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While President Donald Trump's administration was working to relax offshore drilling regulations, there was a spike in offshore accidents and a decrease in safety inspections, according to an analysis by the Center for American Progress, a liberal think tank. Launched in May 2019 to deliver critical safety information to offshore oil and gas workers, the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement’s BSEE!Safe text notification service now has more than 5,300 subscribers. As a result of its investigation into the incident and its findings, the bureau recommends that operators increase scrutiny in the design, placement, and maintenance of their subsea infrastructure. The Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement is launching a safety initiative to bring critical information directly to offshore workers on the outer continental shelf. The BSEE!Safe program uses text messages to send links to its published Safety Alerts and Bulletins.
Litigation is considered more expensive and arguably leads to more adversarial relationships rather than relationships that facilitate long-term development and cooperation typically associated with the development of international petroleum projects. Depending upon the arbitration clause and arbitration forum used, arbitration can offer a quicker, confidential, and binding resolution. A variety of pre-arbitral methods, including mediation, provide nonbinding alternatives to parties who wish to avoid litigation and arbitration.
Amid the coronavirus pandemic and economic turmoil in the fossil energy industry, the BLM canceled all oil and gas lease sales it had previously scheduled for the summer. The planned summer lease sales were to take place in states across the West, including Colorado, where the last federal lease sale was held 26 March. The leases in that sale either received no bids or sold for the lowest possible price of $2.00 per acre. Wyoming sold the most parcels—75 of 105 offered—during the online first-quarter sale, according to online marketplace EnergyNet, raising approximately $3.3 million for parcels totaling about 71,689 acres. Other first-quarter lease results were as follows.
Pelucchi, Marco (Eni Upstream and Technical Services, Milan, Italy) | Sali, Jason (Eni Upstream and Technical Services, Milan, Italy) | Consalvi, Laura (Eni Upstream and Technical Services, Milan, Italy) | Pedroni, Paola Maria (Eni Upstream and Technical Services, Milan, Italy)
Effective minimization of environmental footprint can be achieved through the timely and systematic application of innovative approaches such as the Mitigation Hierarchy (MH) along O&G project lifecycle. This ensures the presence of biodiversity and sensitive areas (such as protected areas, critical habitats and threatened species) and good management practices properly inform project activities that depend and may impact on natural environment.
The MH is a framework designed to maximise impact prevention over restoration and offset, balancing development priorities with the sustainable use of natural resources. Consisting of a sequence of two preventive (avoid and minimise) and two corrective measures (restore and offset), it is adopted by the extractive sector, development banks and financial institutions as the current best available tool for achieving measurable performance objectives such as no net loss or net positive impact. However, its timely and systematic application along project lifecycle can be challenging, particularly for companies with a complex, diversified and global asset portfolio.
In line with company Policy on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (BES), we apply the MH as early as possible in the project lifecycle. To effectively minimise project environmental footprint, we prioritize preventive over corrective measures following a risk-based approach which accounts for the complexities of each project and the natural and social environment it interacts with.
Along the project lifecycle, we have faced internal and external challenges in the practical implementation of the mitigation hierarchy. Internal challenges included aligning the project engineering and financing timelines with the BES baseline and impact assessment timeline, while external challenges include balancing demands of local communities and other stakeholders, the diverse operational contexts and regulatory frameworks aligned with or lacking mitigation best practices. Innovative and collaborative approaches are therefore necessary to effectively communicate or build capacity on company science-based BES management practices.
Early exploration and development phases correspond with best opportunity to identify BES priorities and apply the preventive steps of the MH. Applications include evaluating new opportunities, spatial placement or relocation of facilities and linear infrastructure, and project scheduling. During the development phase, a suite of GIS-based tools and BES assessments provide a supportive framework to apply the MH in concept selection, definition and execution. Subsequently in the operational phase, Action Plans are used to ensure the delivery and iterative evaluation of impact mitigation and the continuous improvement of BES performance.
Through practical examples spanning different phases of the project lifecycle and sites located in biodiversity rich and sensitive areas (e.g. United States, Myanmar, Ghana, Egypt and Ecuador), this paper will illustrate how challenges can be overcome starting from early exploration phase (evaluation of new ventures), in project development (design and construction), and during production. We will also reflect on the contribution of the MH to value creation from operations in sensitive areas.
Visible light is all around us, from sunlight to street lighting and automobile headlights to the backlight on a smartphone and in nearly every indoor space. Humans are so accustomed to working and living in artificial light that many of us have not stopped to consider the implications. Most OSH professionals’ experience with light and artificial lighting is likely limited to assessing whether sufficient light exists for people to see where they are going or carry out a task, or whether a light is too bright. This article aims to provide a current review of lighting for OSH professionals. Such a review is timely due to emerging issues including energy efficiency, human health impacts (e.g., blue light hazard, circadian rhythm disruption, fatigue), human performance (e.g., visual performance, visual comfort) and environmental impacts (e.g., light pollution).
The visible light spectrum (VLS) is typically considered the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from approximately 400 to 700 nm wavelength (Figure 1; Elert, 2019; IUPAC, 1997). The colors range from violet (~400 to 450 nm), blue (~450 to 500 nm), green (~500 to 550 nm), yellow (~550 to 600 nm), orange (~600 to 650 nm) and red (~650 to 700 nm). However, there can be some significant variation in exact wavelength ranges reported for colors (Elert, 2019; Helmenstine, 2020; Jones, 2020). The radiant energy of light is characterized by the direct relationship with frequency (Brune, 2020); that is, the shorter wavelength range of the VLS (e.g., violet/purple) has more intrinsic energy than longer wavelengths (e.g., red). The radiant flux (power) of a light source is a function of the frequency of the emitted radiation and time over which the energy is transmitted (DiLaura, Houser, Mistrick et al., 2011; Sliney, 2016).