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Ma, Yuxian (National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center / Tianjin University) | Xu, Ning (National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center) | Chen, Xue (National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center) | Zhang, Dayong (Dalian University of Technology) | Yuan, Shuai (National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center) | Liu, Xueqin (National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center) | Shi, Wenqi (National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center) | Li, Wei (Tianjin University)
Based on the evolution law of ice conditions under climate change scenarios, this paper explored ice-induced vibration of the structures of offshore wind turbine in a certain area of Liaodong Bay. Firstly, the probability fitting analysis was performed with the data of sea ice extents (5 levels) from 1950 to 2018 under different scenarios. Secondly, the ice thickness probability density function of the sea area was corrected based on the analysis result. Thirdly, the numerical simulation of wind turbine structure was carried out and the dynamic ice forces of the wind power infrastructure was determined according to the ice force function for the transient dynamic analysis. The simulation results indicated found that climate change had a direct impact on the attenuation of ice conditions. Due to the decreased sea ice extent, the fatigue life of engineering structures in the study sea area was increased by 1.86%.
Accurate reliability assessment is important in the planning, design and safe operation of ocean engineering structure in ice covered areas. In recent years, with the development of the marginal oilfields in the Liaodong Bay, economic indicators are the main indicators to be considered in the structural strength design of platforms. If the designed values of sea ice parameters are too low, the structure in ice area will be frequently exposed to great risks; if the designed values of sea ice parameters are too high, the production cost will be significantly increased. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the engineering cost in the design of marine projects under the premise of meeting the structural strength. In general, the control load of offshore engineering structures in the ice-covered area is ice load, so the alternating stress caused by ice sheet in front of marine structures is an important factor of structural fatigue failures. The indicators influencing the structural stress are ice thickness and ice velocity. Ice condition data used in previous assessments of marine structures were basically collected in the 20th century. However, compared with the 20th century, climate change in the 21st century has attenuated the overall ice situation in China’s seas in the past 20 years (LIU Yongqing, 2017). Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the reliability of offshore engineering structures based on the ice data in recent years.
Abstract The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement's (BOEMRE) Environmental Studies Program has funded more than $750 million in environmental studies since 1973 to support decisionmaking as it relates to offshore oil and gas and most recently, renewable energy production. Each regional office within the agency developed its own studies program to support environmental research for information needs specific to that region. The regions' studies programs evolve as new information needs and environmental concerns arise. The Gulf of Mexico Region's (GOMR) Environmental Studies Program funds studies related to air quality, biology, protected species, physical oceanography, oil spills, socioeconomics, and marine archaeology as well as other topics. This paper will discuss BOEMRE's Environmental Studies Program in the GOMR and highlight studies that focused on or included a marine archaeology component to illustrate how science is used to inform decisionmaking and ensure that industry activities do not impact sensitive resources. It will also discuss the program's continual evolution in response to changing information needs such as studying the impacts from the Macondo oil spill. Study results aid in the analyses incorporated into our environmental impact statements and environmental assessments required by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), and the development of survey requirements. Study results are also used to create or modify environmental mitigations that may be assigned to permits as a condition of approval where sensitive features such as live-bottom habitats, chemosynthetic communities, or archaeological resources could potentially be impacted by industry activities. The BOEMRE's Environmental Studies Program and the results of agency-funded environmental studies as they relate to analyses and management of offshore resources have not been previously presented at OTC. This paper will inform industry about the Environmental Studies Program and how study results are used to support agency decisionmaking. Introduction In 1973, the Environmental Studies Program (ESP) was developed to support the oil and gas leasing program administered by the US Department of the Interior (DOI). The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA) of 1953 as amended, authorized the program and established its goals, while the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) imparted additional statutory authority. The goals of the ESP, provided in Section 20 of OCSLA, are to:Establish the information needed for assessment and management of environmental impacts on the human, marine, and coastal environments of the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) and the potentially affected coastal areas; Predict impacts on the marine biota which may result from chronic, low-level pollution or large spills associated with OCS production, from drilling fluids and cuttings discharges, pipeline emplacement, or onshore facilities; and Monitor human, marine, and coastal environments to provide time series and data trend information for identification of significant changes in the quality and productivity of these environments, and to identify the causes of these changes.
Al Gore’s book, An Inconvenient Truth, awakened us to how our life styles and business practices are impacting our world; accelerating pace of melting polar ice caps, rising seas, toxic chemicals in our water and food supplies, climate changes, and limited access to resources. Concern over a toxic environment is not new. Rachel Carson exposed the dangers of pesticides in her book, Silent Spring. Now we understand the impact industry and life styles have on our environment, and we are requiring a personal and professional environmental accountability for our actions.
Businesses are looking for green solutions. Corporate social responsibility is becoming the new yard stick that individuals, society, and companies are using to determine who they will work for, invest in, and do business with. It is no longer acceptable to do no harm; you now must do some good for your employees, the environment, and your community. Companies are seeking out these new business solutions that address profits, the environment, and society which is referred to as the “Triple Bottom-Line.”
Companies have a sense of urgency to implement green solutions. The safety, health and environmental professional is taking on a risk management role, looking at a 360° view of possible solutions, beyond the task and solution and evaluating how these changes can introduce new loss exposures to the workplace and community. These professionals will evaluate new technology and chemical/mechanical/biological exposures for which little information may be available. Many of these potential hazards are not regulated, evaluated, or adequately addressed by existing OSHA standards. Hazardous chemical exposures in particular present challenges because substitution is not always a workable solution. These chemicals may not have complete safety analysis, be too costly, or they may not fit the task’s technical requirements. Socially responsible companies demand the highest level of job safety, creating a culture of protection as opposed to a culture of compliance or, as Ray Anderson of Interface calls the practice, “being as bad as the law will allow.”
Al Gore's book "An Inconvenient Truth" awakened us to how our life styles and our business practices are impacting our world; accelerating pace of melting polar ice caps, rising seas, toxic chemicals in our water & food supplies, climate changes (floods & droughts), limited access to resources. We are now requiring a personal and professional environmental accountability for our actions. The process of manufacturing, distribution, and disposal of or recycling of products is going green, but green jobs are not necessarily safe jobs. These changes provide opportunities for the safety professional in the areas of: the health and safety, product safety, and environmental protection.
Where as the Oil and Gas industry has continue to make significant contribution to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Oil producing countries in particular and the world in general, it however continue to raise more questions than answers to the global environmental concerns like the twin issues of global warming and climate change which are partly caused by the activities of the Oil & Gas industry that leads to Gas Flaring, release of Green House Gases (GHG), Acid Rain, Smog, etc. There is therefore the need for the petroleum industry players to try and strike a balance between the obvious need for socioeconomic development and the global environmental concerns so as to achieve sustainable development. In view of the foregoing, this paper therefore intends to highlight those actions and strategies that need to be employed by the players in the industry in order to achieve the dual concerns of sustainable development, namely achieving socioeconomic development while also protecting and preserving the future of the environment. Increase in the production and the use of various renewable energy sources, reduction or total elimination of gas flaring and deliberate policies towards encouraging the state of the art on renewable are some of the strategies that can be employed in order to achieve sustainable development as enshrined in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).