It will provide re ... Harkand has secured a USD 5 million contract from Swiber Offshore Mexico to perform saturation divin ... Two Bumi Armada subsidiary companies secured USD 300 million worth of contracts from ElectroGas for ... Amec Foster Wheeler has been awarded a contract by BP worth more than USD 73 million. Tam International, which provides inflatable and swellable packers for the oil and gas industry, has ... Sanchez Energy closed a deal with a subsidiary of Sanchez Production Partners to sell wellbore and a ... Penn West Petroleum has entered into a USD 321 million agreement with Freehold Royalties to sell an ... Bonterra Energy has acquired Cardium formation-focused assets in the Pembina area of Alberta, Canada ... Petrobras has sold its assets in Argentina’s Austral basin to Compañia General de Combustibles for U ... Pemex signed an agreement worth USD 1 billion with private equity firmFirst Reserve to jointly inves ... Gulfport Energy entered into an agreement to acquire Paloma Partners III for USD 300 million. Apache sold its 13% stake in the Wheatstone LNG terminal in Western Australia and 50% interest in th ... Oil and gas safety company Secorp opened a new office in Hobbs, New Mexico. Bill Barrett Corp. has signed agreements with several undisclosed recipients for the sale of the maj ... Encana said it will sell its remaining 54% stake in PrairieSky Royalty via a USD-2.4-billion Cardinal Energy entered into an agreement with an unnamed seller to acquire assets whose total daily ... Petrobras has awarded a contract, worth USD 465 million over a period of 5 years, to Aker Oilfield S ... CGG received contracts for the 3D seismic acquisition of four surveys using its marine broadband tec ... IKM Subsea, a subsidiary of IKM Group, has been awarded a contract by Eni Indonesia to provide remot ... OneSubsea, Schlumberger, and Helix Energy Solutions signed a letter of intent to develop technologie ... Premier Hytemp has committed to opening a USD-20-million, 67,000-ft2 precision engineering facility ... Expro has constructed a new 20,000‑m2 facility in Macaé, Brazil.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) Oil samples have been recovered in the FAN-1 exploration well, being drilled offshore Senegal. Elevated gas and fluorescence were encountered in a shallow secondary target, and the presence of oil was confirmed by an intermediate logging program. Oil samples from thin sand were collected by a wireline formation tester for further analysis. The well will be deepened to a planned total depth of approximately 5000 m. Cairn is the operator (40%), with partners ConocoPhillips (35%), FAR (15%), and Senegalese national oil company Petrosen (10%). A drillstem test of BG Group's Mzia-3 well--located in Block 1, offshore southern Tanzania, at a water depth of around 1800 m--reached a maximum sustained flow rate of 101 MMscf/D of natural gas. The Mzia prospect is a multilayered field of Upper Cretaceous age with a gross gas column estimated at more than 300 m.
Without regulation pertaining to the use and discharge of surfactant for offshore enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process in Malaysia, we adopted the guidelines from OSPAR (Oslo Paris Convention) that governs the use and discharge of offshore chemicals in the North Sea Region. In OSPAR, the CHARM (Chemical Hazard Assessment and Risk Management) model is being used to assess the risk of offshore chemicals to the marine environment. CHARM prescribes the Predicted Environment Concentration:Predicted No-Effect Concentration (PEC:PNEC) approach which ratio determines the hazard quotient (HQ) in order to rank the chemical by colour banding. Our surfactant formulation achieved a HQ of 2.16 or Silver colour banding with the stipulation that the volume of the discharged produced water is twice the volume of chemical solution (squeeze) injected. Nevertheless, in providing more certainty and confidence for both operators and local regulators to allow for overboard discharge of our flow-back surfactant formulation, we conducted a comprehensive produced water dilution modelling called DREAM (Dose-related Risk and Effect Assessment Model). The model calculates the Environmental Impact Factor (EIF) of each component of the chemical in the discharged produced water. Similar to CHARM, the DREAM uses the PEC:PNEC approach, but its PEC input parameters include environmental influences such as weather profile, current, etc. and incorporates a slick model. Its output is a quantation of the risks to the receiving environment, called the Environmental Impact Factor (EIF); where EIF is more than 1, the impact to the environment is significant. We simulated the chemical fate of individual component of the formulation with the scenario whereby the produced water is not treated prior to discharge. The time-averaged EIFs were more than 1 across all weather windows, indicating the discharge of untreated chemical-containing produced water is likely to have a localized environmental impact. We used both CHARM and DREAM as decision support tools for effective management of operational discharges from offshore projects. Limitations and recommendations from DREAM simulation results in the context of our EOR application are discussed.
The use of an electric drilling tool deployed on wireline is shown to be a safe, efficient and reliable method to penetrate the base pipe in sand screens. In the case study presented in this paper, a well on a field on the Norwegian Continental Shelf, completed with a Darcy sand screen that was clogged due to scale. A Darcy screen is an expandable hydraulically activated sand screen. An electric drill deployed on wireline was used to drill holes through the base pipe of the screen and into the flow channels to open for production. The tool needed a sufficient anchoring capacity for keeping the drill bit steady as well as accuracy of the drilling process to prevent damaging the underlying filter media. Both the anchor and the drill section of the drilling tool deployed are shown to be designed to meet these specifications. The sequence of the operation is presented, where two circular patterns at different depths with 13 holes each are drilled. At the time of publishing for this paper, the results on production from this operation is not yet known, as the well has not started producing again.
Alkinani, Husam H. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Al-Hameedi, Abo Taleb T. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Dunn-Norman, Shari (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Flori, Ralph E. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alsaba, Mortadha T. (Australian College of Kuwait) | Amer, Ahmed S. (Newpark Technology Center/ Newpark Drilling Fluids)
Oil/gas exploration, drilling, production, and reservoir management are challenging these days since most oil and gas conventional sources are already discovered and have been producing for many years. That is why petroleum engineers are trying to use advanced tools such as artificial neural networks (ANNs) to help to make the decision to reduce nonproductive time and cost. A good number of papers about the applications of ANNs in the petroleum literature were reviewed and summarized in tables. The applications were classified into four groups; applications of ANNs in explorations, drilling, production, and reservoir engineering. A good number of applications in the literature of petroleum engineering were tabulated. Also, a formalized methodology to apply the ANNs for any petroleum application was presented and accomplished by a flowchart that can serve as a practical reference to apply the ANNs for any petroleum application. The method was broken down into steps that can be followed easily. The availability of huge data sets in the petroleum industry gives the opportunity to use these data to make better decisions and predict future outcomes. This paper will provide a review of applications of ANNs in petroleum engineering as well as a clear methodology on how to apply the ANNs for any petroleum application.
The critical gas saturation in permeable sands was studied as a function of depletion rate and the presence of an aqueous phase as the major experimental variables. Voidage-replacement ratios (VRR = injected volume/produced volume) less than 1 were used to obtain pressure depletion with active water injection. Three different live crude oils were considered. Two of the oils are viscous Alaskan crudes with dead-oil viscosities of 87.7 and 600 cp, whereas the third is a light crude oil with a dead-oil viscosity of 9.1 cp. The critical gas saturation for all tests ranged from 4 to 16%. These values for critical gas saturation are consistent with the finding that the gas phase displayed characteristics similar to those of a foamy oil. For a given oil and depletion rate, the critical gas saturation was somewhat larger for VRR = 0 than it was for VRR = 0.7. The oil recovery correlates with the critical gas saturation (i.e., for a given VRR, tests exhibit greater oil recovery when the critical gas saturation is elevated). For the conditions tested, there was not a strong correlation of critical gas saturation over more than two orders of magnitude of the rate of pressure depletion, for a given VRR. Such behavior might be consistent with theoretical studies reported elsewhere that suggest that the critical gas saturation is independent of the pressure-depletion rate when the rate of depletion is small.
This manuscript describes a novel approach to monitor water flood front movement using Proximity Sensing in conjunction with contrast agents. Our technique exploits the presence of resistive layers between reservoirs, which act as a transmission line for electromagnetic signals, to achieve increased propagation range. This work focuses on numerical simulations to evaluate the potential of this approach to monitor water movement in the reservoir under different conditions.
A series of 2D axisymmetric numerical simulations were conducted to assess the potential of Proximity Sensing to monitor moving fronts of labeled brine as well as to detect isolated pockets of brine labeled with contrast agents. The study was conducted using layered models that resemble a resistive seal bounded by reservoirs saturated with brine or brine and contrast agents. The effect of magnetic permeability (μ) on signal travel time and amplitude is reported and compared to the effect of electric permittivity (ε).
The results show that Proximity Sensing is a suitable technique to detect changes in the μ of reservoirs adjacent to resistive seals. Therefore, our approach can be used in combination with contrast agents, such as Magnetic NanoMappers, to monitor water flood front movement in the reservoir. In addition, this technique can be used to detect isolated pockets of labeled brine, which suggests that injection of slugs of labeled water would be enough for field applications. The observed effect of μ on signal travel time is similar to the trend observed when the electric permittivity of the bounding reservoirs is changed. A significant difference is that increasing μ of the bounding reservoirs appears to reduce signal amplitude while increasing ε has the opposite effect. This result was unexpected and requires further simulations and experimentation to validate this behavior.
Proximity Sensing offers a novel approach to address the challenge of electromagnetic propagation in conductive media and paves the way for the development of refined techniques that provide reservoir saturation and water flood front monitoring capabilities with greater resolution.
A semi-analytical framework for predicting the onset of sand production in a horizontal well is presented. The approach couples the flow in perforation tunnels with flow in the wellbore itself, to obtain a more accurate estimate of maximum sand free production rate in a well. The elastic equations of equilibrium are combined with the Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion to calculate the critical radius. A numerical, iterative solution method is used to compute the location of the elastic-plastic zone during well production. Instead of computing the pressure change in a cavity, which is difficult to characterize and implement in practice, the proposed model integrates the cavity stability criteria into the perforated wellbore inflow model to determine maximum sand-free wellbore flow rate. In addition to the typical perforation tunnel parameters such as cohesive strength, friction angle and perforation radius considered in past efforts, pressure loss effects in a wellbore (wall friction, acceleration, and fluid mixing) are incorporated into the proposed model. A numerical shooting method is then used to iteratively arrive at the maximum sand free rate for a perforated horizontal wellbore in a reservoir of known properties. Results show that without incorporation of the inflow model, the predicted maximum sand-free rates from prevailing approaches can be over-optimistic. The proposed method can be used to optimize perforation parameters to prevent sanding when designing well completions.
Hussain, Sajjad (Schlumberger) | Li, Fei (Schlumberger) | Rana, Vikram (Schlumberger) | Sharma, Varun (Schlumberger) | Dhaher, Karam Sulaiman (Schlumberger) | Blackburn, Jason (Schlumberger) | Haaland, Sigurd (Statoil ASA) | Sivertsen, Atle (Statoil ASA) | Eshraghi, Daniel (Statoil ASA) | Dashtpour, Reza (Statoil ASA) | Lunkad, Siddhartha (Statoil ASA) | Hongdul, Thanong (Statoil ASA) | Bairwa, Girish Kumar (Statoil ASA)
The point-the-bit rotary steerable system (RSS) is frequently used for high-profile directional drilling jobs in challenging environments that require high degree of directional control.
To achieve toolface control, the point-the-bit RSS control system requires two inputs: the rotation rate of the collar (CRPM) and the toolface orientation of the bit shaft. Previously, the tool utilized magnetic field measurements to compute the above two parameters and, subsequently, control the toolface for the well trajectory. However, the point-the-bit RSS steerability is compromised in a blind zone (where magnetic field measurement is significantly interfered with, such as inside casing, drilling out of a whipstock window, or close to offset wells, or does not have enough signal strength, such as in a zone of exclusion (ZOE) where the Earth's magnetic field projection on the cross section of tool is low. The new inertial steering mode of the point-the-bit RSS uses accelerometers and a rate gyroscope sensor to steer the tool, and it can be toggled on or off by a mud downlink. This inertial steering mode effectively expands the operational envelope of the point-the-bit RSS by improving tool steering ability when the tool is in a blind zone or ZOE.
Four successful field runs have been completed on one of the largest mature fields in North Sea Continental Shelf (NCS). In the first field run, the new inertial steering mode of the point-the-bit RSS was used to kick off a well, which is close to seven nearby producing wells, from an openhole cement plug through a 37-m narrow window between the 20-in. casing shoe and 13 3/8-in. casing stump and to drill a 17 ½-in. section in the same run. The new inertial steering mode helped to steer in the desired direction with good tool face control in the presence of high magnetic interference. In the second field run, the RSS tool successfully exited the whipstock window and steered in the desired direction using the new inertial steering mode, providing planned separation from the cuttings re-injection (CRI) zone and drilling the 12 ¼-in. section to target depth (TD). In the third field run, the new inertial steering mode was deployed to exit the whipstock window, drill the 8 ½-in. section to TD, and land on top of the reservoir close to five offset wells with a minimum 14-m center–to-center distance. The fourth field run helped the operator to exit whipstock window inside the 13 3/8-in. casing and steer the 12 ¼-in. section underneath motherbore in a high magnetic interference and collision risks environment.
Based on the four successful runs, the new inertial steering mode of the point-the-bit RSS has been proven for its tool face and trajectory control, expanding the tool's operational envelope.
The main objective of this paper is to share the experience of the first Dual reamer bottom hole assembly (BHA) design implemented off-shore Norway, Gullfaks field, 17 ½ × 20-inch section. It presents the drilling challenges, innovative bottom hole assembly and the first world wide application for the Electro-magnetic receiver sub fully integrated with rotary steerable system (RSS)
Hole enlargement while drilling (HEWD) became a well-known application, and they are widely used to support several well intervention objectives like; i) Accommodating un-common casing design. ii) Reduce operational risk such as high equivalent circulating density (ECD). iii) Optimized casing and completion programs. There are two main types on hole enlargement tools, based on activation mechanism: ball-drop using a ball to Activate/De-activate the reamer, and hydraulic on demand triggered by changing flow rate on a predefined specific range, so called ‘Indexing’ for Activation/De-activation of the reamer. Both carrying a common implicit risks and limitations, where reamers have to be positioned above logging while drilling tools (LWD) so that the enlarged hole does not impair the quality of the formation evaluation measurements, or compromise the bottom hole assembly stabilization. This results in a rat-hole of 40-50 meters at the section target depth (TD), consequently challenges the casing running, casing cementing job, and drilling next sections with potential risk of cement pack-off around bottom hole assembly. Today in the industry, these challenges are usually addressed by an extra dedicated run for opening the rat-hole.
Collaborative efforts between operator in the North-sea and a Service Company to address the risk and limitations associated to the hole enlargement while drilling design. Dual Reamer System developed to reduce the rat-hole length to minimum instead of 40-50 meters, and to eliminate the extra dedicated run for opeing the rat-hole. The innovative approach planned to drill to section target depth (TD) using upper ball drop reamer, tool positioned 45 meters behind the bit for Hole Enlargement While Drilling, then pull back to position the bit at rat hole shoulder, de-activate upper reamer (ball drop system), and activate the lower hydraulic on demand reamer to eliminate the rat-hole. A Gyro while drilling integrated into the BHA along with 9-in world first electro-magnetic receiver sub mounted on the top of the hydraulic on demand reamer. Providing a full integration, and securing a real time communication with the RSS in a critical and challenging Anti-collision situation.
The unprecedented approach successfully implemented on Gullfaks field, 17 ½ × 20-inch section drilled to target depth (TD) in one run, with all objectives met on directional control in tight Anti-collision scenario, and measurements and logging while drilling.
The Dual reamer BHA along with the Electro-magnetic receiver sub proven efficient steering capability and reliability, which led to significant improvement in the drilling, casing running and cementing operations