This paper presents a comprehensive dynamic analysis of a marine spar platform with various mooring system configurations. From a practical viewpoint, the mooring system configuration is managed by reel-motor devices that change cable lengths while keeping all cables under tension. The spar platform is anchored to the seabed by twelve mooring cables (in six cable bundle arrangements), and the domain that the cable-driven spar platform can be within is called the platform effective area. The analysis is based on a global frame of reference at the seabed and a local frame of reference at the platform center of gravity. Under the context of rigid body dynamics, the averaged values of the mooring cable tension are calculated through the use of a second norm measure. The platform dynamic response under unidirectional harmonic water waves and changeable submerged depths is investigated over the entire spar platform effective area. The minimum platform natural frequency at each location within the effective area is used as a measure of the platform degree of rigidity.
Spar floating marine platforms are often used for offshore operations such as oil and gas exploration and production and wind energy harvesting. A spar platform consists of a floating structure that is connected to a heavyweight spar and anchored to the seabed by a cable-based mooring system. The first spar platform in the oil industry was installed in the North Sea in the 1970s and used for oil storage and offloading (Bax and de Werk, 1974; Van Santen and de Werk, 1976). While the floating platform is exposed to the environmental loads, the mooring system has the objective of retaining the floating structures’ location. Commonly used mooring systems consist of three cables (Karimirad and Moan, 2012; Jeon et al., 2013; Muliawan, Karimirad and Moan, 2013; Muliawan et al., 2013; Si et al., 2014; Kim et al., 2014; Yu et al., 2015), four cables (Downie et al., 2000; Chen et al., 2001; Sethuraman and Venugopal, 2013), nine cables (Zhang et al., 2007; Zhang et al., 2008; Montasir and Kurian, 2011; Montasir et al., 2015), and twelve cables (Wang et al., 2008; Yang et al., 2012).
A number of researchers analyzed the dynamic response of spar platforms through the use of different numerical and experimental techniques. The spar platform motion was investigated by Ran et al. (1996) through the use of a higher-order boundary element method, and they compared their numerical results with the measurement data, showing good agreement. Jha et al. (1997) obtained an analytical prediction for wave drift damping and viscous forces that influence the dynamic response of spar platforms. The effect of nonlinear sea waves on the dynamic response of a spar platform was investigated by Anam and Roesset (2002) through the use of the hybrid wave, stretching, and extrapolation models. Using Morison’s equation, Anam et al. (2003) studied the differences between the time domain analysis and frequency domain analysis in predicting the spar platform slow drift response.
Liu, Weiwei (COTEC Offshore Engineering Co., Ltd.) | Wang, Jin (COTEC Offshore Engineering Co., Ltd.) | Huang, Jia (COTEC Offshore Engineering Co., Ltd.) | Liu, Yang (COTEC Offshore Engineering Co., Ltd.) | Li, Yang (COTEC Offshore Engineering Co., Ltd.)
In recent years, Spar platform has become one of the most attractive deepwater development concepts due to its superior stability and strong operability suitable for dry-tree drilling and production in a wide range of water depth from 300m to 3000m. A new concept Spar platform, namely Spar Drilling Production Storage Offloading or SDPSO, combining the advantages of the deep-draft classic Spar configuration with the capability of oil storage, will be studied in this paper. This new concept Spar or SDPSO doesn't rely on a subsea pipeline system for oil export, thus significantly improves the flexibility of technical solutions and decrease the overall cost for deepwater marginal field development. Unlike conventional ship-shaped FPSOs, the SDPSO uses the oil-over-water or oil-water displacement method for oil storage. This paper first will provide an overview of the oil storage and offloading systems of the SDPSO. In general, two methods can be used for offshore oil storage loading and offloading, namely oil-gas displacement method (commonly used in a conventional FPSO) and oil-water displacement method. Due to its economical advantage and efficiency, the oil-water displacement method has been widely used in fixed gravity based structures in the North Sea and offshore Canada. In principle, the oil- water displacement method for oil storage and offloading is simply based on the natural separation of oil and water by gravity as the density of oil is lower than that of sea water. Since the SDPSO is a floating platform, the wave induced motions of the floater may cause certain effects on the oil-water interface mixture and potential pollution risk in the water discharged into the sea when the sea water is displaced out by oil in the storage tank. This paper will discuss typical process flow diagrams (PFD) of the oil storage and offloading systems of the SDPSO and provide a new system design which not only retains the advantages of oil-water displacement method for oil storage and offloading, but also eliminate the potential risk of environmental pollution from the displaced sea water discharged into the sea.
A floating platform in deep water Eastern Canada is required to withstand iceberg loads and/or be disconnected and towed away only in the event of very large approaching icebergs, leaving the mooring lines and risers in-place, support large topsides and provide large quantities of oil storage in the hull. Additionally, the platform should provide low motion response to storm and ice loads to maximize the operational uptime and facilitate the use of a large number of different riser systems including steel catenary risers (SCR).
This paper presents the details of a Disconnectable Concrete Spar FPSO platform that has been configured to satisfy all the above requirements and is able to be constructed locally in Eastern Canada. The paper describes a number of key features of the Spar shaped hull, mooring and riser systems that are specifically designed to withstand large iceberg loads and other environment loads while maintaining the characteristic low motion response to storm environments. The design helps to minimize disconnection frequency due to approaching icebergs and disconnection may only be required for very large icebergs or ice islands. Additionally, the system has been designed to minimize disconnection and reconnection time.
A new concept Spar-FPSO is proposed for deepwater oil field development integrating the advantages of the deep-draft Spar concept and for oil storage. Unlike conventional ship-shaped FPSOs, the Spar FPSO uses the oil-over-water storage method or oil-water displacement technology for oil storage, which is similar to that used in the fixed gravity-based platforms.
In order to investigate the VIM’s influence to mooring line tension and the platform motion characters, towing model test and wave basin model test are done. Based on model test conclusions, some corrections are added to numerical model, and perform a good consistency between numerical results and model test values. And from a full scale numerical stimulation, the VIM‘s effect on the mooring tension and Spar-FPSO’s offset are discussed.
A simple mooring line fatigue sensitivity analysis about VIM’s influence is done by using API simple summation method. VIM phenomenon lead to a more complex mooring tension distribution, higher offset motion and more serious mooring line fatigue problem. In order to better understand VIM character, more studies are needed.
Cylindrical structures exposed to a current create alternating eddies, or vortices, at a regular period. Figure.1 show how these eddies appear in the downstream wake of a cylinder. When the vortex shedding period close to the natural period of platform, “lock-in” phenomenon may appeared. The VIM may lead two aspects to mooring system of Spar1:
Firstly, inline pulsing drag force and transverse lift force would increase mooring line tension load;
Secondly, the long period response would increase mooring line fatigue damage.
With Spar platform taken into operation since 1990s, many studies are done on Spar VIM. By monitoring, the Genesis Spar has experience as large as 40% its diameter VIM, which is two times compared with design value 17% diameter (David W. Smith, 2004)2. Mehernosh Irani(2004) 3 described Spar VIM model test method , given a conclusion that model test is an effective method to analysis Spar VIM. By towing model test, uniform current flow could be simulated approximately. Un-uniform current flow could be simulated by using wave basin model test. Radbound Van Dijk(2003) 4 describe a VIM model test of Truss Spar and compared platform VIM behavior with and without strake, found the strake could reduce VIM motion amplitude effectively. Weiwen Zhao (2014) 5 using CFD analysis Spar’ VIM under uniform current flow, shows a good consistency with towing model test results.
The new concept SDPSO platform improves the flexibility of technical solution and reduces the overall cost of deep-water oil field development. The ultimate strength of hull structure under the condition of bending loads induced by wave and fatigue strength of local structural members were calculated and analyzed. Reliability index and structural failure were obtained for both ultimate strength and fatigue strength analysis by reliability method, advanced FOSM. It was observed that the reliability index satisfied the target value, indicating that the platform possesses high structural reliability level, and the fatigue life of the joint met the relevant requirement.
Poll, Philip (Houston Offshore Engineering) | Park, Y.C. (Williams Field Services) | Converse, Robin (Williams Field Services) | Godfrey, Dan (Williams Field Services) | Gian, Michael (Gulf Marine Fabricators)
Historically, Spar hulls have been compartmented using both flats and radial bulkheads. These hulls were fabricated into quarter or half sections and joined into full cylinder sections then into the full hull length while in a horizontal orientation. This approach left considerable fabrication work to be performed after assembly, disadvantageously, due to the horizontal position.
The configuration of the Gulfstar FPS reduces the number of radial bulkheads by locating the flats closer together, thus opening up the option to fabricate full cylindrical sections upright with open tops for ventilation and access during fabrication. Rotating each cylindrical section for final assembly was not required until all possible work, inside and out, on each section had been completed. This fabrication plan leaves only structural and systems tie-ins between sections once blocks are rotated and set in place.
Vertical fabrication of sections starts an overall structural arrangement philosophy to develop a configuration that is not only repetitive and efficient but also "fabrication friendly." The idea for improving constructability permeated other aspects of structural design. The purpose of this paper is to summarize some of the ways in which the Spar structure was arranged to improve fabrication and to evaluate the expected improvement with actual fabrication experience. This paper presents the genesis of the basic framing then culls out and discusses some notable lessons learned.
The information and results presented in this paper are applicable to engineers, designers and fabricators when evaluating structural arrangements and fabrication options for stiffened plate hulls, particularly Spar hulls. Cost and schedule benefits can potentially be achieved by incorporating some of the lessons learned presented in this paper.
Williams Field Services (WFS) use of the classic Spar hull form for the deepwater field development projects is the first classic Spar hull since ExxonMobil installed the Diana/Hoover Spar in 2000. Since that time, 14 Truss Spars and one Cell Spar have been installed. Learnings from those Spars along with increases in the metocean condition since 2000, significant increases in topside payload during detailed design, support of the five initial SCRs on a porch at the keel plus the decision to fabricate the hull in a US graving dock provided new challenges for the Naval Architects from design through to hull installation. The paper discusses the key drivers, constraints and criteria that had to be reconciled into a floating system with acceptable global motions, acceptable horizontal trim and robust characteristics for changes in topside payload and CGs. Examples of these sometimes conflicting design requirements include: the increased hull freeboard which was driven by the new metocean condition which then led to a higher topside VCG, a 30% increase in the topside's maximum operating payload between the end of FEED and midway into final design yet the depth and length of the graving dock dictated that these changes had to be accommodated without increasing either the diameter or draft of the hull. This paper presents the challenging results of the model tests and their impacts on the design of the mooring system as well as the very close tolerances in trim and stability for the tow out of the graving dock and then to site.
Internal solitary waves (ISWs) can impose significant loads on offshore structures. During the past several decades, ISWs have led to a series of incidents. With large draughts, spar platforms can be affected by ISWs; therefore, the ISW effect should not be neglected during the design, installation and operation in areas where ISWs can occur. However, there is a gap in research into this area with only a few preliminary studies published so far. In this paper, a series of experiments are carried out with a spar platform model in a large-scale stratified tank at Shanghai Jiao Tong University to investigate interaction characteristics of ISWs. Based on a two-layer ISW theory, a simplified theoretical model is established for predicting the ISW loads on a spar platform. It is shown that the horizontal ISW loads consist of drag and inertia components, which can be calculated using the Morison's equation, while the vertical loads are mainly the vertical Froude-Krylov force, which can be obtained by integrating the ISW-induced dynamic pressure over the spar bottom. By fitting theoretical results with experiments, specific formulas are established to determine two empirical coefficients in Morison's equation under ISW conditions, which are different from traditional methods.
As the development of model ocean engineering techniques, Spar off-shore platforms have been widely used in the area of deepwater drilling. Vortex Induced Motions (VIM), as a common phenomena of Spar platforms exposed to flow, is one of the main factors that affect the lifecycle of offshore platforms and should be avoid as much as possible in the design stage. Two common effective ways to mitigate VIM are the configuration of helical strakes and the adjustment of mooring line stiffness. The former could change the flow pattern in the vicinity of Spar hull and the latter can change the eigenfrequency of platforms in still water to avoid resonance frequency. There have been many investigations on Spar VIM both numerically and experimentally. In this paper, VIM of bared cylinder and straked Spar are compared numerically in uniform current at model scale and at different Reynolds numbers. Fundamental study of VIM is done by comparing motion amplitude at different reduced velocity. To predict the motion of Spar, a spring model is employed. To capture the detailed eddy information of the flow, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is applied. All the simulation are done at a model scale (1:60).
Between 2005 and 2010, three major events led to a significant increase in design demands of deepwater field developments in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM): Category 5 hurricanes Katrina and Rita (2005), The Macondo well blowout (2010), and The development of deeper, tighter, more remote reservoirs
Category 5 hurricanes Katrina and Rita (2005),
The Macondo well blowout (2010), and
The development of deeper, tighter, more remote reservoirs
These events have resulted in increased metocean criteria, new safety regulations and functional requirements associated with producing deeper, higher pressure and lower porosity reservoirs. This paper will examine and contrast the design impacts on Tension Leg Platform (TLP), Semi-submersible and Spar floating platforms before and after these events. The overall impact of these new requirements on topsides, hull, station-keeping and riser systems of recently sanctioned TLP, Semi-submersible and Spar platforms will be compared with pre-2005 sanctioned platform analogues to demonstrate the resulting impacts on platform size and cost.
Increased demands of post-2005 sanctioned GoM floating platforms have resulted in higher deck elevations, greater topsides payload, more robust station-keeping systems and larger hull displacements. Further, the feasibility of proven risers and well systems is challenged by the higher wave induced motions associated with greater design and survival sea-states and high pressure reservoirs. The design impacts of pre- and post-2005 sanctioned TLPs (Mars A, Olympus), Semi-submersibles (Atlantis, Jack St. Malo) and Spars (Tahiti, Lucius) on topsides, hull, station-keeping and riser systems will be compared and differences explained.
This paper will enable Operators and platform designers to: Appreciate the magnitude of impact on size and cost of floating platforms of post-2005 requirements, Understand the relative impacts on the three major hull types commonly used for GoM developments, and Update analogues and norms used in benchmarking and concept selection
Appreciate the magnitude of impact on size and cost of floating platforms of post-2005 requirements,
Understand the relative impacts on the three major hull types commonly used for GoM developments, and
Update analogues and norms used in benchmarking and concept selection