Najmah-Sargelu Formations of Kuwait show considerable potential as a new unconventional hydrocarbon play and produces mainly from fractures. The key uncertainties which affect the productivity are the nature and distribution of permeable fracture networks, and the limits of oil accumulation.
This paper presents the results from whole-rock elemental analysis of three cored wells in UG field. The main objectives of this study are to use high-resolution elemental chemostratigraphy to gain a better understanding of the detailed stratigraphy and correlation of the Najmah-Sargelu Formations, to assess the chemo-sedimentology for determining the intervals of high organic content, to estimate the mineralogy of the sequence using an algorithm developed for an analog formation in North America; and to determine the most likely intervals to contain fractures, using a brittleness algorithm.
A clear chemo stratigraphic zonation is recognized within the Najmah-Sargelu Formation. The larger divisions are driven mainly by inherent lithological variation. The finer divisions are delineated by more subtle chemo stratigraphic signals (K2O/Th and Rb/Al2O3 ratios) and preservation of organic matter (high V, Ni, Mo, and U abundances). Zones of alternating brittleness and ductility are clearly identified within the interbedded limestones and marlstones of Najmah-Sargelu Formation.
Two unexpected but important features of the Najmah-Sargelu limestones were elucidated by the elemental data. Brittle, high-silica spiculites, with virtually no clay or silt, are more common than previously recognized from petrophysical logs and core descriptions in the upper Najmah limestones. In addition, the limestones adjacent to the spiculites tend to contain bitumen as pore-filling are recognized by the trace metal proxies. Ternary plots of V, Ni, and Mo differentiate the combinations of kerogen and bitumen present in the Najmah-Sargelu Formations.
The clarity and sensitivity of the chemostratigraphic signals are sufficient to enhance formation evaluation, and can also assist borehole positioning using the RockWiseSM ED-XRF instrument at wellsite.
Haider, Bader Y.A. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Rachapudi, Rama Rao Venkata Subba (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Yahya, Mohammad (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Mutairi, Talal (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al Deyain, Khaled Waleed (Kuwait Oil Company)
Production from Artificially lifted (ESP) well depends on the performance of ESP and reservoir inflow. Realtime monitoring of ESP performance and reservoir productivity is essential for production optimization and this in turn will help in improving the ESP run life. Realtime Workflow was developed to track the ESP performance and well productivity using Realtime ESP sensor data. This workflow was automated by using real time data server and results were made available through Desk top application.
Realtime ESP performance information was used in regular well reviews to identify the problems with ESP performance, to investigate the opportunity for increasing the production. Further ESP real time data combined with well model analysis was used in addressing well problems.
This paper describes about the workflow design, automation and real field case implementation of optimization decisions. Ultimately, this workflow helped in extending the ESP run life and created a well performance monitoring system that eliminated the manual maintenance of the data .In Future, this workflow will be part of full field Digital oil field implementation.
Tar mats at the oil-water contact (OWC tar mats) in oilfield reservoirs can have enormous, pernicious effects on production due to possibly preventing of any natural water drive and precluding any effectiveness of water injectors into aquifers. In spite of this potentially huge impact, tar mat formation is only now being resolved and integrated within advanced asphaltene science. Herein, we describe a very different type of tar mat which we refer to as a "rapid-destabilization tar mat??; it is the asphaltenes that undergo rapid destabilization. To our knowledge, this is the first paper to describe such rapid-destabilization tar mats at least in this context. Rapid-destabilization tar mats can be formed at the crest of the reservoir, generally not at the OWC and can introduce their own set of problems in production. Most importantly, rapid-destabilization tar mats can be porous and permeable, unlike the OWC tar mats. The rapid-destabilization tar mat can undergo plastic flow under standard production conditions rather unlike the OWC tar mat. As its name implies, the rapid-destabilization tar mat can form in very young reservoirs in which thermodynamic disequilibrium in the oil column prevails, while the OWC tar mats generally take longer (geologic) time to form and are often associated with thermodynamically equilibrated oil columns. Here, we describe extensive data sets on rapid-destabilization tar mats in two adjacent reservoirs. The surprising properties of these rapid-destabilization tar mats are redundantly confirmed in many different ways. All components of the processes forming rapid-destabilization tar mats are shown to be consistent with powerful new developments in asphaltene science, specifically with the development of the first equation of state for asphaltene gradients, the Flory-Huggins-Zuo Equation, which has been enabled by the resolution of asphaltene nanostructures in crude oil codified in the Yen-Mullins Model. Rapid-destabilization tar mats represent one extreme while the OWC tar mats represent the polar opposite extreme. In the future, occurrences of tar in reservoirs can be better understood within the context of these two end members tar mats. In addition, two reservoirs in the same minibasin show the same behavior. This important observation allows fluid analysis in wells in one reservoir to indicate likely issues in other reservoirs in the same basin.
Al-salali, Yousef Zaid (Kuwait Oil Company) | Ayyavoo, ManiMaran (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-ibrahim, Abdullah Reda (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Bader, Haifa (Kuwait Oil Company) | Duggirala, Vidya Sagar (Kuwait Oil Company) | Subban, Packirisamy (Kuwait Oil Company)
This paper discusses the outstanding performance achieved in a deep HPHTJurassic formation drilled using Potassium Formate based fluid. This paper alsodescribes methodology adopted for short term testing and stimulation of anexploratory well and finally the field results.
Drilling and completion of deep Jurassic formations in the state of Kuwaitis generally done with Oil Base Mud (OBM) weighted with Barite. Duringdrilling, barite causes significant formation damage to the carbonates withnatural fractures and it is essential to stimulate the well to evaluate thereal reservoir potential. Formation damage is usually treated with matrix acidstimulation, however barite does not respond to acid. Kuwait Oil Company (KOC)was in search for an alternative drilling fluid causing relatively lessformation damage and also responds to remedial actions. Potassium Formate brinewith suitable weighting agent to achieve sufficient mud weight around 16ppg wasselected for field trial in one of the exploratory wells. Formate based brineis a high-density Water Base Mud (WBM) which maintains rheological stability athigh temperature and minimizes formation damage.
Last 2,000 feet in 6" hole section of 18,000 feet well was drilled using15.9 ppg Potassium Formate WBM. During short term testing, acid wash alone wassufficient to remove the formation damage and productivity has tripled which isunlikely in case of wells drilled with OBM.
This case study shows how Potassium Formate based mud enhanced theproductivity and reduced the testing time and cost. Based on the successfulfield test results, it is planned to drill future Jurassic deep formation withPotassium Formate based fluids in future.
Alusta, Gamal Abdalla (Heriot-Watt University) | Mackay, Eric James (Heriot-Watt University) | Collins, Ian Ralph (BP Exploration) | Fennema, Julian (Heriot-Watt University) | Armih, Khari (Heriot-Watt University)
This study has focused on the development of a method to test the economic viability of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) versus infill well drilling where the challenge is to compare polymer flooding scenarios with infill well drilling scenarios, not just based on incremental recovery, but on Net Present Value as well.
In a previous publication (Alusta et al., 2011, SPE143300) the method was developed to address polymer flooding, but it can be modified to suit any other EOR methods. The method has been applied to a synthetic scenario with constant economic parameters, which has demonstrated the impact that oil price can have on the decision making process.
The method was then applied and tested (Alusta et al., 2012, SPE150454) with varied operational and economic parameters to investigate the impact in delaying the start of polymer flooding to identify whether it is better to start polymer flooding earlier or later in the life of the project. Consideration was also given to the optimum polymer concentration, and the impact that factors such as oil price and polymer cost have on this decision. Due to the large number of combined reservoir engineering and economic scenarios, Monte Carlo Simulation and advanced analysis of large data sets and the resulting probability distributions had to be developed.
In this paper the methodology is applied to an offshore field where the choice has already been made to drill infill wells, but where we test the robustness of the method against a conventional decision making process for which there is historical data. We do this by performing calculations that compare the infill well scenario chosen with a range of polymer flooding scenarios that could have been selected instead, to identify whether or not the choice to drill infill wells was indeed the optimum choice from an economic perspective.
We conclude from all the reservoir simulations and subsequent economic calculations that the decision to drill infill wells was indeed the optimum choice from an economic perspective.
Gupta, Shilpi (Schlumberger) | Pandey, Arun (Schlumberger) | Ogra, Konark (Schlumberger) | Sinha, Ravi (Schlumberger) | Chandra, Yogesh (ONGC) | Singh, PP (ONGC) | Koushik, YD (ONGC) | Verma, Vibhor (Schlumberger) | Chaudhary, Sunil (Oil & Natural Gas Corp. Ltd.)
Production logging has been traditionally used for zonal quantification of layers for identification of most obvious workover for water shut off, acid wash or reperforation candidate identification. The basic sensors help in making some of the critical decisions for immediate gain in oil production or reduction in water cut. However, this technology can be used in a non standard format for various purposes including multilayer testing to obtain layer wise permeability and skin factor using pressure and flow rate transient data acquired with production logging tools. This is very crucial and complements the present wellbore flow phenomenon to better understand relative zonal performance of well at any stage of its production. In addition, production logging along with the pulsed neutron technique is very crucial to evaluate the complete wellbore phenomenon, understand some of the behind the production string fluid flow behaviors. Another major concern in low flow rate wells is recirculation, causing fall back of heavier water phase while lighter phase like oil and gas move upwards. This well bore phenomenon renders the quantification from production logging string, and this in extension also prevents any comprehensive workover decisions on the well because of the risk involved. Oil rate computation from hydrocarbon bubble rates becomes very critical in such scenarios to bring out the most optimal results and enhance confidence in workover decisions. Another key concern in any reservoir is to evaluate the productivity Index; this is even more critical once the field is on production. It is essential to determine the performance of various commingled layers and reform the Injector producer strategy for pressure support or immediate workover. Selective Inflow performance is a technique used to identify the Productivity index of various layers in a commingled situation. This paper elaborates on various non conventional uses of production logging from the western offshore India.
Brown field management has been a key focus in the western offshore region. Over the last decade cased hole production logging for evaluation of reservoir phenomenon has been the backbone of workover operation in western offshore India. Besides the usual operations production logging has been pivotal in determining various important parameters for field development. Various unconventional uses require understanding of the tool physics and limitation. Advanced generation of production logging tools not only provide additional information in terms of wellbore flow fractions, slippage velocities and complex flow regimes but their basic outputs can also be utilized in variety of applications for reservoir evaluation and wellbore flow monitoring. Following sections describe several case studies describing unconventional usage of production logging outcomes.
Unconventional Applications of Production Logging
Case Study 1: Selective Inflow Performance
Field wise production logging has always been an excellent source to evaluate the open hole results and suggest some immediate workover to optimise the production. Selective Inflow performance is new variation in the already existing technique used to identify the Productivity index of various layers in a commingled situation. This operation can provide us with the openhole flow potential of the well and thus help in mapping the flow profile in the reservoir. A multichoke production logging survey usually covering two to three choke sizes is performed and flow profiling for each survey is done.
Currently, many reservoirs in the region approach the end of primary recovery phase where new techniques are needed to enhance recovery. Therefore, the need to optimize oil recovery from the current resources is very well understood by regional oil companies. To enhance oil recovery from current oil resources, field operators need to overcome the forces responsible for oil entrapment. Enhanced Oil Recovery techniques (EOR) introduce new energy into oil reservoirs to reduce the influence of these forces. Most of these resources contain light oil and are considered suitable candidates for either miscible or chemical EOR techniques. The first technique is challenged by the availability of suitable miscible gas. While, chemical EOR techniques are challenges by the high salt concentrations in the maturing oil reservoirs. The high salinity conditions encourage deficiencies in the performance of chemical EOR processes. Therefore, minimizing the effect of in situ salt on the injected chemical would impose tremendous improvement that leads to higher oil recovery. One way to diminish salt effect is to condition the oil reservoirs by injecting a slug of preflush water prior to chemical injection.
In this paper, the performance of polymer flooding, after preflush slug, in high salinity reservoir is investigated by numerical simulation means. The injected slugs, both preflush and polymer, are driven by water. The objective is to identify the relationship between preflush, polymer, and drive water characteristics and oil recovery. Seven parameters were considered: preflush slug size, preflush salinity, polymer slug size, polymer concentration, polymer slug salinity, and drive water salinity. The results show that these parameters have various degree of influence on oil recovery. For example, increasing the preflush slug size would results in more oil recovery especially during the early time. Detailed findings will be presented in the paper.
In recent times the topic of well barrier integrity has become increasingly salient. Within the well completion arena, there have traditionally been two main alternatives for barrier plugs used for packer setting or temporary well abandonment; these are the metallic flapper or ball type isolation plugs. This paper describes the evolution of an innovative glass type barrier plug from its first appearance in the oilfield in 2004, to the deployment of third generation prototype systems into wells in the North Sea today.
Traditional ball or flapper type plug systems need to operate in two states: open and closed. This functionality typically necessitates the use of dynamic seals, which also have to compensate for the pressure differential applied across the plug. Plugs built in this manner can be prone to malfunctions in the dynamic seals and have limitations as to the pressure differentials that can be applied to them when opening. Additionally as the balls or flappers themselves are traditionally manufactured using metallic alloys, in the event that a plug fails to open the only alternative is milling, which if successful, will still leave a restriction in the well limiting options for future well interventions.
Glass barrier plugs have to operate in two slightly different states, solid or shattered. When the plug is run in hole the glass is in a solid state with pressure integrity maintained using static elastomeric seals. Once well operations have progressed to the stage when the plug needs to be opened, a preinstalled trip saver can be activated which would shatter the glass and open well communication. Operating in this manner avoids the use of dynamic seals thereby increasing plug reliability. Other major advantages are that the differential pressure applied across the plug when opening has no effect on the plugs functionality and since the plug is made out of glass, in the event of a trip saver malfunction the plug can be opened using a shoot down tool, a spear, or milled within approximately 10 minutes using a wireline tractor (Welltec, 2011) leaving a full bore ID for future well interventions.
This paper describes how BP Norway and TCO used the lessons learned from two generations of Glass Barrier Plugs (GBPs) to develop a system with increased debris tolerance, improved redundancy and a larger inner diameter.
The need to develop new tools that allow reservoir engineers to optimize reservoir performance is becoming more demanding by the day. One of the most challenging and influential problems facing reservoir engineers is well placement optimization.
The North Kuwait field (NKF) consists of six fields containing four naturally fractured carbonate formations. The reservoirs are composed of relatively tight limestone and dolomite embedded with anhydrate and shale. The fields are divided into isolated compartments based on fault zones and supported by a combination of different fluid compositions, initial pressures, and estimated free-water levels. Due to natural complexity, tightness, and high drilling costs of wells in the NKF, it is very important to identify the sweet spots and the optimum well locations.
This paper presents two intelligent methods that use dynamic numerical simulation model results and static reservoir properties to identify zones with a high-production potential: reservoir opportunity index (ROI) and simulation opportunity index (SOI). The Petrel* E&P software platform was chosen as the integrated platform to implement the workflow. The fit-for-purpose time dependent 2D maps generated by the Petrel platform facilitated the decision-making process used for locating new wells in the dominant flow system and provided immense support for field-development plans.
The difference between the two methods is insignificant because of reservoir tightness, limited interference, and natural uncertainty on compartmentalization. At this stage, pressure is not a key parameter. As a result, unlike brown fields, less weight was given to simulated pressure, and SOI was used to select the well locations.
The results of this study show that implementing these workflows and obtaining the resulting maps significantly improve the selection process to identify the most productive areas and layers in a field. Also, the optimum numbers of wells using this method obtained in less time and with fewer resources are compared with results using traditional industry approaches.
Sanyal, Tirtharenu (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Hamad, Khairyah (KOC) | Jain, Anil Kumar (KOC) | Al-Haddad, Ali Abbas (KISR) | Kholosy, Sohib (KISR) | Ali, Mohammad A.J. (Kuwait Inst. Scientific Rsch.) | Abu Sennah, Heba Farag (Kuwait Oil Company)
Improved oil recovery for heavy oil reservoirs is becoming a new research study for Kuwaiti reservoirs. There are two mechanisms for improved oil recovery by thermal methods. The first method is to heat the oil to higher temperatures, and thereby, decrease its viscosity for improved mobility. The second mechanism is similar to water flooding, in which oil is displaced to the production wells. While more steam is needed for this method than for the cyclic method, it is typically more effective at recovering a larger portion of the oil.
Steam injection heats up the oil and reduce its viscosity for better mobility and higher sweep efficiency. During this process, the velocity of the moving oil increases with lower viscosity oil; and thus, the heated zone around the injection well will have high velocity. The increase of velocity in an unconsolidated formation is usually accompanied with sand movement in the reservoir creating a potential problem.
The objective of this study was to understand the effect of flowrate and viscosity on sand production in heavy oil reservoir that is subjected for thermal recovery process. The results would be useful for designing completion under steam injection where the viscosity of the oil is expected to change due to thermal operations.
A total of 21 representative core samples were selected from different wells in Kuwait. A reservoir condition core flooding system was used to flow oil into the core plugs and to examine sand production. Initially, the baseline liquid permeability was measured with low viscosity oil and low flowrate. Then, the flowrate was increased gradually and monitored to establish the value for sand movement for each plug sample. At the end of the test, the produced oil containing sand was filtered for sand content.
The result showed that sand production increased with higher viscosity oil and high flowrate. However, sand compaction at the injection face of the cores was more significant than sand production. In addition, high confining pressure contributes to additional sand production. The average critical velocity was estimated ranged from 18 to 257 ft/day for the 0.74 cp oil, 2 to 121 ft/day for the 16 cp oil, and 1 to 26 ft/day for the 684 cp oil.