Water saturation (Sw) determination is the most challenging of petrophysical calculations and is used to quantify its more important complement, the hydrocarbon saturation (1 – Sw). Complexities arise because there are a number of independent approaches that can be used to calculate Sw. The complication is that often, if not typically, these different approaches lead to somewhat different Sw values that may equate to considerable differences in the original oil in place (OOIP) or original gas in place (OGIP) volumes. The challenge to the technical team is to resolve and to understand the differences among the Sw values obtained using the different procedures, and to arrive at the best calculation of Sw and its distribution throughout the reservoir vertically and areally. In OOIP and OGIP calculations, it is important to remember the relative importance of porosity and Sw. A 10% pore volume (PV) change in Sw has the same impact as a 2% bulk volume (BV) change in porosity (in a 20% BV porosity reservoir). This listing is the chronological order in which data are likely to become available, not in a ranked order based on the accuracy of the various methods. The choice of which Sw-calculation approach to use is often controlled by the availability of the various types of data. If no OBM cores have been cut, then this technique cannot be used unless funds are spent to acquire such data from one or more newly drilled wells. This is not a high incremental cost when OBM use is planned for other purposes. Resistivity logs are run in all wells, so these data are available for making standard-log-analysis Sw calculations. A key consideration when making calibrated Sw calculations is the availability of special-core-analysis (SCAL) data on core samples from the particular reservoir; that is, the number of laboratory electrical-property and Pc/Sw core-plug measurements that have been made. The technique chosen to calculate Sw is often a hybrid that combines the use of two of these basic data sources. For example, the OBM-core Sw data can be used in combination with the resistivity logs to expand the data set used to include all wells and the whole of the hydrocarbon column. Alternatively, the OBM-core Sw data can be used in combination with the Pc/Sw data. In this way, the OBM-core Sw data define the S w values for the majority of the reservoir, whereas the Pc/Sw data define the Sw values in the interval just above the fluid contact and perhaps in areas of the field where Pc data are available but OBM-core data are not. This section discussed the input-data availability and data quality issues for each Sw technique.
This chapter discusses the determination of lithology, net pay, porosity, water saturation, and permeability from wellbore core and log data. The chapter deals with "Development Petrophysics" and emphasizes the integration of core data with log data; the adjustment of core data, when required, to reservoir conditions; and the calibration and regression line-fitting of log data to core data. The goal of the calculations is to use all available data, calibrated to the best standard, to arrive at the most accurate quantitative values of the petrophysical parameters (i.e., lithology, net pay, porosity, water saturation, and permeability). Log analysis, cased-hole formation evaluation, and production logging are not covered here. The following topics are covered in this chapter: petrophysical data sources and databases, lithology determination, net-pay (or pay/nonpay) determination, porosity determination, fluid-contacts identification, water-saturation determination, permeability ...
This article presents brief summaries of detailed petrophysical evaluations of several fields that have been described in the SPE and Soc. of Professional Well Log Analysts (SPWLA) technical literature. These case studies cover some of the complications that occur when making net-pay, porosity, and water saturation (Sw) calculations. Prudhoe Bay is the largest oil and gas field in North America with more than 20 billion bbl of original oil in place (OOIP) and an overlying 30 Tscf gas cap. In the early 1980s, the unit operating agreement required that a final equity determination be undertaken. In the course of this determination, an extensive field coring program was conducted, which resulted in more than 25 oil-based mud (OBM) cores being cut in all areas of the field and some conventional water-based mud (WBM) and bland-mud cores in other wells.
Abstract With this paper, we demonstrate how CoreDNA, a trans-disciplinary suite of high-resolution, non-destructive measurements performed on whole cores at the onset of core analysis programs, helps operation geologists and petrophysicists with an innovative, cost effective and objective way to characterize the reservoir quality of highly laminated hydrocarbon-bearing formations where the standard practice (systematic plugging every foot) fails to provide a correct estimate. The case study focuses on core data from three wells intersecting formations characterized by very thin (millimetre-scale) sand and clay/silt laminations where the resolution of conventional wireline and lab gamma ray logs were not sufficiently sharp for an effective evaluation of reservoir quality. Although a high volume of routine core analysis data was already available for these wells, the remaining uncertainty on reservoir evaluation was deemed high enough by the study team to motivate the acquisition of additional data comprising ultra-high resolution pictures (1.8μm/px) and topographic maps created from micron-accurate laser scans. We explain how continuous profiles of grain size indicators could be used for the prediction of permeability variations across these laminated formations and for the definition of a permeability cut-off for the identification of poor vs good reservoir ratios compatible with the reservoir characteristics. CoreDNA test procedures are specifically designed to greatly accelerate the deliverables of core analysis, so that petrophysical evaluation may start right from the moment cores arrive from the well site, which is usually month before routine core analysis results are known. In the context of this paper, CoreDNA results were confirmed a-posteriori by the permeability measured on plugs samples from the two first wells. In the third well however, some marked differences were observed: although permeability ranges were found similar by the two methods, the distribution of permeability values obtained from routine core analysis conducted according to standard guidelines (one sample per foot) gave a more optimistic picture of permeability (90% rock above the 1mD cut-off) than the alternative approach based on high resolution continuous grain size data (70% rock above the 1mD cut-off). From the above findings, we conclude that a standard 1-ft interval for plug acquisition is not enough to fully characterise the distribution of permeability in highly laminated formations. Alternatively, a continuous profile of permeability index based on high resolution grain size measurements offers a fast and cost-efficient solution to obtain representative reservoir quality data, which enable objective well and reservoir management decisions few days after barrel opening without compromising core integrity for further studies.
The last year has seen people in many sectors unexpectedly confronting a new challenge--working remotely. Even before this, our industry has been trying to operate fields remotely (either partially or fully) and make operations smarter and more automated. Key drivers are to improve safety in operations, maximize production, and make operations more efficient. These efforts have been enabled by the rapidly changing technology landscape--in sophisticated acquisition and analysis of data and increased connectivity (from both fiber-optic and cellular networks). It also has been accelerated by the push across the industry to digitalize.
Malaysia's Petronas this week added another first to its list of accomplishments in pioneering LNG production using floating (FLNG) technology. Petronas became the first global energy company to own and produce from two floating LNG (FLNG) facilities, following the successful first shipping of LNG from its PFLNG DUA facility on 24 March. The Seri Camar LNG carrier transported the cargo to Thailand. PFLNG DUA works in deep water and can reach gas fields in water depths of up to 1500 m; its capacity is 1.5 mtpa of LNG. It passed subsea commissioning and produced first LNG in February.
Patil, Parimal A. (PETRONAS) | Chidambaram, Prasanna (PETRONAS) | Bin Ebining Amir, M Syafeeq (PETRONAS) | Tiwari, Pankaj K. (PETRONAS) | Das, Debasis P. (PETRONAS) | Picha, Mahesh S. (PETRONAS) | B A Hamid, M Khaidhir (PETRONAS) | Tewari, Raj Deo (PETRONAS)
Abstract Underground storage of CO2 in depleted gas reservoirs is a greenhouse gas reduction technique that significantly reduces CO2 released into the atmosphere. Three major depleted gas reservoirs in Central Luconia gas field, located offshore Sarawak, possess good geological characteristics needed to ensure long-term security for CO2 stored deep underground. Long-term integrity of all the wells drilled in these gas fields must be ensured in order to successfully keep the CO2 stored for decades/centuries into the future. Well integrity is often defined as the ability to contain fluids without significant leakage through the project lifecycle. In order to analyze the risk associated with all 38 drilled wells, that includes 11 plugged and abandoned (P&A) wells and 27 active wells, probabilistic risk assessment approach has been developed. This approach uses various leakage scenarios, that includes features, events, and processes (FEP). A P&A well in a depleted reservoir is a very complex system in order to assess the loss of containment as several scenarios and parameters associated to those scenarios are difficult to estimate. Based on the available data of P&A wells, a well has been selected for this study. All the barriers in the example well have been identified and properties associated with those barriers are defined in order to estimate the possible leakage pathways through the identified barriers within that well. Detailed mathematical models are provided for estimating CO2 leakage from reservoir to the surface through all possible leakage pathways. Sensitivity analysis has been carried out for critical parameters such as cement permeability, and length of cement plug, in order to assess the containment ability of that well and understand its impact on overall well integrity. Sensitivity analysis shows that permeability of the cement in the annulus, and length of cement plug in the wellbore along with pressure differential can be used as critical set of parameters to assess the risk associated with all wells in these three fields. Well integrity is defined as the ability of the composite system (cemented casings string) in the well to contain fluids without significant leakage from underground reservoir up to surface. It has been recognized as a key performance factor determining the viability of any CCS project. This is the first attempt in assessing Well Integrity risk related to CO2 storage in Central Luconia Gas Fields in Sarawak. The wells have been looked individually in order to make sure that integrity is maintained, and CO2 is contained underground for years to come.
Noordin, M. Farriz (PETRONAS) | James Berok, Sylvia Mavis (PETRONAS) | Sinanan, Haydn Brent (PETRONAS) | Suratman, M. Farhan (PETRONAS) | Fabian, Oka (PETRONAS) | Mohammad, M. Afzan (PETRONAS) | Johari, M. Raimi (Marubeni-Itochu Tubulars Asia Pte Ltd)
Abstract PETRONAS has undertaken a large EOR project offshore Malaysia involving the use of Immiscible Water-Alternating-Gas (iWAG) wells for fluid injection. These iWAG injection wells will allow the alternate injection of both treated seawater and hydrocarbon gas. A significant concern for these wells is tubing corrosion resistance and integrity for over a 25-year injection life. The initial conceptual design for the iWAG injection tubing utilized Glass Reinforced Epoxy (GRE) & 25Cr tubing material due to the presence of dissolved oxygen in the injected water. The use of these materials present challenges due to limitations in downhole flow device installation with the GRE tubing and high cost of 25Cr tubing. The project team searched for alternative, fit for purpose materials to meet the project's requirements. Based on the recent PETRONAS success case of 17Cr utilization, the team examined the possibility of using 17Cr or lower grade CRA material for injection purposes. By pioneering the first application of 15Cr OCTG as an iWAG injection tubing material in the world, several risks had to be considered. Additionally, all risks had to be mitigated via various approaches ranging from detailed engineering planning to field execution and operation. The process of selecting this metallurgy involved criteria such as cost, performance, manufacturability and operational execution. The selection methodology included a comprehensive evaluation and recommendation process that consisted of: Evaluation of currently used metallurgical properties and limitations Identification of alternatives based on operating conditions, cost and manufacturing constraints Metallurgy qualification through comprehensive laboratory testing. Conducting tubing installation risk analysis Reviewing tubing operational, intervention and abandonment scenarios throughout the well life cycle The successful selection and installation of 15Cr was attributed to: The metallurgy selection, tubing procurement and installation process involving multidisciplinary and multifunctional groups both internal and external to PETRONAS. Rigorous testing at two separate laboratory facilities yielding test results which met and exceeded the required performance criteria. A 15Cr tubing make up efficiency of 100%. Impressive performance during operations resulting in a gross running speed of 371 ft/hr versus an average pipe running speed of 810 ft/hr. Use of low penetration dies to prevent slippage during tubing connection make up. This was critical since CRA material is very sensitive to scratching during contact with metal equipment. This potential metal scratching can lead to corrosion. On time delivery of 15Cr tubing from the OCTG provider ensuring sufficient time for preparation of completion accessories prior to offshore load out. Utilization of 15Cr as an alternative to Duplex and Glass Reinforced Epoxy (GRE) materials has also contributed a direct cost saving of 27% to the project.
Bela, Sunanda Magna (PETRONAS) | B Ahmad Mahdzan, Abdil Adzeem (PETRONAS) | A Rashid, Noor Hidayah (PETRONAS) | A Kadir, Zairi (PETRONAS) | Abu Bakar, Azfar Israa (PETRONAS) | Kamarudzaman, Zayful Hasrin (PETRONAS) | W Hasan, W Helmi (PETRONAS) | B M Nor, M Abshar (PETRONAS) | M Aziss, M Yusof (PETRONAS) | Tham, Khai Lun (Halliburton) | Arumugam, Sivnes Raj (Halliburton) | Hashim, Saharul (Halliburton) | Balasandran, Anandhadhasan (Halliburton)
Abstract Gravel packing in a multilayer reservoir during an infill development project requires treating each zone individually, one after the other, based on reservoir characterization. This paper discusses the installation of an enhanced 7-in. multizone system to achieve both technical and operational efficiency, and the lessons learned that enabled placement of an optimized high-rate water pack (HRWP) in the two lower zones and an extension pack in the uppermost zone. This new approach helps make multizone cased-hole gravel-pack (CHGP) completions a more technically viable and cost-effective solution. Conventional CHGPs are limited to either stack-pack completions, which can incur high cost because of the considerable rig time required for multizone operations, or alternate-path single-trip multizone completions that treat all the target zones simultaneously, with one pumping operation. However, this method does not allow for individual treatment to suit reservoir characterization. The enhanced 7-in. multizone system can significantly reduce well completion costs and pinpoint the gravel placement technique for each zone, without pump-rate limitations caused by excessive friction in the long interval system, and without any fiuid-loss issues after installation because of the modular sliding side-door (SSD) screen design feature. A sump packer run on wireline acts as a bottom isolation packer and as a depth reference for subsequent tubing-conveyed perforating (TCP) and wellbore cleanup (WBCU) operations. All three zones were covered by 12-gauge wire-wrapped modular screens furnished with blank pipe, packer extension, and straddled by two multizone isolation packers between the zones, with a retrievable sealbore gravel-pack packer at the top. The entire assembly was run in a single trip, therefore rig time optimization was achieved. The two lower zones were treated with HRWPs, while the top zone was treated with an extension pack. During circulation testing on the lowermost zone, high pumping pressure was recorded, and after thorough observation of both pumping parameters and tool configuration, it was determined that the reduced inner diameter (ID) in the shifter might have been a causal factor, thereby restricting the flow area. This was later addressed with the implementation of a perforated pup joint placed above the MKP shifting tool. The well was completed within the planned budget and time and successfully put on sand-free production, exceeding the field development planning (FDP) target. The enhanced 7-in. multizone system enabled the project team to beat the previous worldwide track record, which was an HRWP treatment only. As a result of proper fluid selection and rigorous laboratory testing, linear gel was used to transport 3 ppa of slurry at 10 bbl/min, resulting in a world-first extension pack with a 317-lbm/ft packing factor.
Abstract Lost circulation is the most common drilling issue for infill drilling projects in Satun-Funan Fields, South Pattani Basin, Gulf of Thailand (GOT). The depleted sand is possible to be a root cause in many wells based on observation from resistivity time-lapse separation in depleted sands or shale nearby. Therefore, the objective of this study is to estimate fracture pressure related to the depleted sand and design an appropriate Equivalent Circulating Density (ECD) threshold for each well to avoid or minimize lost circulation and well control complication during drilling a new well. This study model is using Eaton (1969) equation. There are 3 input parameters which are Poisson's Ratio and pre-drilled estimated depletion pressure and depth. With limitations of no actual fracturing data and limited sonic log, the maximum ECD while lost circulation reading from Pressure While Drilling (PWD) tool and formation pressure test data were used to back-calculate for Poisson's Ratio and identified a relationship with depth. From the total of 68 wells in the Satun and Funan areas, the interpreted Poisson's Ratio ranges from 0.36 to 0.44 and its linear trend is apparently increasing with depth. To minimize the variation of back calculated Poisson's Ratio the local data become an important key for model validation and maintain the similarity of subsurface factors. This interpreted Poisson's ratio trend will be used to calculate for fracture pressure by incorporating with estimated depletion pressure and depth that expect to encounter in each planned well. The lowest fracture pressure in a planned well is used to prepare pre-drilled ECD management plan and a real-time well monitoring plan. Additionally, the model can be adjusted during the operational phase based on the new drilled well result. This alternative model was applied in 4 trial drilling projects in 2019 and fully implement in 6 drilling projects in 2020. The lost circulation can be prevented with value creation from expected gain reserves section is $57M and cost avoidance from non-productive time due to lost circulation is $3.4M. With an effort, good communication and great collaboration among cross-functional teams, the model success rate increases by 12%. However, there are some unexpected lost events occurred even though the maximum ECD lower than expected fracture pressure. This suspect as a combination of limitations and uncertainties on key input parameters and drilling parameters. In the future, the model is planned to expand to other gas fields in the Pattani Basin which will move to more infill phase and have higher chance of getting lost circulation to maximize benefits as the success case in Satun and Funan fields.