Carragher, Paul (BiSN) | Bedouet, Sylvain (BiSN) | Talapatra, Didhiti (BiSN) | Hughes, Andrea (BP) | Curran, John (BP) | Hou, Wei (BP) | Kosi, Orlando (BP) | Ralph, Stan (BP) | Gao, Qiang (BP) | Gracia, Jesse (BP) | Galvan, Jeanine (BP) | Calvert, Patrick (BP) | Alcoser, Luis (BP) | Dean, Doyle (BP) | Mason, David (BP)
Achieving water shut-off in gravel packed wells is challenging, particularly being able to place a mechanical barrier to flow into a gravel packed annulus. Gravel packed wells, often in deepwater environments, are often high rate wells and interventions can be costly, therefore only techniques with a high probability of success are typically sanctioned.
Many gravel pack wells are completed in multiple sands. If there are barriers between the sands that are believed to be laterally extensive, and if water is entering the lower sand, then isolating the lower sand can be a cost-effective intervention. Deepwater wells in Angola were reviewed as to whether a chemical solution or a mechanical solution would be preferred.
Providing a suitable mechanical methodology could be developed, it was felt this would provide a preferred solution. Further criteria for applying a mechanical solution were developed, to increase the chances of success. Extensive well modelling was also conducted to identify an optimum set of plugs to be placed in the well.
The operator identified a company that had an emerging technology that could offer such a solution. They then worked together to mature the technology through a series of proof-of-concept tests, through trials in Alaska, an early application in a deepwater well in the Gulf of Mexico, followed by a series of qualification tests to be ready for application in Angola. The qualification tests considered not only the mechanical configuration of the wells, but temperature, pressure and wellbore deviation. The application would require placement using a tractor, therefore testing with connecting to the relevant equipment was also incorporated in the plans for the wells.
Using a deepwater rig, several plugs were run in each well, including a meltable alloy plug. The latter plug provided a barrier to flow in both the annulus and inside the sand screens. Although not providing a barrier to shunt tubes, extensive modelling work at Cambridge university showed that it was possible to influence gravel movement in the annulus and shunt tubes, so as to maximise the pressure loss.
Two wells have had plugging systems run. The first well has reduced water cut from 100% to ca. 40% and shown a significant oil rate benefit. The second well has also shown a reduced water cut (from 70% to 40%).
Since the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) became its own domain, in parallel with consumer-oriented IoT, various industries have been successfully deploying such systems - initially as pilot projects, and more recently at scale. Meanwhile, the O&G industry, hurt by the price of oil, postponed investments in new technologies. Nevertheless, there are now multiple successful case studies of IIoT in O&G. This paper contains a high-level review of several such IIoT projects in O&G and aims to help the reader gauge the results achieved in this area. By examining these cases and looking at the similarities and differences with applications in other industrial sectors (transportation, water management, utilities…), the O&G industry can derive guidance in its adoption of IIoT, in particular by identifying the "lowest-hanging fruit" to improve operations and reduce human and equipment costs. While there is still confusion in terms of standards, choice of technologies, and myriad actors of all sizes, this is neither new in our industry nor unexpected in an emerging field; these challenges should therefore not prevent others from moving forward.
Nagoo, A. S. (Nagoo & Associates) | Kulkarni, P. M. (Equinor) | Arnold, C. (Escondido Resources) | Dunham, M. (Bravo Natural Resources) | Sosa, J. (Jones Energy) | Oyewole, P. O. (Proline Energy Resources)
In this seminal work, we reveal for the first time an extensively field-tested, demonstrably accurate and simple analytical equation for the calculation of the critical gas velocity limit (or onset of liquid flow reversal) in horizontal wells as an explicit and direct function of diameter, inclination and fluid properties. For the independently verifiable and first-of-its-kind multi-play field validation study, we carefully assimilate a very large database of actual horizontal gassy oil and gas liquid loading wells from several unconventional U.S. shale plays with different bubble point and dew point fluid systems and varying gas-to-liquid ratios and varying water cuts. The shale plays in our validation database include the Eagle Ford, Woodford, Cleveland Sands, Haynesville, Cotton Valley, Fayetteville, Marcellus and Barnett formations within their associated Western Gulf, South Texas, Arkoma, Western Anadarko, East Texas, Appalachian and Permian basins. Then, after summarizing our comprehensive field testing results, practical production optimization applications of the new analytical equation and advanced use cases of interest are further highlighted in various liquid loading prediction and prevention scenarios.
As opposed to prior critical gas velocity calculation methods (droplet reversal-based, film reversal-based, flow structure stability/energy), video observations both in the lab and the field clearly show continuously-evolving, co-existing and competing flow structures even with simple fluids without mass exchanges. Therefore, this work avoids skewed assumptions on demarcating the prevailing or dominant flow structure. Instead, the new analytical equation developed is based on an analysis of the major forces in the flow field, namely the axial buoyancy vector, the convective inertial and the interfacial tension forces, in combination with an assumption of the onset of liquid flow reversal based on flow field bridging (Taylor instability). Since the new analytical equation was formulated using these minimalist assumptions, this unique characteristic results in the highest predictability obtainable for the critical gas velocity calculation because there is the least amount of uncertainties (fudge factors). The consistent accuracy of the equation against our extensive horizontal well liquids loading database verifies this fact. Moreover, the simplicity of form of the equation makes it easy to use in that every practicing engineer in practice can perform fast hand or spreadsheet calculations. In effect, this equates to having a model as simple as the Turner model but now with additional direct functions of diameter and inclination. Also, the results clearly invalidate the need for artificial variables (such as interfacial friction factor) that cannot be directly measured in any experiment. In terms of usage, the new model is used in liquid loading prevention scenarios such as end-of-tubing (EOT) landing optimization and tubing-casing selection. Evidently, this work proves that no complex, computer-only procedure is necessary for accurate critical gas velocity calculation. This finding has significant speed and improved answer-reliability implications in strong favor of the presented simple equation for use in artificial lift, production optimization and digital oilfield software in industry, in addition to being ideally suited for ‘physics-guided data analytics’ applications in real-time production operations environments.
The development and production of some oil and gas fields is that it sometimes brings fluid chemistry challenges. These chemistry challenges exhibit themselves in flow assurance issues which if not managed well, can lead to loss of productivity and value. Building an engineering solution to manage these risks enhances mitigation. One other key activity in optimizing and achieving value in oil and gas development is integrated surveillance and reviews cutting across various disciplines.
Neptune E & P UK Ltd has developed and brought to production the Cygnus field. It is one of the biggest gas field developments in the UK North Sea in recent years. The formation water is very saline with total dissolved solids of approximately 320,000 mg/l
The Cygnus Field development adopted a combination of bespoke completion architecture, an integrated approach to surveillance and review of data streaming in from the wells. Details of methods employed include the ability to continuously inject deoxygenated fresh water into the wells to provide online water washes with the wells flowing. Continuous thermal data acquisition from Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) fibre permanently installed across the length of the well. Pressure and temperature data measurement from permanent down-hole gauges. Surface measurement of rate, fluid fractions, salinity and pressure / temperature provided by multiphase flow meters.
The integrated surveillance and review process uses data acquired from the well instrumentation. This is normally carried out as follows: Data set preparation and validation Production Data Analysis Short and Long-term production strategy
Data set preparation and validation
Production Data Analysis
Short and Long-term production strategy
This strategy has allowed the operator to use the continuous data stream for well and reservoir analysis which has helped in optimizing production yielding high operational efficiency and availability.
The Piper Alpha Memorial Garden is located in Aberdeen. The accident demonstrated the shortcomings of the offshore regulations regime. It was instrumental in the introduction of the 1992 Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations in the UK. The Cullen report was highly critical of the management system in the operating company, which led to poor practices and ineffective regular safety audits. The PTW system had become too relaxed and the staff did not adhere to it.
Salehi, Saeed (School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering, University of Oklahoma) | Kiran, Raj (School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering, University of Oklahoma) | Jeon, Jiwon (Department of Industrial & System Engineering, University of Oklahoma) | Kang, Ziho (Department of Industrial & System Engineering, University of Oklahoma) | Teodoriu, Catalin (University of Oklahoma) | Cokely, Edward (The National Institute for Risk & Resilience)
Pushing the boundary of offshore drilling operations further has resulted in more complex and riskier frontiers. The paramount level of systemic complexity and risks have turned the focus of industry on the situational awareness and process safety. In case of failure at any of these accounts, the operations suffer several setbacks in terms of additional financial burden nonetheless the time. Workers have been reporting in several instances of the physiological and psychological issue which most of the time triggers an unfortunate or undesirable incidents.
Situation awareness (SA) has been conceived as directly associated with meta-cognitive faculties of human, however quantifying the cognitive abilities of a human while interacting with the systemic environment objectively is a far-fetched idea. Eye-tracking has been seen as a gateway to such ideas. Eye-tracking technology is not a recently discovered avenue. However, implementation of such technology in several highly sophisticated fields such as aviation, meteorology, and health sectors have witnessed radical changes in the past few years in SA explorations. This paper presents a comprehensive review of eye-tracking technology in the context of different high reliability organization and explores its relevance into offshore drilling operations. What will be a better way of exploration than to implement it through a case study? Keeping this in mind, a case study is also presented in this paper with the hypothesis of distinct anticipated behavior from less and more alert and aware participant. The experiments were conducted in a Virtual Reality Drilling Simulator (VRDS) equipped with eye tracking technology at OU Drilling simulator facility. The ocular activity of the participants was registered and further analyzed to assess their behavior. The cameras in such devices capture the characteristics of participants’ behavior, and through image processing algorithms oculomotor data such as eye fixation count and pupil sizes were obtained. These data were further analyzed through sophisticated statistical analysis and mathematical algorithms to generate cues to explore the relevance of the hypothesis.
Overall this paper digs into the role of eye-tracking technology to enhance the process safety and situational awareness. Results from the pilot study clearly indicate the significant deviation in case of less aware/alert participant from the ideal behavior or more aware participants. This paper will provide an initial framework for implementation of eye-tracking technology in complex real-time operations to further extend the safeguards from the human errors.
Objectives/Scope: Expand the Use of Open Wireless Gas Detection Systems for Life Safety and Asset Integrity As companies struggle to improve the health and safety of the workforce in heavy industrial process industries, it is clear that current solutions demand the flexibility and the fast deployment that an open WirelessHART gas detection system can provide. Untethering toxic and combustible gas detection systems provide: - Additional coverage - identifies dangerous workforce environments for fast mitigation and improve life safety - Measurements for predictive maintenance program for equipment such as pumps, valves, and tanks - Use of gas detection for identifying leaks in difficult to measure infrastructure such as insulated piping to ensure asset integrity Methods, Procedures, Process: - WirelessHART standard IEC 62591 - ISA-TR84.00.07-2010
The Alpha Piper tragedy and the subsequent investigations led by Lord Cullen practically reshaped the offshore oil industry. How did the upstream oil industry change since? How did process safety legislation evolve across the world over these years? Is the upstream oil industry doing enough about process safety? If so, why are there still major accidents happening? Is there enough being done to address "Human Factors"? Is process safety legislation adequate in the various major oil producing regions around the world? Or does the development of process safety legislation remain largely in response to major accidents. After a brief review of the Alpha Piper disaster and its impact on the development of process safety legislations around the world, this paper attempts to answer the above questions.