth sharing.
The paper includes a summary of the standing and utilization of social media channels by main organizations in oil and gas. A frame of the current trends analyzed resulted in the identification of the organizations more successful in the utilization of these key channels, so relevant for the general audiences and the new generations. Some unexpected findingsshaped our conclusions about strategies instrumental for step-changes needed in political or cultural settings that may be challenging for boosting women's empowerment.