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Casing deformation of multi-fractured horizontal wells is not a new phenomenon. However, the more recent increase in worldwide unconventional activity has demonstrated that it's occurrence and cadence is likely basin-specific. This session will attempt to frame the discussion, and demonstrate the range, variety, and severity of such occurrences, through a suite of global case histories. This initial well construction session will address how drilling actions, casing design, and installation, as well as cementing application during operations, can increase or decrease the potential for casing deformation. A significant percentage of casing deformations appear to have an underlying geomechanics cause.
This one-day course is an introduction to the emerging fibre optic technologies of Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) as well as related Distributed Acoustic (DAS) and Distributed Chemical Sensing (DCS). This programme looks at how these technologies work, and their application to the oil and gas industry. Such systems have been utilised in shallow steam injection wells as well as high-cost horizontal and multilateral wells where re-entry with a logging tool is difficult, if not impossible. This class also includes an overview of PLATO software for managing DTS data and computing flow, plus a hands-on demonstration of DTS hardware.
A test showing that it’s possible to automate the billing process for produced water hauling has opened the door for tracking a wide range of field activities. The industry downturn brought on by COVID-19 has motivated big companies to test practical applications sooner. The complete paper presents a discussion of the use of intelligent well completion in Santos Basin Presalt Cluster wells. The future of intelligent operations in our industry is being driven by advances from other sectors that have been embraced for petroleum applications. Foundational changes already taking place include advances in the type and volume of data being acquired and how the data are used.
For the upstream industry, where improvement in efficiency or production can drive significant financial results, there is no question that the size of the digital prize is huge. This paper discusses the effectiveness of third-generation (Gen3) production-logging-tool (PLT) technology, which uses co-located digital sensors for simultaneous acquisition of flow data to provide the most accurate characterization of the flow condition at each depth surveyed. This paper describes an accurate, three-step, machine-learning-based early warning system that has been used to monitor production and guide strategy in the Shengli field. This paper describes a virtual metering tool that can monitor well performance and estimate production rates using real-time data and analytical models, integrating commercial software with an optimization algorithm that combines production and reservoir information. Production monitoring requires heightened degrees of precision and efficiency as operations are streamlined and projects are evaluated continuously.
Casing deformation of multi-fractured horizontal wells is not a new phenomenon. However, the more recent increase in worldwide unconventional activity has demonstrated that it's occurrence and cadence is likely basin-specific. This session will attempt to frame the discussion, and demonstrate the range, variety, and severity of such occurrences, through a suite of global case histories. A significant percentage of casing deformations appear to have an underlying geomechanics cause. During completion and early production operations from long horizontals, there is a combination of sufficient changes in in-situ stresses, pressures and perhaps mechanical properties that lead to formation failures.
This paper discusses the effectiveness of third-generation (Gen3) production-logging-tool (PLT) technology, which uses co-located digital sensors for simultaneous acquisition of flow data to provide the most accurate characterization of the flow condition at each depth surveyed. This paper describes an accurate, three-step, machine-learning-based early warning system that has been used to monitor production and guide strategy in the Shengli field. This paper describes a virtual metering tool that can monitor well performance and estimate production rates using real-time data and analytical models, integrating commercial software with an optimization algorithm that combines production and reservoir information. Production monitoring requires heightened degrees of precision and efficiency as operations are streamlined and projects are evaluated continuously. This month’s feature focuses on innovative technologies that have been implemented in environments ranging from the Gulf of Mexico to China.
Haustveit, Kyle (Devon Energy) | Elliott, Brendan (Devon Energy) | Haffener, Jackson (Devon Energy) | Ketter, Chris (Devon Energy) | O'Brien, Josh (Devon Energy) | Almasoodi, Mouin (Devon Energy) | Moos, Sheldon (Devon Energy) | Klaassen, Trevor (Devon Energy) | Dahlgren, Kyle (Devon Energy) | Ingle, Trevor (Devon Energy) | Roberts, Jon (Devon Energy) | Gerding, Eric (Devon Energy) | Borell, Jarret (Devon Energy) | Sharma, Sundeep (Devon Energy) | Deeg, Wolfgang (Formerly Devon Energy)
Over the past decade the shale revolution has driven a dramatic increase in hydraulically stimulated wells. Since 2010, hundreds of thousands of hydraulically fractured stages have been completed on an annual basis in the US alone. It is well known that the geology and geomechanical features vary along a lateral due to landing variations, structural changes, depletion impacts, and intra-well shadowing. The variations along a lateral have the potential to impact the fluid distribution in a multi-cluster stimulation which can impact the drainage pattern and ultimately the economics of the well and unit being exploited. Due to the lack of low-cost, scalable diagnostics capable of monitoring cluster efficiency, most wells are completed using geometric cluster spacing and the same pump schedule across a lateral with known variations.
A breakthrough patent-pending pressure monitoring technique using an offset sealed wellbore as a monitoring source has led to advancements in quantifying cluster efficiencies of hydraulic stimulations in real-time. To date, over 1,500 stages have been monitored using the technique. Sealed Wellbore Pressure Monitoring (SWPM) is a low-cost, non-intrusive method used to evaluate and quantify fracture growth rates and fracture driven interactions during a hydraulic stimulation. The measurements can be made with only a surface pressure gauge on a monitor well.
SWPM provides insight into a wide range of fracture characteristics and can be applied to improve the understanding of hydraulic fractures in the following ways: Qualitative cluster efficiency/fluid distribution Fracture count in the far-field Fracture height and fracture half-length Depletion identification and mitigation Fracture model calibration Fracture closure time estimation
Qualitative cluster efficiency/fluid distribution
Fracture count in the far-field
Fracture height and fracture half-length
Depletion identification and mitigation
Fracture model calibration
Fracture closure time estimation
The technique has been validated using low frequency Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) strain monitoring, microseismic monitoring, video-based downhole perforation imaging, and production logging. This paper will review multiple SWPM case studies collected from projects performed in the Anadarko Basin (Meramec), Permian Delaware Basin (Wolfcamp), and Permian Delaware Basin (Leonard/Avalon).
The drilling records of Extreme Reservoir Contacts (ERC) like Extended Reached Drilling (ERD) and Multi-Lateral wells(ML) continue to be broken. From the initial limit of MD 10,000ft to now almost 50,000ft with extended reach depths and from dual-lateral to quad-laterals’ with 40,000-50,000ft reservoir contact. Completions rule of engaging with this type of wells continues to play ‘catch-up’. As a result, getting the full potential out of these extreme wells with limited completions options had always been a challenge. Recent innovation in "wireless electric connect/disconnect" technology combined with all electric integrated intelligent completions architecture has addressed these challenges. The well completion design is an all electrical system that provides a multi trip connect/disconnect system enabling seamless communication between upper and lower completions enabling permanent downhole monitoring and control, at the sand face. The highlight of this digital edge solution and deployment architecture enables completions to deploy in ERC wells meeting targeted drilled depths and achieving reservoir goals. The digital enablement provides real time downhole data for permanent production logging and zonal well testing capability while producing. Production and reservoir management is at finger tips of the end user.
A new innovative down hole electric telemetry enabled data transmission and power to be distributed across multiple sensors like pressure, temperature, water cut and electric flow control valve. Run on a single electrical cable, this digital completion technology with its induction coupling capability continue to complete record-drilling wells and makes today's completions limitations a history. It is now a reality for fully-digitalized Intelligent Completions solution, which can support any well type scenarios; multi-zones, horizontals, multi-laterals and extended reached drilling (ERD), including subsea completions. Each zone can be equipped with a permanent downhole infinite position valve-control, flowmeter, water-cut sensor and/or pressure/temperature gauges. This allows real-time reservoir measurement and supports ‘Dial A Rate’ flow control. Conventional flow control valves depend on hydraulic actuation system, although the technology has worked for decades, it has some inherent limitations such as need for multiple control lines limiting the number of zones, maximum depth of deployment as well the response time of hydraulic systems for very long completions. Electric valves are free from these limitations by design and provides lot more flexibility in the hands of the completion engineer. The multiple sensors measurement and data integration is achieved with a single surveillance, monitoring, diagnostics and valve-optimization production software to ensure real time data streaming, management and bringing insights to production and reservoir engineers for production optimization through remote valve control.
This digital solution of Intelligent Completions technology can finally claim that completions is no longer the limiting factor, effective reservoir management with intelligent completions can follow wherever the drill bit can go. It has been deployed worldwide from the Middle East to the open Sea in Pacific to enable zonal production-control and reservoir management. Its borderless completions architectures and standardization of modular system is the answer for Digital Oilfield and Data driven continual production optimization and reservoir management without intervention.
For the first time in Completions history, extended drilling records are matched with completing the entire well to Measured Depth (MD) with fully digitized solution of multi-zone measurements, infinite-control valves and real time data enabled production optimization system.
In the quest to increase production, extended-reach drilling (ERD) has become a popular approach. However, it is recognized that there are challenges associated with ERD wells. Longer and more complicated well profiles incur substantial operational risks during well construction and completion phases. In most cases, conventional completion systems which require well intervention during installation are not suitable for ERD wells. A new generation of completion system is required to address the challenges. While some categories of interventionless equipment, such as intelligent completion systems, have been made available decades ago, these devices carry limitations which often restricted their application in ERD wells. Most of the intelligent completion systems require control lines to operate. The requirement of control lines not only incurs extra cost to operators but also poses difficulties to run these systems into long horizontal wellbores.
Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has emerged as a promising solution in recent years. The RFID technology uses electro-magnetic waves to establish communications with downhole tools, realizing wireless or "control-line-less" operations. The RFID technique adopted by the oil and gas industry utilizes passive tags which can be made in small sizes and at low cost, suitable for downhole applications. A recent field development campaign which adopted RFID-enabled downhole tools has showed the benefits that RFID technology can bring to the industry. In this campaign, the operator required a remote operated liner toe isolation device. The device would need to be run open to allow circulation during deployment of the lower completion and would be remotely closed to create a barrier at the toe after lower completion installation and well fluid displacement. An RFID-enabled remote operated circulating toe sleeve was developed, delivered and deployed.
Summary The artificial lift (AL) system is the most efficient production technique in optimizing production from the unconventional horizontal oil and gas wells. Nonetheless, due to declining reservoir pressure during the production life of a well, artificial lifting of oil and gas remains a critical issue. Notwithstanding the attempt by several studies in the past few decades to understand and develop cutting-edge technologies to optimize the application of AL in tight formations, there remains differing assessments of the best approach, AL type, optimum time, and conditions to install AL during the life of a well. This report presents a comprehensive review of AL system application with specific focus on tight oil and gas formations across the world. The review focuses on over 35 successful and unsuccessful field tests in the unconventional horizontal wells over the past few decades. The purpose is to apprise the industry and academic researchers on the various AL optimization approaches that have been used and suggest AL optimization areas where new technologies can be developed. Introduction Tight formations are unconventional reservoirs with low permeability and porosity. Oil and gas production from these formations require stimulation to attain economic recovery from these formations. Over the past few decades, there has been a surge in using AL designs and applications in the development of the unconventional horizontal oil and gas wells by the industry. The production rates have been observed to drop by over 40 to 80% within the first year in the unconventional reservoir wells (Wigwe et al. 2019) after completion and fracturing operations (Pankaj et al. 2018). In the unconventional wells, the major characteristic feature is the swift production decline and changes at different life stages of the well. AL application in the unconventional horizontal wells (Figure 1) (Ahmed et al. 2019) is considered as the only viable option to raise the production rate of wells without any well intervention, after the well has reached its economic limit (Kolawole et al. 2019b). The limitation in achieving optimal productivity in deep horizontal wells is the lack of proper and efficient design of its AL system. Fluctuating flow rates, liquid slugging, damaging solids, and gas interference are some of the challenges of flow in the horizontal wellbore section.