In a $60 to $70 oil environment, the subsea market is poised to grow around 7% annually up to 2025. But a significant portion of this activity is at risk if the price of Brent crude falls to $50 per barrel. Completion comes despite two cyclones disrupting the project area during installation, McDermott said. AUVs have evolved from an emerging technology with niche uses to a viable solution and an established part of operations in various marine sectors. Douglas-Westwood’s AUV Market Forecast considers the prospective demand for AUVs in the commercial, military and research sectors over the next 5 years.
Learn more about training courses being offered. Learn more about training courses being offered. This course covers the fundamental principles concerning how hydraulic fracturing treatments can be used to stimulate oil and gas wells. It includes discussions on how to select wells for stimulation, what controls fracture propagation, fracture width, etc., how to develop data sets, and how to calculate fracture dimensions. The course also covers information concerning fracturing fluids, propping agents, and how to design and pump successful fracturing treatments. Learn more about training courses being offered. Current and future SPE Section and Student Chapter leaders are invited to engage and share. Every attendee leaves energised with a full list of ideas and a support network of fellow leaders. Those sections and student chapters actively participating in this workshop have consistently been recognized with awards as the best in SPE. SPE Cares is a global volunteering drive aimed at promoting, supporting and participating in community services at the SPE section and student chapter’s level. On its official launch this year at ATCE Dubai, SPE Cares will conduct a “Give a Ghaf” Tree Planting Programme to help preserve Ghaf’s cultural and ecological heritage. The Ghaf tree is an indigenous species, specific to UAE, Oman and Saudi Arabia. It is a drought tolerant, evergreen tree that can survive a harsh desert environment. The initiative not only aims to hold events/activities at ATCE, but also recognise community service that SPE members are already conducting in their respective student chapters and professional sections. The KEY Club, open daily, is an exclusive lounge for key SPE members. The lounge is open to those with 25 years or more of continuous membership, Century Club members, current and former SPE Board officers and directors, Honorary and Distinguished Members, as well as this year’s SPE International Award Winners and Distinguished Lecturers. DSATS (SPE’s Drilling Systems Automation Technical Section) will hold a half-day symposium featuring keynote presentations on urban automation. This symposium will explore technologies being used in developing smart cities through the automation of their infrastructure, transportation systems, energy distribution, water systems, street lighting, refuse collection, etc. These efforts rely on many of the same tools needed for drilling systems automation yielding increased efficiencies, lower maintenance and reduced emissions. Their knowledge and experience can guide the path being travelled by the oilfield drilling industry.
The reciprocating compression division manufactures and services compression and engine systems that are used in a variety of applications, including the transmission of natural gas across domestic and international pipelines. Pioneer shut in 8,000 BOE/D production in its West Panhandle field in Texas on 6 March due to a compression station fire. Planning to use idle compressors, production is expected to restart later this month or in early April. As compressor stations are added to the natural gas gathering and transmission networks, the potential noise issues are coming under increasing public scrutiny at the same time as regulations are being rolled back.
In a $60 to $70 oil environment, the subsea market is poised to grow around 7% annually up to 2025. But a significant portion of this activity is at risk if the price of Brent crude falls to $50 per barrel. The subsea operations company said its most recent campaign is the first fully unmanned offshore pipeline inspection completed “over the horizon,” surveying up to 100 km from the shore. The subsea tieback is expected to start up in 2021. The Neptune-operated project is on track to start drilling later this year, with first oil scheduled for the end of 2020.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) Oil samples have been recovered in the FAN-1 exploration well, being drilled offshore Senegal. Elevated gas and fluorescence were encountered in a shallow secondary target, and the presence of oil was confirmed by an intermediate logging program. Oil samples from thin sand were collected by a wireline formation tester for further analysis. The well will be deepened to a planned total depth of approximately 5000 m. Cairn is the operator (40%), with partners ConocoPhillips (35%), FAR (15%), and Senegalese national oil company Petrosen (10%). A drillstem test of BG Group's Mzia-3 well--located in Block 1, offshore southern Tanzania, at a water depth of around 1800 m--reached a maximum sustained flow rate of 101 MMscf/D of natural gas. The Mzia prospect is a multilayered field of Upper Cretaceous age with a gross gas column estimated at more than 300 m.
Unmanned minimum facility platforms are a reliable alternative to traditional wellhead platforms or subsea installations, and the technologies enabling simpler designs have evolved. Anadarko aims to maximize immediate short-cycle value through tiebacks and platform relocations in the Gulf of Mexico. This review of papers illustrates some of the innovative solutions used in the region. In maturing oil wells, oil production is often restricted as reservoir pressure depletes. Two case studies highlight the application of two-screw multiphase pump systems in to extend well life.
A passive tracer that labels gas or water in a well-to-well tracer test must fulfill the following criteria. It must have a very low detection limit, must be stable under reservoir conditions, must follow the phase that is being tagged and have a minimal partitioning into other phases, must have no adsorption to rock material, and must have minimal environmental consequences. The tracers discussed in the following sections have properties that make them suitable for application in well-to-well test in which dilution volumes are large. For small fields in which the requirement with respect to dilution is less important, other tracers can be applied. Figure 1.1 – Production curve of S14CN compared with the production curve of HTO in a dynamic flooding laboratory test (carbonate rock) (after Bjørnstad and Maggio). There are no possibilities for thermal degradation, and it follows the water closely. The 36Cl- is a long-lived nuclide (3 105 years), and the detection method is atomic mass spectroscopy rather than radiation measurements. The disadvantage is that the analysis demands very sophisticated equipment and is relatively time consuming. For mono-valent anions, the retention factors (see Eq. 6.2) are in the range of 0 to -0.03, which means that such tracers pass faster through the reservoir rock than the water itself (represented by HTO). A compound such as 35SO42- may be applied in some very specific cases but should be avoided normally because of absorption. Some anionic tracers may show complex behavior. Radioactive iodine (125I- and 131I-) breaks through before water but has a substantially longer tail than HTO. Both a reversible sorption and ion exclusion seem to play a role here. Cationic tracers are, in general, not applicable; however, experiments have qualified 22Na as an applicable water tracer in highly saline (total dissolved solids concentration seawater salinity) waters. In such waters, the nonradioactive sodium will operate as a molecular carrier for the tracer molecule. Retention factor has been measured in the range of 0.07 (see Eq. 6.2) at reservoir conditions in carbonate rock (chalk). Wood reported the use of 134Cs, 137Cs, 57Co, and 60Co cations as tracers.
Interwell tracer tests are widely used. This article reviews some of the studies reported in open literature. The selection introduces different problems that have been addressed, but the original papers should be studied to obtain a more detailed description of the programs. The Snorre field is a giant oil reservoir (sandstone) in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. Injection water and gas were monitored with tracers, 18 and the resulting tracer measurements are discussed in this page.
Petroleum produced from low permeability shales is different to the dispersed in-situ fluids from which it is derived. Whereas in-situ fluids consist of hydrocarbons, resins and asphaltenes in proportions governed by organic matter type, maturity and retention behaviour, the produced fluids are highly enriched in hydrocarbons and low polarity non-hydrocarbons, and show an enhanced GOR. Here, we study the effects of fractionation during production from Permian and Cretaceous shales using laboratory experiments, PVT-modeling and a regional PVT database. Our goal was to develop methodologies for predicting yields and compositions of produced fluids ahead of drilling.
Target wells with known fluid properties were used for calibration. Shales from neighbouring wells of slightly lower maturity were mildly matured to that of the calibration well using MSSV pyrolysis, and a PhaseSnapShot of the resultant fluid made using PVTsim.
The first example, from the late oil window Eagle Ford, demonstrates that both kerogen and bitumen are important petroleum precursors, and that in-situ compositions are largely determined by the most recently generated charge, rather than by cumulative addition during maturation. The PVT model, calibrated to the engineering report of the target well and its environs, reveals that a high proportion of the in-place C7+ fluids remain in the rock matrix relative to gas during production. The second example, taken from a gas and condensate fairway in the Permian Basin, shows that the predicted bulk composition of recently generated petroleum is facies dependent. PVT fluid calibrations have low Psat and low cricondentherms. These characteristics are reproduced by experiment, but only for those zones containing low contents of high molecular weight liquids. Any contributions to produced fluids from other zones is associated with massive retention of high molecular weight organics. The third example concerns volatile oil production from wells in the Permian Basin. The MSSV products generated by adjacent lower maturity shales exhibited phase envelopes with higher cricondentherms than that of the calibration, this being attributable to a molecular weight difference in heavy components. Adjusting the MW from 249 (measured) to 222 (produced oil PVT value) in the PVTsim model aligned the cricondentherms. This tuning step corresponds to the preferential retention of heavy polar compounds in the rock matrix during production. In a second step, 20% of the tuned MSSV-generated liquids are considered to be retained in the rock, thereby raising Psat. The result is an excellent match between the doubly tuned predicted phase envelope and that of the produced fluid. The preferential retention of polar compounds is also in line with this tuning step.
In summary, fractionation is part and parcel of production from shales. Up to 80% liquids retention relative to gas has been demonstrated. Production efficiency assessments are readily inferred from these data.
The extent to which fractionation occurs varies a lot, and has here been assessed by combining experimental rock geochemistry with PVT modeling (PhaseSnapShots), and using PVT reports on produced fluids for calibration.