The post-Macondo response has included new regulations, new industry standardsand new recommended practices such as API RP96, BUL 97 and the Workplace SafetyRule (per the existing RP75) for Offshore Safety and Environmental Management(SEMs). These are nominally cross referenced, but it is still not clear whatholds them together and makes them work as a "system" for well design,construction and operation. Furthermore, there are inherent interface issuesbecause RP96 deals across different phases of the project delivery process(well design and construction), while BUL 97 and RP75 cover differentparticipants (contractor/operator). The theme of this paper how to deal withthe two issues of systematic integration and interfaces using the bow-tiesystem.
Even though well design and construction project participants may havediffering commercial and cultural perspectives, they all have an interest inavoiding major accident events. Implementing and maintaining barriers supportsthis interest. This paper discusses an analysis of how barriers,contractor/operator bridging documents and safety and environmental managementplans have worked or not worked in 28 different offshore well controldisasters. It will also show how the bow-tie system can improve riskcommunication by providing a "lingua franca" between the various projectparticipants and at different phases of the project. The lessons from thesecase studies will offer a path forward for the industry to successfullyimplement post-Macondo requirements based upon API RP96, BUL97, SEMs and otherreference standards dealing with Major Accident Events offshore.
Post-Macondo Developments in Barriers, Bridging Documents and SEMs
The response to the April 2010 Macondo disaster by the oil and gas industryincludes new oil and gas regulations, recommended practices and guidelines.Among these are two draft (as of January 2012) American Petroleum Institute(API) publications: API RP96, BUL 97 and the 2010 US Workplace Safety Rule(which incorporates API RP75 by reference) . In this paper I will refer tothese as "standards" a generic sense, in that I expect them all to becomestandard practice for oil and gas operations in the US GoM over the comingyears.