Based on the success of foam in subsurface applications it is of interest to investigate whether foam can also help overcome liquid management problems in surface flowline-riser systems. Therefore, flow experiments were carried out in the flow loop at the Shell Technology Centre Amsterdam. The facility consists of a 100 m long horizontal flowline (with 50.8 mm diameter) followed by a 16.8-m vertical riser (with 44 mm diameter). Air and water are the working fluids, and operation is at atmospheric outlet pressure. Foam is created by adding “Dreft™” (a dishwashing detergent) in various concentrations to the water/air flow. Experiments were taken both without and with foam. Various measurement techniques were used: differential pressure sensors, flow visualization, and Distributed Acoustic Sensors (DAS) (fibre optics). The focus is on (growing) slugs in the horizontal flowline, and severe slugging in the flowline-riser. It can be concluded from the small-scale lab experiments that adding a surfactant mitigates (growing) slugs in (nearly) horizontal flowlines, whereas the severe slugging cycle in a flowline-riser configuration cannot be broken.
A recently developed 2 ?-in. intelligent coiled tubing (ICT) system combines real-time downhole data monitoring with the capability to simultaneously provide downhole power, significantly improving operational efficiency and accelerating well recovery in all types of CT operations. From milling, stimulation, and well cleanouts to gas lifting, camera services, logging and perforating operations, this novel system can provide accurate, real-time downhole monitoring of high-resolution depth correlation, differential pressure, and temperature data.
The novel real-time downhole communication system consists of a non-intrusive electrical conductor wire, surface hardware and software, and a versatile 2 ?-in. bottomhole assembly (BHA) that incorporates the conductor release assembly, casing collar locator (CCL), pressure, and temperature sensor package, and BHA release function. Switching between different applications is as simple as changing out the BHA, which reduces the need to rig-up and rig-down and leads to operational time and cost savings. The main advantage of this system is that it eliminates the downhole uncertainties. For instance, using the real-time downhole depth, pressure, and temperature data, the CT field crew can react to changing conditions, make decisions based on dynamic downhole events, and eliminate missed or wasted runs.
Several case studies are presented in this paper. First, an ICT conveyed camera operation was effectively performed in an onshore lateral well in North America to locate the damaged casing. Previously, several unsuccessful attempts with a wireline, camera, and tractor system resulted in 50 hours of total lost time to the operator. Second, a complex cement milling, cleanout, and perforating operation was performed to kick off an onshore well in Netherlands. The real-time CT communication system was used to perforate the well and to have control over its bottomhole pressure, especially during the kick off stage. Third, an ICT system was used in a mature offshore well in Brazil with increasing water cut to run inflatable plugs to isolate the water zone. Fourth, a complex drifting, logging, jetting, zonal isolation, and scale removal operation was performed in a mature offshore well in Brazil to decrease its water cut. Fifth, a matrix acidizing operation was performed in a deepwater cased well in Brazil. The logging profiles showed that the well had low well productivity. Using the ICT system, the perforations were accurately located due to the CCL data and the acid treatment was enhanced due to the downhole pressure and temperature data. Placing the acid at the right spot significantly increased the well productivity.
The paper describes the novel real-time data monitoring system and discusses the data acquired during these field operations. The system performance and benefits confirmed during the five operations are presented. These findings outline the versatility of the 2 ?-in. ICT system, the predictability of successful operations resulting from using this system, and the cost and time savings for operators.
Copyright 2014, Society of Petroleum Engineers This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE Intelligent Energy Conference and Exhibition held in Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1-3 April 2014. This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE program committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material does not necessarily reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of SPE copyright. Abstract Timely pipeline leak detection is a significant business issue in view of a long history of catastrophic incidents and growing intolerance for such events.
Copyright 2006, Society of Petroleum Engineers This paper was prepared for presentation at the 2006 SPE Intelligent Energy Conference and Exhibition held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 11-13 April 2006. Contents of the paper, as presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). Papers presented at SPE meetings are subject to publication review by Editorial Committees of the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper for commercial purposes without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper was presented. Abstract The Mahogany field in Trinidad and Tobago was developed as a dedicated gas field with reserves of 2.6 TCF to supply gas to the Atlantic LNG Plant in 1999. At that time the field was the sole provider of gas to the ALNG project. The vision was to ensure that the field was a world class producer that met the demands on the LNG Train 1 market. With over 1TCF of gas already produced, the Mahogany Team is on its way to delivering this result.