Mexico has undertaken a series of measures to implement Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology due to the acquired national and international commitments regarding the reduction of GHG emissions as well as their implications to climate change. So far, the screening of the different methods for geological storage of CO2 potentially applicable in Mexico includes deep saline aquifers, non-economic coal beds, and crude oil reservoirs for EOR.
Storage of carbon dioxide projects in igneous rocks has been successful in the past. According to the literature, there are about eight sites, onshore, in the world with plenty of igneous rocks to store CO2, and Mexico is one of these sites. However, little attention has been paid to the study of igneous rocks as a potential method for geological storage of carbon dioxide.
This work aims the first petrographic and geochemical analysis to estimate the feasibility of CO2 mineralization thorough Mexican basaltic formations. This analysis includes the identification of the main CO2 emission areas in Mexico, the collection of samples near to large CO2 emissions sites and, the characterization of the samples by different tests and techniques. The properties of the rock samples and water were studied after the tests to compare changes in mineral phases and water composition.
The results herein confirm the feasibility of Mexican basalts to react in the presence of CO2 but also set the recommendations for the next steps to take to determine the technical feasibility of the CO2 permanent storage using basalts in Mexico.
Partnerships with big tech, tech startups, and innovative service companies--and the merging of their data, cloud, and software applications--are proving essential for operators in the scaling phase of digital deployment. Equinor has been among the first of many international oil companies to actively seek out and form such alliances. The Norwegian operator is in the process of leveraging its massive collection of data by making it accessible both inside and outside the company to improve its next generation of upstream projects--a task so big that it certainly cannot go it alone. "The challenge is not what data to share but to define the rules of the game for how to share [the data]," said Anders Opedal, Equinor executive vice president of technology, projects, and drilling, during the recent Halliburton Landmark Innovation Forum and Expo (LIFE 2019) in Houston. To overcome the industry's inclination toward data protectionism, Equinor became a founding member of the Open Subsurface Data Universe (OSDU) initiative, a global collaboration between most of the world's largest operators and service firms to define standards for an open-data architecture for subsurface data.
For the second YEPP event in 2005, Wim Turkenburg, Professor at the Copernicus Inst. of Sustainable Development and Innovation Science, Technology, and Society Div. of Utrecht U., gave a comprehensive lecture on CO2 emission reduction. Thirty-six young (and some more experienced) professionals of the E&P industry in The Hague and surrounding area attended. In 2001, fossil fuels made up almost 80% of our world's energy consumption, and CO2 emissions are related mainly to the consumption of fossil fuels. Because western countries cause 58.6% of global CO2 emissions and the emerging regions in Asia Pacific are rapidly gaining ground, those consumers should take the lead in reducing emissions and their adverse effect on global climate change, he said. Energy conservation and the use of renewables would lead to the largest drop in emissions, but CO2 recovery and storage remains a good number three on the list of methods that should be tried, he said.
Taha, Taha (Emerson Automation Solutions) | Ward, Paul (Emerson Automation Solutions) | Peacock, Gavin (Emerson Automation Solutions) | Heritage, John (Emerson Automation Solutions) | Bordas, Rafel (Emerson Automation Solutions) | Aslam, Usman (Emerson Automation Solutions) | Walsh, Steve (Emerson Automation Solutions) | Hammersley, Richard (Emerson Automation Solutions) | Gringarten, Emmanuel (Emerson Automation Solutions)
This paper presents a case study in 4D seismic history matching using an automated, ensemble-based workflow that tightly integrates the static and dynamic domains. Subsurface uncertainties, captured at every stage of the interpretative and modelling process, are used as inputs within a repeatable workflow. By adjusting these inputs, an ensemble of models is created, and their likelihoods constrained by observations within an iterative loop. The result is multiple realizations of calibrated models that are consistent with the underlying geology, the observed production data, the seismic signature of the reservoir and its fluids. It is effectively a digital twin of the reservoir with an improved predictive ability that provides a realistic assessment of uncertainty associated with production forecasts.
The example used in this study is a synthetic 3D model mimicking a real North Sea field. Data assimilation is conducted using an Ensemble Smoother with multiple data assimilations (ES-MDA). This paper has a significant focus on seismic data, with the corresponding result vector generated via a petro-elastic model. 4D seismic data proves to be a key additional source of measurement data with a unique volumetric distribution creating a coherent predictive model. This allows recovery of the underlying geological features and more accurately models the uncertainty in predicted production than was possible by matching production data alone.
A significant advantage of this approach is the ability to utilize simultaneously multiple types of measurement data including production, RFT, PLT and 4D seismic. Newly acquired observations can be rapidly accommodated which is often critical as the value of most interventions is reduced by delay.
The major challenge facing society in the 21st century is to improve the quality of life for all citizens in an egalitarian way, by providing sufficient food, shelter, energy and other resources for a healthy meaningful life, whilst at the same time decarbonizing anthropogenic activity to provide a safe global climate. This means limiting the temperature rise to below 2 C. Currently, spreading wealth and health across the globe is dependent on growing the GDP of all countries. This is driven by the use of energy, which until recently has mostly derived from fossil fuel, though a number of countries have shown a decoupling of GDP growth and greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector through rapid increases in low carbon energy generation. Nevertheless, as low carbon energy technologies are implemented over the coming decades, fossil fuels will continue to have a vital role in providing energy to drive the global economy. Considering the current level of energy consumption and projected implementation rates of low carbon energy production, a considerable quantity of fossil fuels will still be used, and to avoid emissions of GHG, carbon capture and storage (CCS) on an industrial scale will be required. In addition, the IPCC estimate that large scale GHG removal from the atmosphere is required using technologies such as Bioenergy CCS to achieve climate safety. In this paper we estimate the amount of carbon dioxide that will have to be captured and stored, the storage volume and infrastructure required if we are to achieve both the energy consumption and GHG emission goals. By reference to the UK we conclude that the oil and gas production industry alone has the geological and engineering expertise and global reach to find the geological storage structures and build the facilities, pipelines and wells required. Here we consider why and how oil and gas companies will need to morph into hydrocarbon production and carbon dioxide storage enterprises, and thus be economically sustainable businesses in the long term, by diversifying in and developing this new industry.
Briefly stated, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) will help us to sustain many of the benefits of using hydrocarbons to generate energy as we move into a carbon-constrained world. Even though the CO2 generated by burning hydrocarbons cannot always be captured easily in some cases (as in oil used for transportation), sequestration of CO2 from other sources (such as coal-fired power stations) can help to create, to some degree, the “headroom” needed for the volumes of CO2 that escape capture. Because of the likely continuing competitive (direct) cost of hydrocarbons and in light of the huge investment in infrastructure already made to deliver them, the combination of fossil fuel use with CCS is likely to be emphasized as a strong complement to strategies involving alternative, nonhydrocarbon sources of energy. Moreover, the exploitation of heavy oil, tar sands, oil shales, and liquids derived from coal for transportation fuel is likely to increase, even though these come with a significantly heavier burden of CO2 than that associated with conventional oil and gas. CCS has the potential to mitigate some of this extra CO2 burden. If we wish to sustain the use of oil, gas, and coal to meet energy demands in a carbon-constrained world and to provide time to move toward alternative energy sources, then it will be necessary to plan for and implement CCS over the coming decades. Subsequently, we should expect a continued need for CCS beyond the end of the century.
Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) is a geologic and engineering enterprise designed to reduce atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Extensive research links the GHG concentration in the atmosphere to the observed change in global temperature patterns (IPCC, 2013; Cox et al., 2000; Parmesean and Yohe, 2003). CCS technology could play an important role in efforts to limit the global average temperature rise to below 2°C, by removing carbon dioxide originating from fossil fuel use in power generation and industrial plants.
Butler, Shane (University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center) | Azenkeng, Alexander (University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center) | Mibeck, Blaise (University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center) | Kurz, Bethany (University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center) | Eylands, Kurt (University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center)
Advanced characterization of the Bakken Formation, an unconventional oil and gas play of the Williston Basin, was performed via newly developed analytical tools of microscopic investigation in concert with standard laboratory methods. Characterization of an unconventional formation to understand the composition and distribution of framework grains, organic matter (OM), clay minerals, and porosity is difficult because of the extremely lithified nature of the lithofacies within the formation and the small grain and particle sizes. In this study, corroborative methods aimed to define micro- and nanoscale fabrics that impact parameters such as maturity, recovery, clay content, micropore networks, and CO2 interactions for either storage or enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Lateral and vertical variations in the rock fabric across multiple wellsites were observed on a micro- to nanometer scale with innovative analytical technologies.
Detailed morphologies and chemical compositions of ion-milled samples were obtained with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Furthermore, a new software suite, Advanced Mineral Identification and Characterization System (AMICS), was used to classify and quantify mineralogy, OM, and porosity from the FESEM images. For validation purposes, x-ray diffraction was used to obtain bulk mineral and clay mineral data and x-ray fluorescence to obtain bulk chemical compositions of the samples. Advanced image analysis was performed on high-resolution FESEM images as another corroborative approach to characterize key features of interest within the lithofacies. Each sample consisted of high-resolution FESEM backscattered electron (BSE) images taken at multiple magnifications to maximize particle morphology in the fine-grained rock of the unconventional reservoir.
The data highlighted trends related to factors that impact CO2 transport and sorption in unconventional reservoirs. Segmented BSE images from the FESEM using program parameters that included texture, gray scale, and other morphological properties made it possible to estimate OM, clays, and porosity for each sample. The compositional analysis, including matrix porosity, OM porosity, and mineralogical composition maps, provided context for the potential of organic-rich and tight rock formations as CO2- based EOR targets or CO2 storage targets.
Advanced image analysis techniques were applied to better understand and quantify factors that could affect CO2 storage in the Bakken Formation, with an ultimate goal of improved method development to estimate CO2 storage potential of unconventional reservoirs. Discernible differences in fabric, mineral, and elemental content in comparable lithofacies across wellsites provided insight into the nature of the Bakken Formation, which could serve as a proxy for other tight rock, organic-rich reservoirs that could be potential targets for both CO2-based EOR and CO2 storage.
Maintaining a stable borehole and optimizing drilling are still considered to be vital practice for the success of any hydrocarbon field development and planning. The present study deliberates a case study on the estimation of pore pressure and fracture gradient for the recently decommissioned Volve oil field at the North Sea. High resolution geophysical logs drilled through the reservoir formation of the studied field have been used to estimate the overburden, pore pressure, and fracture pressure. The well-known Eaton’s method and Matthews-Kelly’s tools were used for the estimation of pore pressure and fracture gradient, respectively. Estimated outputs were calibrated and validated with the available direct downhole measurements (formation pressure measurements, LOT/FIT). Further, shear failure gradient has been calculated using Mohr-Coulomb rock failure criterion to understand the wellbore stability issues in the studied field. Largely, the pore pressure in the reservoir formation is hydrostatic in nature, except the lower Cretaceous to upper Jurassic shales, which were found to be associated with mild overpressure regimes. This study is an attempt to assess the in-situ stress system of the Volve field if CO2 is injected for geological storage in near future.
Franklin M. Orr Jr., Stanford University Summary Recent progress in carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) is reviewed. Considerable experience has now been built up in enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) operations, which have been under way since the 1970s. Storage in deep saline aquifers has also been achieved at scale. Introduction The challenge of making deep reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in this century is a daunting one given the scale of the use of energy by humans and our current dependence on fossil fuels, which provide essential energy services at low cost to modern societies. Meeting the challenge of reducing GHG emissions will require a fully diversified portfolio of approaches, such as much more energy-efficient end-use technologies (e.g., cars, home and business heating and air conditioning, lighting); electrification of energy services coupled with reduced GHG emissions from electric power generation; fuel switching in transportation and electric power generation; deployment of additional renewable power generation; land-use changes toward lower-emission agriculture; emission reductions of short-term forcers such as black carbon, CH Integrated assessments of the various pathways indicate that portfolios that include significant deployment of CCUS have lower estimated costs than those without CCUS (Clarke et al. 2014; Krey et al. 2014). In 2005, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) issued a detailed special report (SRCCS) on many aspects of carbon capture and storage (CCS) (Metz et al. 2005). Wilcox (2012) provided detailed descriptions of specific capture technologies and their energy requirements, as did Boot-Handford et al. (2014), who gave additional commentary on pipeline transportation issues, subsurface storage issues, and a European policy perspective.