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Ma, Yuxian (National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center / Tianjin University) | Xu, Ning (National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center) | Chen, Xue (National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center) | Zhang, Dayong (Dalian University of Technology) | Yuan, Shuai (National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center) | Liu, Xueqin (National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center) | Shi, Wenqi (National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center) | Li, Wei (Tianjin University)
Based on the evolution law of ice conditions under climate change scenarios, this paper explored ice-induced vibration of the structures of offshore wind turbine in a certain area of Liaodong Bay. Firstly, the probability fitting analysis was performed with the data of sea ice extents (5 levels) from 1950 to 2018 under different scenarios. Secondly, the ice thickness probability density function of the sea area was corrected based on the analysis result. Thirdly, the numerical simulation of wind turbine structure was carried out and the dynamic ice forces of the wind power infrastructure was determined according to the ice force function for the transient dynamic analysis. The simulation results indicated found that climate change had a direct impact on the attenuation of ice conditions. Due to the decreased sea ice extent, the fatigue life of engineering structures in the study sea area was increased by 1.86%.
Accurate reliability assessment is important in the planning, design and safe operation of ocean engineering structure in ice covered areas. In recent years, with the development of the marginal oilfields in the Liaodong Bay, economic indicators are the main indicators to be considered in the structural strength design of platforms. If the designed values of sea ice parameters are too low, the structure in ice area will be frequently exposed to great risks; if the designed values of sea ice parameters are too high, the production cost will be significantly increased. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the engineering cost in the design of marine projects under the premise of meeting the structural strength. In general, the control load of offshore engineering structures in the ice-covered area is ice load, so the alternating stress caused by ice sheet in front of marine structures is an important factor of structural fatigue failures. The indicators influencing the structural stress are ice thickness and ice velocity. Ice condition data used in previous assessments of marine structures were basically collected in the 20th century. However, compared with the 20th century, climate change in the 21st century has attenuated the overall ice situation in China’s seas in the past 20 years (LIU Yongqing, 2017). Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the reliability of offshore engineering structures based on the ice data in recent years.
Red tide is one of the serious water environmental problems in the East China Sea, and it is difficult to predict the pollution scales. In this paper, the particle tracking model based on Lagrange method to simulate dispersion and advection and random walk of mass particles is employed to simulate a red tide event in the East China Sea occurred in May, 2014. In the numerical model, both tidal current and wind are included to consider the effects on the dispersion and transport of particles, and the verification results demonstrate that the model has a high accuracy for predicting the transport of red tide. The numerical simulation of the red tide event indicates that the local tidal current and wind are the dominant driven forces of red tide. The rotating tidal current in the sea area has a small residual current, thus the net transport of red tide by tidal current is limited. While the drift velocity and acceleration effect due to wind have a significant contribution to net transport and diffusion scale of red tide. The net transport direction of red tide is consistent with the main direction of wind. The application of particle tracking model could achieve the quick prediction of red tide, providing effective data and information for the warning and prevention of red tide disaster.
In recent years, the improvement of environmental-protection awareness las led to an increasingly concerned about the environmental problems such as water pollution, and the Water Environmental Science has gradually developed in the course of dealing with various environmental problems (Kuang et al., 2011). Red tide disaster is one of many issues in water environment. Since the 1990s, the number of red tides disaster in China has increased yearly, and the increased biological species and the enhanced toxicity have caused enormous losses to human society (Guo, 1994; Qi et al., 1994). In 2013, there were 46 red tides occurred in China coastal area. Among these red tides, 7 times of red tides were found being toxic and the dominant species was mostly Prorocentrum of East China Sea found in the coastal area of Zhejiang (SOA, 2013). In the same year, 56 times of red tides were found to affect an accumulation area of 7290 km2 in China. The highest recorded occurrence frequency of red tides was found in the East China Sea with a dominant species of Prorocentrum during May and July every year (SOA, 2014).
Simulation-based Life Cycle Performance Assessment is introduced as a method to assess environmental characteristics and costs of energy generation onboard ships. Therefore, the entire life cycle of the system is investigated: System simulations of the operational phase are combined with inventory data for upstream (and downstream) processes, e.g. fuel production, in order to quantify emissions, costs and energy use. In addition, impact assessment is used to describe potential environmental impacts rather than pure emissions to improve comparability and comprehensibility. This method may not only be used to compare different systems in order to assist in decisionmaking processes but also allows to identify weak-points and improvement options in system design and operation. This is demonstrated for a case study of an energy system onboard a RoPax ferry.
There are multiple elements of inherent value in environmentally impacted properties. These elements can include real estate, business, natural resources and ecological service values. An evaluation to assist in unlocking the trapped value at a contaminated property is described. The overall approach considered the degree of remediation that should be undertaken while considering the greatest benefit to society. The degree of remediation to be undertaken should protect human health and the environment and meet regulatory requirements, but it should also be minimally intrusive.
At the example site this approach resulted in a reduced environmental footprint for the project and the protection of valuable ecological services provided by the property. This approach, however, reduced the real estate and business value of the property. As a result, an analysis of the value of the natural resource and ecological services elements was conducted. This process included a valuation of the potential economic uplift achieved by 1) wetlands mitigation credits under a banking instrument, 2) tax benefits of implementing a conservation easement, and 3) solar energy generation opportunities.
Assessment results show that economic value can be unlocked at contaminated sites by means other than removing contamination from the site to the extent practical. This approach also resulted in a more sustainable solution and the conservation of dwindling natural resources and habitats.
Chien, Lien-Kwei (Dept. of Harbor and River Engineering and Coastal Disaster Prevention Research Center National Taiwan Ocean University) | Tseng, Wen-Chien (Dept. of Harbor and River Engineering and Coastal Disaster Prevention Research Center National Taiwan Ocean University) | Chang, Chih-Hsin (National Science and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction) | Hsu, Chih-Hsiang (CECI Engineering Consultant, Inc)
Ever-increasing global demand for energy, and the world's supply predominantly being fossil-based, implies continued growth of emissions. Efficiency improvements and employment of non-fossil energy will definitely help mitigate the problem, but it is generally recognized that "pure carbon offsets" will have to play a major role if the problem has to be combated in a timely fashion. Discussion on pure offsets employing geological storage [namely, carbon capture and storage (CCS)] is advancing rapidly. However, major issues with this approach are its high cost and the long-term post operation liability.
The author has previously proposed an alternate approach of pure offset-charcoal sequestration (CS), which essentially employs conversion of dead plant material into inert solid carbon. CS promises to be both less expensive and a better option as far as the operational and post-operation liability is concerned. Among the numerous advantages of the charcoal approach is its easier reversibility, both in terms of liability and costs. Although implementation of this approach at a scale where it can make a significant impact on global CO2 concentration needs to be preceded by a substantial information dissemination and public preparedness, a practical way to introduce it is through using municipal solid waste (MSW) as the feed biomass for CS. This will not only allow time for public acceptance to evolve, and evaluation of potential associated risks, but immediately help mitigate the growing problem of space requirement for waste landfills, waste transport costs and emission of methane from the rotting municipal waste associated with the continued urban sprawl.
This paper, aside from describing the carbon sequestration from waste (CSW) method, estimates the cost of carbon offset with this and other competing approaches, such as the use of MSW for conversion to bio-alcohol and for power generation. It highlights the difference between carbon credits associated with mobile energy needs (pure offsets) and stationary energy needs and makes a case for price duality of carbon credits. It also compares the global potential of CSW in combating the greenhouse gas (GHG) problem, making more than two Socolow wedges with use of charcoal for soil enhancement and other purposes amounting to less than 0.04 such wedges. In this work, the cost of carbon offset with CSW is estimated to be as low as CAD 2.6/tonne CO2 equivalent (CO2e).
Lee, Jaewon (Department of Energy Resources Engineering and Research Institute of Energy and Resources, Seoul National University, Seoul) | Min, Ki-Bok (Department of Energy Resources Engineering and Research Institute of Energy and Resources, Seoul National University) | Stephansson, Ove (GFZ German Research Center for Geosciences)
Michailides, Constantine (Department of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTh)) | Loukogeorgaki, Eva (Department of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTh)) | Angelides, Demos C. (Department of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTh))
Al Gore’s book, An Inconvenient Truth, awakened us to how our life styles and business practices are impacting our world; accelerating pace of melting polar ice caps, rising seas, toxic chemicals in our water and food supplies, climate changes, and limited access to resources. Concern over a toxic environment is not new. Rachel Carson exposed the dangers of pesticides in her book, Silent Spring. Now we understand the impact industry and life styles have on our environment, and we are requiring a personal and professional environmental accountability for our actions.
Businesses are looking for green solutions. Corporate social responsibility is becoming the new yard stick that individuals, society, and companies are using to determine who they will work for, invest in, and do business with. It is no longer acceptable to do no harm; you now must do some good for your employees, the environment, and your community. Companies are seeking out these new business solutions that address profits, the environment, and society which is referred to as the “Triple Bottom-Line.”
Companies have a sense of urgency to implement green solutions. The safety, health and environmental professional is taking on a risk management role, looking at a 360° view of possible solutions, beyond the task and solution and evaluating how these changes can introduce new loss exposures to the workplace and community. These professionals will evaluate new technology and chemical/mechanical/biological exposures for which little information may be available. Many of these potential hazards are not regulated, evaluated, or adequately addressed by existing OSHA standards. Hazardous chemical exposures in particular present challenges because substitution is not always a workable solution. These chemicals may not have complete safety analysis, be too costly, or they may not fit the task’s technical requirements. Socially responsible companies demand the highest level of job safety, creating a culture of protection as opposed to a culture of compliance or, as Ray Anderson of Interface calls the practice, “being as bad as the law will allow.”