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Ma, Yuxian (National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center / Tianjin University) | Xu, Ning (National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center) | Chen, Xue (National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center) | Zhang, Dayong (Dalian University of Technology) | Yuan, Shuai (National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center) | Liu, Xueqin (National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center) | Shi, Wenqi (National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center) | Li, Wei (Tianjin University)
Based on the evolution law of ice conditions under climate change scenarios, this paper explored ice-induced vibration of the structures of offshore wind turbine in a certain area of Liaodong Bay. Firstly, the probability fitting analysis was performed with the data of sea ice extents (5 levels) from 1950 to 2018 under different scenarios. Secondly, the ice thickness probability density function of the sea area was corrected based on the analysis result. Thirdly, the numerical simulation of wind turbine structure was carried out and the dynamic ice forces of the wind power infrastructure was determined according to the ice force function for the transient dynamic analysis. The simulation results indicated found that climate change had a direct impact on the attenuation of ice conditions. Due to the decreased sea ice extent, the fatigue life of engineering structures in the study sea area was increased by 1.86%.
Accurate reliability assessment is important in the planning, design and safe operation of ocean engineering structure in ice covered areas. In recent years, with the development of the marginal oilfields in the Liaodong Bay, economic indicators are the main indicators to be considered in the structural strength design of platforms. If the designed values of sea ice parameters are too low, the structure in ice area will be frequently exposed to great risks; if the designed values of sea ice parameters are too high, the production cost will be significantly increased. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the engineering cost in the design of marine projects under the premise of meeting the structural strength. In general, the control load of offshore engineering structures in the ice-covered area is ice load, so the alternating stress caused by ice sheet in front of marine structures is an important factor of structural fatigue failures. The indicators influencing the structural stress are ice thickness and ice velocity. Ice condition data used in previous assessments of marine structures were basically collected in the 20th century. However, compared with the 20th century, climate change in the 21st century has attenuated the overall ice situation in China’s seas in the past 20 years (LIU Yongqing, 2017). Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the reliability of offshore engineering structures based on the ice data in recent years.
Red tide is one of the serious water environmental problems in the East China Sea, and it is difficult to predict the pollution scales. In this paper, the particle tracking model based on Lagrange method to simulate dispersion and advection and random walk of mass particles is employed to simulate a red tide event in the East China Sea occurred in May, 2014. In the numerical model, both tidal current and wind are included to consider the effects on the dispersion and transport of particles, and the verification results demonstrate that the model has a high accuracy for predicting the transport of red tide. The numerical simulation of the red tide event indicates that the local tidal current and wind are the dominant driven forces of red tide. The rotating tidal current in the sea area has a small residual current, thus the net transport of red tide by tidal current is limited. While the drift velocity and acceleration effect due to wind have a significant contribution to net transport and diffusion scale of red tide. The net transport direction of red tide is consistent with the main direction of wind. The application of particle tracking model could achieve the quick prediction of red tide, providing effective data and information for the warning and prevention of red tide disaster.
In recent years, the improvement of environmental-protection awareness las led to an increasingly concerned about the environmental problems such as water pollution, and the Water Environmental Science has gradually developed in the course of dealing with various environmental problems (Kuang et al., 2011). Red tide disaster is one of many issues in water environment. Since the 1990s, the number of red tides disaster in China has increased yearly, and the increased biological species and the enhanced toxicity have caused enormous losses to human society (Guo, 1994; Qi et al., 1994). In 2013, there were 46 red tides occurred in China coastal area. Among these red tides, 7 times of red tides were found being toxic and the dominant species was mostly Prorocentrum of East China Sea found in the coastal area of Zhejiang (SOA, 2013). In the same year, 56 times of red tides were found to affect an accumulation area of 7290 km2 in China. The highest recorded occurrence frequency of red tides was found in the East China Sea with a dominant species of Prorocentrum during May and July every year (SOA, 2014).
Simulation-based Life Cycle Performance Assessment is introduced as a method to assess environmental characteristics and costs of energy generation onboard ships. Therefore, the entire life cycle of the system is investigated: System simulations of the operational phase are combined with inventory data for upstream (and downstream) processes, e.g. fuel production, in order to quantify emissions, costs and energy use. In addition, impact assessment is used to describe potential environmental impacts rather than pure emissions to improve comparability and comprehensibility. This method may not only be used to compare different systems in order to assist in decisionmaking processes but also allows to identify weak-points and improvement options in system design and operation. This is demonstrated for a case study of an energy system onboard a RoPax ferry.
Chien, Lien-Kwei (Dept. of Harbor and River Engineering and Coastal Disaster Prevention Research Center National Taiwan Ocean University) | Tseng, Wen-Chien (Dept. of Harbor and River Engineering and Coastal Disaster Prevention Research Center National Taiwan Ocean University) | Chang, Chih-Hsin (National Science and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction) | Hsu, Chih-Hsiang (CECI Engineering Consultant, Inc)
Michailides, Constantine (Department of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTh)) | Loukogeorgaki, Eva (Department of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTh)) | Angelides, Demos C. (Department of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTh))
Al Gore’s book, An Inconvenient Truth, awakened us to how our life styles and business practices are impacting our world; accelerating pace of melting polar ice caps, rising seas, toxic chemicals in our water and food supplies, climate changes, and limited access to resources. Concern over a toxic environment is not new. Rachel Carson exposed the dangers of pesticides in her book, Silent Spring. Now we understand the impact industry and life styles have on our environment, and we are requiring a personal and professional environmental accountability for our actions.
Businesses are looking for green solutions. Corporate social responsibility is becoming the new yard stick that individuals, society, and companies are using to determine who they will work for, invest in, and do business with. It is no longer acceptable to do no harm; you now must do some good for your employees, the environment, and your community. Companies are seeking out these new business solutions that address profits, the environment, and society which is referred to as the “Triple Bottom-Line.”
Companies have a sense of urgency to implement green solutions. The safety, health and environmental professional is taking on a risk management role, looking at a 360° view of possible solutions, beyond the task and solution and evaluating how these changes can introduce new loss exposures to the workplace and community. These professionals will evaluate new technology and chemical/mechanical/biological exposures for which little information may be available. Many of these potential hazards are not regulated, evaluated, or adequately addressed by existing OSHA standards. Hazardous chemical exposures in particular present challenges because substitution is not always a workable solution. These chemicals may not have complete safety analysis, be too costly, or they may not fit the task’s technical requirements. Socially responsible companies demand the highest level of job safety, creating a culture of protection as opposed to a culture of compliance or, as Ray Anderson of Interface calls the practice, “being as bad as the law will allow.”
Al Gore's book "An Inconvenient Truth" awakened us to how our life styles and our business practices are impacting our world; accelerating pace of melting polar ice caps, rising seas, toxic chemicals in our water & food supplies, climate changes (floods & droughts), limited access to resources. We are now requiring a personal and professional environmental accountability for our actions. The process of manufacturing, distribution, and disposal of or recycling of products is going green, but green jobs are not necessarily safe jobs. These changes provide opportunities for the safety professional in the areas of: the health and safety, product safety, and environmental protection.
Where as the Oil and Gas industry has continue to make significant contribution to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Oil producing countries in particular and the world in general, it however continue to raise more questions than answers to the global environmental concerns like the twin issues of global warming and climate change which are partly caused by the activities of the Oil & Gas industry that leads to Gas Flaring, release of Green House Gases (GHG), Acid Rain, Smog, etc. There is therefore the need for the petroleum industry players to try and strike a balance between the obvious need for socioeconomic development and the global environmental concerns so as to achieve sustainable development. In view of the foregoing, this paper therefore intends to highlight those actions and strategies that need to be employed by the players in the industry in order to achieve the dual concerns of sustainable development, namely achieving socioeconomic development while also protecting and preserving the future of the environment. Increase in the production and the use of various renewable energy sources, reduction or total elimination of gas flaring and deliberate policies towards encouraging the state of the art on renewable are some of the strategies that can be employed in order to achieve sustainable development as enshrined in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).