|Theme||Visible||Selectable||Appearance||Zoom Range (now: 0)|
On the day he was sworn in as US President, Joe Biden immediately raised questions about the future of US oil and gas exploration. The big unknown was first wrapped up in an order that quietly slipped out of the US Department of the Interior on Monday. It declared a 60-day moratorium on issuing leases and permits for oil development on federal lands and waters. Biden said during his campaign that he would be looking at stiffer restrictions and by Wednesday his administration made good on that promise after issuing an executive order to that end. According to a fact sheet posted online by the White House, the US Department of the Interior has been instructed to pause new leases for oil and developments in federal onshore and offshore areas.
In an SPE training course webinar in April, "Ethics for Engineers," Larry Brown, a licensed professional engineer in Oklahoma and Texas and an SPE Distinguished Member, reminded engineers of the ethical obligations they carry in their professional careers. Approximately 140 participants joined the webinar to learn about the role of ethics in society and specific ethical considerations for engineers. Brown said the Texas Board of Licensed Engineers estimated that 30% to 35% of all US engineers are licensed. SPE's estimates for its members are similar, he said. An early record of engineer licensing related to water rights was documented in 1907 in Wyoming.
Visible light is all around us, from sunlight to street lighting and automobile headlights to the backlight on a smartphone and in nearly every indoor space. Humans are so accustomed to working and living in artificial light that many of us have not stopped to consider the implications. Most OSH professionals’ experience with light and artificial lighting is likely limited to assessing whether sufficient light exists for people to see where they are going or carry out a task, or whether a light is too bright. This article aims to provide a current review of lighting for OSH professionals. Such a review is timely due to emerging issues including energy efficiency, human health impacts (e.g., blue light hazard, circadian rhythm disruption, fatigue), human performance (e.g., visual performance, visual comfort) and environmental impacts (e.g., light pollution).
The visible light spectrum (VLS) is typically considered the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from approximately 400 to 700 nm wavelength (Figure 1; Elert, 2019; IUPAC, 1997). The colors range from violet (~400 to 450 nm), blue (~450 to 500 nm), green (~500 to 550 nm), yellow (~550 to 600 nm), orange (~600 to 650 nm) and red (~650 to 700 nm). However, there can be some significant variation in exact wavelength ranges reported for colors (Elert, 2019; Helmenstine, 2020; Jones, 2020). The radiant energy of light is characterized by the direct relationship with frequency (Brune, 2020); that is, the shorter wavelength range of the VLS (e.g., violet/purple) has more intrinsic energy than longer wavelengths (e.g., red). The radiant flux (power) of a light source is a function of the frequency of the emitted radiation and time over which the energy is transmitted (DiLaura, Houser, Mistrick et al., 2011; Sliney, 2016).
Recently, global climate change and air quality have become increasingly important environmental concerns. Consequently, there has been a rise in collaborative international efforts to reduce the concentration of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants. Greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), occurring naturally and as the result of human activity. In addition, criteria pollutants (1970 amendments to the Clean Air Act required EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for certain pollutants known to be hazardous to human health) include emissions of nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and total unburned hydrocarbons. International and national governments are implementing more regulations on air emissions.
This standard on corrosion prevention and control (CPC) planning is intended to support future CPC improvements to national acquisition and sustainment of products and facilities at an acceptable cost. It provides a standardized framework for a supplier’s plan to control corrosion of supplied products and facilities. The standard is intended for use by public and private facility owners/acquisition agencies that require their suppliers to provide corrosion prevention and control procedures as a deliverable provided with the purchased products and facilities. The standard includes:
• Attributes of the supplied product or facility that require planning for CPC;
• Considerations for material selection and design of a product or facility to minimize corrosion;
• Items or topics that should be addressed in a CPC plan;
• Items or topics that should be addressed in CPC planning which affect CPC in design, fabrication and construction, operation and use, and maintenance and sustainability;
• Characteristics of the key elements of CPC planning;
• New in this revision - Approaches to CPC assessment.
Corrosion costs the United States of America an estimated $451B annually.1 While guidance existed for corrosion prevention and control (CPC) planning, there wasn’t a published standard that defined the key elements/composition of CPC planning for all public and private sector users as well as the suppliers of products (all equipment, systems, platforms, vehicles, support equipment and items necessary to perform a specific function or mission including all components of such items) and facilities (all buildings, structures, airfields, port facilities, surface and subterranean utility systems, heating and cooling systems, fuel tanks, pavements and bridges). This standard on CPC planning is needed to support future CPC improvements to procurement/contracting and sustainability of products and facilities at an acceptable cost. Inclusion of the appropriate levels of CPC requirements in individual statements of work (SOW), contracts and agreements is inconsistent across the enormous number of products and facilities projects acquired and sustained in both the public and private sectors. Referencing an approved standard that defines deterioration of materials, CPC planning characteristics and the appropriate application of CPC technologies and practices provides uniformity; is a more practical and reliable method to influence acquisition and sustainability programs; and is of benefit to all stakeholders.
Ma, Yuxian (National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center / Tianjin University) | Xu, Ning (National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center) | Chen, Xue (National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center) | Zhang, Dayong (Dalian University of Technology) | Yuan, Shuai (National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center) | Liu, Xueqin (National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center) | Shi, Wenqi (National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center) | Li, Wei (Tianjin University)
Based on the evolution law of ice conditions under climate change scenarios, this paper explored ice-induced vibration of the structures of offshore wind turbine in a certain area of Liaodong Bay. Firstly, the probability fitting analysis was performed with the data of sea ice extents (5 levels) from 1950 to 2018 under different scenarios. Secondly, the ice thickness probability density function of the sea area was corrected based on the analysis result. Thirdly, the numerical simulation of wind turbine structure was carried out and the dynamic ice forces of the wind power infrastructure was determined according to the ice force function for the transient dynamic analysis. The simulation results indicated found that climate change had a direct impact on the attenuation of ice conditions. Due to the decreased sea ice extent, the fatigue life of engineering structures in the study sea area was increased by 1.86%.
Accurate reliability assessment is important in the planning, design and safe operation of ocean engineering structure in ice covered areas. In recent years, with the development of the marginal oilfields in the Liaodong Bay, economic indicators are the main indicators to be considered in the structural strength design of platforms. If the designed values of sea ice parameters are too low, the structure in ice area will be frequently exposed to great risks; if the designed values of sea ice parameters are too high, the production cost will be significantly increased. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the engineering cost in the design of marine projects under the premise of meeting the structural strength. In general, the control load of offshore engineering structures in the ice-covered area is ice load, so the alternating stress caused by ice sheet in front of marine structures is an important factor of structural fatigue failures. The indicators influencing the structural stress are ice thickness and ice velocity. Ice condition data used in previous assessments of marine structures were basically collected in the 20th century. However, compared with the 20th century, climate change in the 21st century has attenuated the overall ice situation in China’s seas in the past 20 years (LIU Yongqing, 2017). Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the reliability of offshore engineering structures based on the ice data in recent years.
Abstract Oil & gas block operatorship may change as the block's agreement contract changes. The changing executions expected to have smooth transition between current operator to the upcoming operator since it may interfere performance of safety, environment, health, efficiency, reliability, production, and workforce. Focusing in environmental issues, there are some steps that called ‘SAFE’, i.e. consist of Scoping, Assessment, Follow up action, and Ensure. ‘SAFE’ is risk-based liabilities approach that involve both operators (current & the upcoming) and may assisted by Government agency. Scoping is to define petroleum agreement requirement, the areas/locations, production facilities status, environmental related facilities, supporting facilities, environmental audit result, environmental performance, permitting & reporting requirements, allegation of contamination records, and enforcement documents. Scoping conducted by desktop documents review and field visit if necessary. Result of the scoping is more precise high-level list of concern items to focus on for further Assessment. On Assessment step, all identified concern items assessed further with methods, liability, Role & Responsibility, and budget to have more reliable and accurate of risk calculation (risk revalidation). Methods describe how to conduct the assessment such as workshop, coordination meeting, site visit, aerial photography analysis etc. Liability of selected item to understand whether closure of past and present liabilities have been performed and also mitigation for identified potential future liabilities have been secured to avoid future potential conflict of liability between operators. Liability cover of compliance, remediation, fines & penalties, compensation, punitive damages, and natural resource damages. Role & responsibility to define who does what and how on when and who is responsible for the closure actions. Budget to quantify the environmental risk. All the items under the Assessment step considered to perform risk revalidation. Result of the assessment (recommendation) then follow up by actions to mitigate the potential risk. It may need physical activities such as facilities decommissioning and clean up, further environmental study, government bureaucracy approval, agreement of environmental procedure sharing etc. Follow up action require regular tracking progress status in serial times. At the last step, ensure all identified high and medium risk mitigated as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP) remaining risk. Finally, conducting ‘SAFE’ thoroughly for all identified risks, both operators may have clear role & responsibility, focus utilizing the resources, compete with the deadline time, avoid dispute liabilities post the transition date, and ensure continuity of environmental compliance.
Despite the documented presence of high biodiversity values, the preliminary baseline studies included in Environmental Impact Assessment studies (EIAs) in developing countries are often very generic, rely on limited primary data and do not include comprehensive biodiversity baseline surveys including habitat mapping and data on marine fauna aligned with the International Financial Institutions (IFIs) requirements. This becomes a critical issue for companies or financing institutions (IFIs) applying specific standards on biodiversity conservation and protection such as IFC PS6 and EBRD PR6, as well as other recognizes requirements, in the decision making process when studies are located within or in close proximity to legally protected areas, Important Bird Areas, Key Biodiversity Areas and, in general, areas of relevance from a biodiversity conservation perspective. This study presents the rationale and outcomes of a phased biodiversity study (Phased BIA) that has been developed to improve knowledge and fill initial gaps identified in the EIA study of an O&G development project in Egypt, Red Sea. The Phased BIA included: i) a desktop review of biodiversity baseline conditions with preliminary identification of existing habitats and presence of species; ii) a desktop biodiversity habitat mapping with identification of potential modified, natural and critical habitats; iii) the definition of specific coastal and marine biodiversity surveys within the Project area of influence; iv) a subsequent habitat mapping refinement exercise following "Ground-Truthing" techniques and drafting of habitat maps with the aim to provide a more robust and reliable impact assessment.