Liu, Zhen (Jiangsu University of Science and Technology) | Zhu, Renqing (Jiangsu University of Science and Technology) | Ji, Chunyan (Jiangsu University of Science and Technology) | Chen, Minglu (Jiangsu University of Science and Technology) | Teng, Bin (Dalian University of Technology) | Li, Liangbi (Jiangsu Modern Shipbuilding Technology Co. Ltd, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology)
Bulk-phase CO2 injection into saline aquifers can provide substantive reduction in CO2 emissions if the risk arising from aquifer pressurization is addressed adequately through mechanisms such as brine production out of the system (Anchliya 2009). While this approach addresses the risks associated with aquifer pressurization it does not address the problem of ensuring CO2 trapping as an immobile phase and its accumulation at the top of the aquifer. The performance of bulk-CO2-injection schemes highly depends on the seal-integrity assessment and presence of thief zones. The accumulated pocket of free CO2 can readily leak through a breach in the aquifer seal. Ideally, the aquifer should be monitored as long as the free CO2 is present, but if the CO2 is not immobilized, it is expected to remain underneath the seal rock for more than 1,000 years. Therefore, long-term monitoring of the seal integrity and avoiding leakage will be very costly.
To minimize the free CO2 below the caprock, we propose an engineered system to reduce aquifer pressurization and accelerate CO2 dissolution and trapping. We achieve these objectives through effective placement of brine injection and production wells to facilitate the lateral movement (hence, residual and solubility trapping) of CO2 in the aquifer and impede its upward movement. The simulation results for example engineered well configurations in this paper suggest that substantial improvements in immobilizing CO2 can be achieved through increasing enhanced solubility and residual trapping that result from better CO2-injection sweep efficiency. This approach has the potential to greatly reduce the risk of CO2 leakage both during and after injection. The controlled injection of CO2 with this technique reduces the uncertainty about the long-term fate of the injected CO2, prevents CO2 from migrating toward potential outlets or sensitive areas, and increases the volume of CO2 that can be stored in a closed aquifer volume during the CO2-injection period. Field-scale compositional simulation cases are discussed, and sensitivity studies are used to provide guidelines for well spacing and flow rates depending on aquifer properties and the volume of CO2 to be stored. Although it requires additional drilled wells, the active engineered configuration proposed for CO2 injection significantly reduces the reservoir volume required to effectively sequester a given volume of CO2, and the increase in the cost caused by additional wells is recovered by dramatic reduction in monitoring cost.
The prediction of dynamic elastic constants of reservoir rocks is one of the most important aspects of petroleum engineering. In recent years, several studies have been performed for this purpose. Because of uncertainty and variability in natural materials, deterministic prediction of rock properties in the reservoir is not reasonable. The purpose of this study is to evaluate uncertainty in dynamic-elastic-constant prediction for reservoir rock. Dipole-shear-sonic-image (DSI) log data from one of the Saudi Arabian reservoirs are used to evaluate uncertainty in dynamic-elastic-property prediction. For this purpose, a multiple linear regression (MLR) is carried out to present an empirical equation for shear-wave (S-wave) velocity prediction. Then, probabilistic analysis using Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) is performed to evaluate the uncertainty and reliability in prediction of dynamic elastic constants (Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio). On the basis of the analysis, uncertainty and variability of rock elastic constants are considered, and the value of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio in a special interval from the reservoir are determined with a certain probability. Finally, the impact of log-data parameters on the value of rock elastic constants in the reservoir interval is assessed.
Collett, Timothy S. (US Geological Survey) | Boswell, Ray (US Department of Energy) | Lee, Myung W. (US Geological Survey) | Anderson, Brian J. (West Virginia University) | Rose, Kelly (US Department of Energy) | Lewis, Kristen A. (US Geological Survey)
The results of short-duration formation tests in northern Alaska and Canada have further documented the energy-resource potential of gas hydrates and have justified the need for long-term gas-hydrate-production testing. Additional data acquisition and long-term production testing could improve the understanding of the response of naturally occurring gas hydrate to depressurization-induced or thermal-, chemical-, or mechanical-stimulated dissociation of gas hydrate into producible gas. The Eileen gashydrate accumulation located in the Greater Prudhoe Bay area in northern Alaska has become a focal point for gas-hydrate geologic and production studies. BP Exploration (Alaska) Incorporated and ConocoPhillips have each established research partnerships with the US Department of Energy to assess the production potential of gas hydrates in northern Alaska. A critical goal of these efforts is to identify the most suitable site for production testing. A total of seven potential locations in the Prudhoe Bay, Kuparuk River, and Milne Point production units were identified and assessed relative to their suitability as a long-term gas-hydrate-production test sites. The test-site-assessment criteria included the analysis of the geologic risk associated with encountering reservoirs for gas-hydrate testing. The site-selection process also dealt with the assessment of the operational/logistical risk associated with each of the potential test sites. From this review, a site in the Prudhoe Bay production unit was determined to be the best location for extended gas-hydrate-production testing. The work presented in this report identifies the key features of the potential test site in the Greater Prudhoe Bay area and provides new information on the nature of gas-hydrate occurrence and the potential impact of production testing on existing infrastructure at the most favorable sites. These data were obtained from well-log analysis, geological correlation and mapping, and numerical simulation.