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SPE Connect discussions are a lot of fun, well worth the time one invests, and who knows where it may lead you. The SPE eMentoring program can help boost your confidence about your next step in the industry and help achieve your career goals. Small plastic cups filled with different colors of sand. These elements may sound like items on a scavenger hunt list, but with Energy4me they can upcycle and help students track down a career in engineering. The SPE Women in Energy committee works to create opportunities for women to enable them to step into leadership roles and pursue their career goals.
For technical innovation and skill progression for individuals and institutions, continual learning and exposure to new ideas is vital. SPE Certification provides an endorsement of an engineer’s technical skills and capabilities by a global organization that extends to anywhere you may travel or work—a highly desirable benefit given the global nature of oil and gas operations. For those who are in a job transition, networking enhances job search leads because it involves meeting new people and becoming reacquainted with industry colleagues. The Pay-It-Forward Networking Program offers industry tours, training, and panels to enable networking. This article features some of the SPE mentors who are currently accepting mentees, and they share their reasons for participating in the program.
Petroleum reservoir management is a dynamic process that recognizes the uncertainties in reservoir performance resulting from our inability to fully characterize reservoirs and flow processes. It seeks to mitigate the effects of these uncertainties by optimizing reservoir performance through a systematic application of integrated, multidisciplinary technologies. It approaches reservoir operation and control as a system, rather than as a set of disconnected functions. As such, it is a strategy for applying multiple technologies in an optimal way to achieve synergy. Reservoir management has been in place in most producing organizations for several years.
This article describes the chemical make-up and application of the types of gels most commonly used in conformance improvement. It also discusses the ways in which these gels can be classified. Table 1 provides an overview of various conformance improvement gels. CC/AP gels have an exceptionally robust gel chemistry and are highly insensitive to oilfield and reservoir interferences and environments. They are also applicable over an exceptionally broad pH range. As a result, these gels, when properly formulated, are applicable to the acidic conditions associated with CO2 flooding for which most earlier oilfield polymer gels did not function well.
Remedial cementing is undertaken to correct issues with the primary cement job of a well. Remedial cementing requires as much technical, engineering, and operational experience, as primary cementing but is often done when wellbore conditions are unknown or out of control, and when wasted rig time and escalating costs have the potential to force poor decisions and high risk. Good planning and risk assessment is the key to successful remedial cementing. Squeeze cementing is a "correction" process that is usually only necessary to correct a problem in the wellbore. Most squeeze applications are unnecessary because they result from poor primary-cement-job evaluations or job diagnostics.
This chapter concerns gas injection into oil reservoirs to increase oil recovery by immiscible displacement. The use of gas, either of a designed composition or at high-enough pressure, to result in the miscible displacement of oil is not discussed here; for a discussion of that topic, see the chapter on miscible flooding in this section of the Handbook. A variety of gases can and have been used for immiscible gas displacement, with lean hydrocarbon gas used for most applications to date. Historically, immiscible gas injection was first used for reservoir pressure maintenance. The first such projects were initiated in the 1930s and used lean hydrocarbon gas (e.g., Oklahoma City field and Cunningham pool in the United States and Bahrain field in Bahrain). Over the decades, a considerable number of immiscible gas injection projects have been undertaken, some with excellent results and others with poor performance. Reasons for this range of performance are discussed in this chapter. At the end of this chapter, a variety of case studies are presented that briefly describe several of the successful immiscible gas injection projects. Gas injection projects are undertaken when and where there is a readily available supply of gas. This gas supply typically comes from produced solution gas or gas-cap gas, gas produced from a deeper gas-filled reservoir, or gas from a relatively close gas field. The primary physical mechanisms that occur as a result of gas injection are (1) partial or complete maintenance of reservoir pressure, (2) displacement of oil by gas both horizontally and vertically, (3) vaporization of the liquid hydrocarbon components from the oil column and possibly from the gas cap if retrograde condensation has occurred or if the original gas cap contains a relict oil saturation, and (4) swelling of the oil if the oil at original reservoir conditions was very undersaturated with gas. Gas injection is particularly effective in high-relief reservoirs where the process is called "gravity drainage" because the vertical/gravity aspects increase the efficiency of the process and enhance recovery of updip oil residing above the uppermost oil-zone perforations. The decision to apply immiscible gas injection is based on a combination of technical and economic factors. Deferral of gas sales is a significant economic deterrent for many potential gas injection projects if an outlet for immediate gas sales is available.
The implications of these compositional effects are very dependent on the oil composition, the composition of the injected gas, and the surface facilities and pipelines available in a particular field situation. The injected gas/oil composition interactions can be categorized as either swelling effects (gas dissolving into the oil phase) or stripping effects (various components from the oil transferring to the gas phase). The most obvious compositional effect in the immiscible gas/oil displacement process is that, if the oil is not saturated with gas at the reservoir pressure or if the reservoir pressure is increased as a result of the gas injection, the volume of gas dissolved in the oil will increase until the oil is saturated at that pressure. At the same time and because of the increased volume of gas in solution in the oil, the oil formation volume factor (FVF) will increase. This phenomenon, commonly called swelling, can increase the efficiency of the gas/oil displacement process.