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Isothermal compressibility is the change in volume of a system as the pressure changes while temperature remains constant. Below the bubblepoint pressure, oil isothermal compressibility is defined from oil and gas properties to account for gas coming out of solution. A total of 141 data points were available from the GeoMark PVT database. Table 3 provides a summary of the data. This data was used to evaluate and rank the performance of the isothermal compressibility correlations.
Emulsions are always a drain on the operating budget. It is almost impossible to eliminate emulsions during crude production; however, emulsion problems can be reduced and optimized by following good operating practices. The following points should be included in operating practices. Chemical-Demulsifier Development Based on Critical-Electric-Field Measurements. Husveg, T., Bilstad, T., Guinee, P.G.A. et al. 2009 A Cyclone based Low Shear Valve for Enhanced Oil-Water Separation. Paper presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 4-7 May.
Figure 1.6--The Baldpate Compliant Tower is one of the tallest free-standing structures in the world – Empire State Building (right) for comparison (Web Photograph, Amerada Hess Corp., New York City). Figure 1.9a--Worldwide fleet of installed and sanctioned semisubmersible FPS (courtesy of BP). Figure 1.9c--Worldwide fleet of installed and sanctioned spars (courtesy of BP). Figure 1.10--Semisubmersible FPS planned for the Thunder Horse field (courtesy of BP). Figure 1.11--Alternative proven technology field development options (courtesy of BP). Figure 1.12--Subsea production trees used in conjunction with a fixed jacket structure (Intec Engineering, Houston).
Shell informed Tunisian authorities in May it will hand back upstream concessions and leave the country next year as it turns its focus to renewable energy, according to a Reuters report sourcing a senior official in the country's energy ministry. The license in question is the Miskar concession in the southern city of Gabes. The operator has also requested the early hand-back of the Asdrubal permit, which expires in 2035. Recent reports suggest the operator may be looking for the Tunisian government to extend its permit on the field under more favorable terms ahead of its planned departure.
Although reserves estimates for known accumulations historically have used deterministic calculation procedures, the 1997 SPE/WPC definitions allow either deterministic or probabilistic procedures. Each of these is discussed briefly in the next two sections. Thereafter--except for another section on probabilistic procedures near the end--the chapter will focus on deterministic procedures because they still are more widely used. Both procedures need the same basic data and equations. Deterministic calculations of oil and/or gas initially in place (O/GIP) and reserves are based on best estimates of the true values of pertinent parameters, although it is recognized that there may be considerable uncertainty in such values.
Baumgardner, Lonny (SDX Energy) | Ahamiri, Jamal (SDX Energy) | Kuyken, Chris (AlMansoori Specialized Engineering) | Farouk, Mohamed (AlMansoori Specialized Engineering) | Jammeli, Kamel (AlMansoori Specialized Engineering) | Merchan, Ylmer (AlMansoori Specialized Engineering)
Abstract A 5-well rig-less & explosiveness abandonment campaign by 2 project partners operator and service provider was made a reality in Morocco whereby a novel method of cementing squeeze of perforations and an annular fill-up were established in one single operation. This is called LEAN abandonment and the method was masterminded as a result of intense collaboration between both partners. The method is scale-able and has full merit to target existing legacy wells for abandonment in Morocco and world-wide where appropriate. In this LEAN approach the tubing and annulus were communicating via SSD / non-explosive created tubing punch by holding backpressure on the annulus till perforations squeezed or pressure lock-up and subsequently immediately opening the annulus and releasing the annular pressure whilst continuing pumping and filling the annulus with some 800 m of cement creating the firm additional barrier. Clinical planning by operator and service provider on a establishing a new abandonment process that is opening-up further in-country and beyond opportunities was the critical success factors in this work. It led to organic improvement on a well by well basis in the campaign, it resulted in safe and successful operations and achieving abandonment objectives cementing to surface in tubing and annulus. LEAN Abandonment forms a paradigm shift. It may be different in different down-hole settings and there is no single solution however like in our case working a bottoms-up approach has resulted the lowest cost solution and having done so ways to improve overall safety and efficiency were identified. The use of non-explosive technology is a very good example.
Kholaif, Yasser (NOSPCO) | Elmaghraby, Mahmoud (NOSPCO) | Nago, Annick (Baker Hughes) | Embry, Jean-Michel (Baker Hughes) | Basu, Pramit (Baker Hughes) | Perumalla, Satya (Baker Hughes) | El-Said, Mohamed M. (Baker Hughes) | ElMenshawy, Ali (Baker Hughes) | Baghdadi, Ahmed (Baker Hughes)
Abstract Drilling challenges in offshore Nile Delta have been largely documented in the literature. Operators are often confronted with drilling problems related to shale swelling, cavings, tight holes in combination with increased risks of lost circulation in some of the highly depleted formations. The Kafr El Sheikh shale in particular, has been linked to many instances of wellbore instability, due to its mineralogical composition (estimated to be mostly smectite, >70%). From offset well drilling experience, it could also be noticed that insufficient mud weight was often used to drill through the Kafr El Sheikh Shale, causing wellbore failure in shear due to lack of support of the wellbore wall. In the past, multiple mud weight designs have been implemented relying solely on pore pressure as lower bound of the mud window. With the increased use of geomechanics, it has been demonstrated that the lower bound should be taken as the maximum of the pore pressure and borehole collapse pressure, thus accounting for the effects of formation pressure, horizontal and vertical stresses, rock properties as well as wellbore trajectory. It has been proven that slight overpressure is often encountered halfway through the Kafr El Sheikh formation, which would typically result in slightly higher borehole collapse pressures. In the study fields, the operator expressed interest in drilling highly deviated wells (> 60-70 degrees). This raised concerns for increased drilling challenges, especially in the Kafr El Sheikh. A comprehensive and systematic risk assessment, design of a fit-for-purpose solution and its implementation during drilling took place in the fields of interest. Offset well data analytics from the subject fields supported a holistic evaluation of drilling risks associated with the Kafr El Sheikh, providing good understanding of stress sensitivity on deviation, azimuth and lithology. Upon building a robust geomechanical model, calibrated against offset well drilling experience, pre-drill mud weight and drilling practices recommendations were provided to optimize the drilling program. Near real-time geomechanical monitoring was implemented which helped to manage the model uncertainties. The implementation of a holistic risk assessment, including geomechanical recommendations and near real-time geomechanical monitoring, was effective to lead the drilling campaign successfully. As a result, three high angle wells (> 60-70 degrees) were drilled through the challenging Kafr El Sheikh formation without any hole instability. An integrated risk assessment of hole instability, managed in stages (pre-drill and during drilling), has helped to understand and simulate the behaviors of the formation. Proactive decisions have established a controlled drilling environment for successful operations.
Wijaya, Aditya Arie (Halliburton) | Wu, Ivan Zhia Ming (Halliburton) | Parashar, Sarvagya (Halliburton) | Iffwad, Mohammad (Halliburton) | Yaakob, Amirul Afiq B (Petronas Carigali) | Tolioe, William Amelio (Petronas Carigali) | Sidid, Adib Akmal Che (Petronas Carigali) | Ahmad, Nadhirah Bt. (Petronas Carigali)
Abstract In recent years, the development of frontier areas brings added challenges to formation evaluation, especially thinly bedded reservoirs. It is challenging to evaluate such reservoirs due to the low resistivity values and high shale volume, which masks the contrast between water and hydrocarbon zones. Using conventional approaches in these types of reservoirs will underestimate the hydrocarbon potential and reserves estimates. A study has been carried out of the thin-bed laminated reservoir in B-field using the tensor model technique to assess the hydrocarbon potential. Additional data from borehole imaging and sonic logs are critical for enhancing the evaluation of hydrocarbon potential and complements the result of the tensor model evaluation. The study was conducted to calculate the sand resistivity and sand porosity using a combination of the tensor model and the Thomas-Stieber model. The tensor model uses acquired horizontal and vertical resistivities, while the Thomas-Stieber model uses the calculated shale volume and porosity. One of the main parameters in the tensor model is shale resistivity, which upon analysis, varies across many shale sections in the well. This uncertainty is reduced by picking multiple shale resistivity values based on borehole image facies analysis. The VPVS ratio technique and Brie’s plot using compressional and shear travel time are used as a qualitative analysis that indicates the same gas-bearing interval. The tensor model calculations improve hydrocarbon saturation by a range of 4-21%, depending on sand thickness and shale volume, which increases the net to gross by more than 20%. The borehole image facies analysis helps to objectively pick the shale resistivity parameters to avoid subjective interpretation and underestimating the pay. A qualitative approach using sonic data helps to identify the potential gas-bearing interval and complement the previous tensor model interpretation. Although all interpretation methods indicate a similar gas-bearing interval that correlates with the mudlog total gas reading, the combination of the tensor and Thomas-Stieber method with image constrained shale resistivities gives the most definitive gas saturation and net pay The novelty of this study is to showcase two things. First is the application of combined tensor and Thomas-Stieber model in a laminated reservoir, with image constrained shale resistivity for improved gas saturation and net pay. The second is to highlight the use of gas-sensitive sonic data to confirm the gas saturated interval.
Saleh, Khaled (Schlumberger) | Morad, Aly (Schlumberger) | Cavalleri, Chiara (Schlumberger) | Hakim, Emad Abdel (General Petroleum Company) | Farouk, Mohamed (General Petroleum Company) | Atwa, Eslam (General Petroleum Company) | Ameen, Mohamed (General Petroleum Company) | Youssif, Youssif (General Petroleum Company) | Mamdouh, Kareem (General Petroleum Company)
Abstract Recent advancement in logging technology and data analytics allows measuring a comprehensive set of formation petrophysical properties and rock composition in cased boreholes. State-of-the-art pulsed neutron logging technology and processing algorithms record capture and inelastic elemental spectroscopy for matrix parameters, and detailed mineralogy characterization, total organic content estimation, and carbon/oxygen analysis, simultaneously with formation sigma, neutron porosity, and fast neutron cross-section. The fast neutron cross-section (FNXS) is a new formation nuclear property introduced by the advanced pulsed neutron tool that is independent of thermal and capture cross-section and highly sensitive to gas regardless of hydrogen index. Unlike thermal neutron capture cross-section, for which certain isotopes have extremely high values (such as Cl, B, and Gd), fast neutron cross-sections of all isotopes are more or less similar. Thus, FNXS is approximately proportional to atom density. Therefore, this new nuclear property has functionality similar to that of the bulk density (gamma-gamma density measurement). A local relationship can be defined to convert the FNXS into bulk density when the lithology and fluid properties are known, and calibration is possible. Otherwise, a more comprehensive assessment of bulk density can be performed by integrating FNXS with the other outputs from the slim pulsed neutron logging into a mineral solver. While solving for rock and fluid volumes from the cased-hole logs, a reconstructed bulk density may be derived in a cased-hole environment. This synthetic bulk density can be used by geophysicists to develop synthetic seismograms to properly map formation tops with surface seismic data. Since the pulsed neutron measurements follow linear volumetric law equations, they can be directly integrated into a mineral solver together with the elemental spectroscopy outputs to create a synthetic bulk density, together with the other answers. A blind comparison was done between synthetic bulk density from the cased-hole log-based mineral solver and a measured openhole density, showing a strong correlation in a three-phase fluid reservoir (gas, oil, and water). A synthetic seismogram is an essential tool when geophysicists fine-tune surface seismic data. This seismogram is developed using bulk density and compressional slowness to derive acoustic impedance, where sometimes bulk density is missing. As a result, an old approach to estimate bulk density using Gardner’s equation has certain limitations in complex environments. The new formation nuclear property that is now available in the slim pulsed neutron technology can be leveraged to provide a more robust and quality-controlled synthetic bulk density derived through FNXS integrated with the other pulsed neutron and spectroscopy outputs.
Africa is on track to becoming the world's most populous region by 2023 as growth in the continent's population surpasses that of China and India; between 2020 and 2040, one in every two births will be African, according to the International Energy Agency (IEA). The problem--and the opportunity--is that three-quarters of those new global citizens living in sub-Saharan Africa will live without access to electricity and other energy-driven staples of the modern world. "More than half a billion people [will be] added to Africa's urban population by 2040, much higher than the growth seen in China's urban population in the two decades of China's economic and energy boom," IEA noted in its Africa Energy Outlook 2019. "Growing urban populations mean rapid growth in energy demand for industrial production, cooling, and mobility," IEA analysts wrote. "The projected growth in oil demand is higher than that of China and second only to that of India as the size of the car fleet more than doubles (the bulk of which have low fuel efficiency) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is increasingly used for clean cooking." With regards to gas, Africa is on track to becoming the third-largest region to feed the growth in global gas demand over the next 20 years, the IEA said (Figure 1).