Haider, Bader Y.A. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Rachapudi, Rama Rao Venkata Subba (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Yahya, Mohammad (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Mutairi, Talal (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al Deyain, Khaled Waleed (Kuwait Oil Company)
Production from Artificially lifted (ESP) well depends on the performance of ESP and reservoir inflow. Realtime monitoring of ESP performance and reservoir productivity is essential for production optimization and this in turn will help in improving the ESP run life. Realtime Workflow was developed to track the ESP performance and well productivity using Realtime ESP sensor data. This workflow was automated by using real time data server and results were made available through Desk top application.
Realtime ESP performance information was used in regular well reviews to identify the problems with ESP performance, to investigate the opportunity for increasing the production. Further ESP real time data combined with well model analysis was used in addressing well problems.
This paper describes about the workflow design, automation and real field case implementation of optimization decisions. Ultimately, this workflow helped in extending the ESP run life and created a well performance monitoring system that eliminated the manual maintenance of the data .In Future, this workflow will be part of full field Digital oil field implementation.
The high decline rate observed in over pressured shale has attracted the attention of the industry, and better well management procedures for long term productivity improvement are still evolving. Operators are recognizing some benefit in controlled rate (controlled drawdown) production as one way of improving well performance for the wells in over pressured stress sensitive formations.
During uncontrolled rate production because of high drawdown, the permeability in stress sensitive shales decays faster because of increased stress. Often high initial gas rate is accompanied by high decline rate as the permeability reduction takes effect. In addition, proppant could also be produced back, crushed or embedded in the formation. However, controlled rate production minimizes the rate decline, albeit at reduced initial gas rate. Modelers resort to using different stress permeability decay coefficients for these two production strategies. Higher values are assigned to uncontrolled rate production to produce lower EUR. This approach, although convenient, requires different permeability versus stress tables depending on the production strategy.
Porosity and pore volume reduction in shales could be as high as 20 percent due to changes in net stress. The pore volume reduction provides in situ energy for gas recovery. The increased rate of permeability decay due to changing in situ stresses reduces the effectiveness of pressure support from pore volume reduction as fractures close under stress.. Controlled rate production strategy slows down permeability decay rate and this enables better use of pore volume energy. The pore volume consideration could provide additional gain to EUR for controlled rate.
Our analytical simulation model couples geomechanics permeability and porosity stress coefficients and evaluates well performance under moderate and low net stress sensitivity. Haynesville and Marcellus shales were evaluated. The importance of pore volume stress effect from the stand point of well performance evaluation and reservoir characterization is assessed.
The amount of tight formations petrophysical work conducted at present in horizontal wells and the examples available in the literature are limited to only those wells that have complete data sets. This is very important. But the reality is that in the vast majority of horizontal wells the data required for detailed analyses are quite scarce.
To try to alleviate this problem, a new method is presented for complete petrophysical evaluation based on information that can be extracted from drill cuttings in the absence of well logs. The cuttings data include porosity and permeability. The gamma ray (GR) and any other logs, if available, can help support the interpretation. However, the methodology is built strictly on data extracted from cuttings and can be used for horizontal, slanted and vertical wells. The method is illustrated with the use of a tight gas formation in the Deep Basin of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). However, it also has direct application in the case of liquids.
The method is shown to be a powerful petrophysical tool as it allows quantitative evaluation of water saturation, pore throat aperture, capillary pressure, flow units, porosity (or cementation) exponent m, true formation resistivity, distance to a water table (if present), and to distinguish the contributions from viscous and diffusion-like flow in tight gas formations. The method further allows the construction of Pickett plots without previous availability of well logs. The method assumes the existence of intervals at irreducible water saturation, which is the case of many tight formations currently under exploitation.
It is concluded that drill cuttings are a powerful direct source of information that allows complete and practical evaluation of tight reservoirs where well logs are scarce. The uniqueness and practicality of this quantitative procedure is that it starts from only laboratory analysis of drill cuttings, something that has not been done in the past.
Napalowski, Ralf (BHP Billiton) | Loro, Richard (BHP Billiton) | Anderson, Calan Jay (BHP Billiton) | Andresen, Christian Andre (ResMan AS) | Dyrli, Anne Dalager (ResMan AS) | Nyhavn, Fridtjof (ResMan AS)
This paper describes the interventionless approach that was successfully executed during the Pyrenees early production phase to identify the timing and location of water breakthrough. Chemical inflow tracers were installed in key production wells within the lower completion along the horizontal production sections. Results from this work have supported the reservoir simulation history matching process and confirmed the performance of the inflow control devices (ICDs). These data in conjunction with the real time rate information from subsea multiphase meters has allowed proactive reservoir and production management that has contributed to the early identification of additional infill opportunities.
Low matrix permeability and significant damage mechanisms are the main signatures of tight gas reservoirs. During drilling and fracturing of tight formations, the wellbore liquid invades the tight formation, increases liquid saturation around wellbore and eventually reduces permeability at near wellbore. The liquid invasion damage is mainly controlled by capillary pressure and relative permeability curves.
Water blocking and phase trapping damage is one of the main concerns in use of water based drilling fluid in tight gas reservoirs, since due to high critical water saturation, relative permeability effects and strong capillary pressure, tight formations are sensitive to water invasion damage. Therefore, use of oil based mud may be preferred in drilling or fracturing of tight formation. However invasion of oil filtrate into tight formations may result in introduction of an immiscible liquid hydrocarbon drilling or completion fluid around wellbore, causing entrapment of an additional third phase in the porous media that would exacerbate formation damage effects.
This study focuses on phase trapping damage caused by liquid invasion using water-based drilling fluid in comparison with use of oil-based drilling fluid in water sensitive tight gas sand reservoirs. Reservoir simulation approach is used to study the effect of relative permeability curves on phase trap damage, and results of laboratory experiments core flooding tests in a West Australian tight gas reservoir are shown in which the effect of water injection and oil injection on the damage of core permeability are studied. The results highlights benefits of using oil-based fluids in drilling and fracturing of tight gas reservoirs in term of reducing skin factor and improving well productivity.
Tight gas reservoirs normally have production problems due to very low matrix permeability and different damage mechanisms during well drilling, completion, stimulation and production (Dusseault, 1993). The low permeability gas reservoirs can be subject to different damage mechanisms such as mechanical damage to formation rock, plugging of natural fractures by invasion of mud solid particles, permeability reduction around wellbore as a result of filtrate invasion, clay swelling, liquid phase trapping, etc (Holditch, 1979).
In general, for tight sand gas reservoirs, average pore throat radius might be very small and therefore it may create tremendous amounts of capillary forces. Capillary forces cause the spontaneous imbibition of a wetting liquid (in this case water) in the porous medium in the absence of external forces such as a hydraulic gradient (Bennion and Brent, 2005). This causes significantly high critical water saturation (Bennion et al., 2006). Two forces drive capillary flow (Adamson and Gast, 1997). The first is the reduction in the surface free energy by the wetting of the hydrophilic surface (wettability). In hydraulic fracturing, water in the fracturing fluid wets the surface of the pores in the rock, resulting in a decrease in the surface free energy of the pores. The other force that drives capillary flow is the capillary pressure.
Tight gas reservoirs might be different in term of initial water saturation (Swi) compared with critical water saturation (Swc), depending on the geological time of gas migration to the reservoir. Initial water saturation might be normal, or in some cases sub-normal (Swi less than Swc) due to water phase vaporization into the gas phase (Bennion and Thomas, 1996). The initial water saturation might also be more than Swc if the hydrocarbon trap is created during or after the gas migration time. A sub-normal initial water saturation in tight gas reservoirs can provide higher relative permeability for the gas phase (effective permeability close to absolute permeability), and therefore relatively higher well productivity (Bennion and Brent, 2005).
Thermal maturity is an important parameter for commercial gas production from gas shale reservoirs if the shale has considerable organic content. There is a common idea that gas shale formations with higher potential for gas production are at higher thermal maturity status. Therefore estimating this parameter is very important for gas shale evaluation. The present study proposes an index for determining thermal maturity of the gas shale layers using the conventional well log data. To approach this objective, different conventional well logs were studied and neutron porosity, density and volumetric photoelectric adsorption were selected as the most proper inputs for defining a log derived maturity index (LMI). LMI considers the effects of thermal maturity on the mentioned well logs and applies these effects for modelling thermal maturity changes. The proposed methodology has been applied to estimate thermal maturity for Kockatea Shale and Carynginia Formation of the Northern Perth Basin, Western Australia. A total number of ninety eight geochemical data points from seven wells were used for calibrating with well log data. Although there are some limitations for LMI but generally it can give a good in-situ estimation of thermal maturity.
Thermal maturity and total organic carbon (TOC) are very important geochemical factors for evaluation of the gas shale reservoirs. There is a common hypothesis that gas shale layers with the higher potential for gas production (i.e. sweet spots) are located at the higher thermal maturity. Thermal maturity is an indicator for determining maximum temperature that a formation reached during different stages of hydrocarbon generation.
Healy, John C. (John C. Healy Jr Consulting LLC) | Sanford, John R. (ENI International Resources Ltd) | Reeves, Donald Franklin (Noble Energy Inc.) | Dufrene, Kerby John (Schlumberger) | Luyster, Mark R. (M-I Swaco) | Offenbacher, Matthew A. (MI-SWACO) | Ezeigbo, Chinyereze (M-I Swaco)
A case history from Offshore Israel is presented that describes the successful delivery of two ultra high-rate gas wells (>200 MMscf/D) completed in a depleted gas reservoir with 9??-in. production tubing and an openhole gravel pack (OHGP). Maximizing gas off-take rates from a volumetric drive gas reservoir that possesses high flow capacity (kh) requires large internal diameter (ID) tubing coupled with efficient sand face completions. When sand control is required, the OHGP offers the most efficient as well as the most reliable, long-term track record of performance. A global study of wells completed with 9??-in. production tubing ("big bore??) determined that this design concept was feasible and deliverable in a short time frame while still maintaining engineering rigor. The paper will highlight key accomplishments within various phases of a completion delivery process with particular emphasis on the sand control design, testing and execution. The completions were installed with minimal issues (NPT ˜ 9%) and have produced without incident. The two wells, Mari-B #9 and #10, achieved a peak gas rate of 223 and 246 MMscf/D, respectively.
Exploitation of thin oil zones in a mature field with complex carbonate geology under strong water drive offers many challenges. The primary objective is effective oil recovery from the thin oil zones without excessive water production. The initial development phase targeting thin remaining oil zones in a giant, mature carbonate field in Saudi Arabia has been guided by reservoir simulation results, with performance generally exceeding expectations. However, performance of individual horizontal wells has varied greatly. Multivariate statistical methods have been applied across the gamut of reservoir parameters for these wells to gain further insights into critical success factors and mechanisms. Response variables were established (producing time to reach various watercut thresholds) to gauge well performance. Principal component, factor, and multiple regression analyses were applied to independent reservoir parameters for a population of 20 horizontal wells placed in the target zone. These parameters included zone thickness, standoff from fluid contacts, vertical permeability contrast, thickness of low-permeability interval, reservoir contact, net/gross ratio, completion design, extent of fracturing, zone porosity, proximity to injectors, and trajectory orientation. Multivariate analysis conclusively demonstrated that the principal factor governing well performance in the early period (up to three years) was the vertical permeability contrast or in other words, the extent to which a permeability baffle exists between the thin low-permeability zone and the underlying thick high-permeability zone. Other parameters may contribute to well performance beyond the 30% watercut threshold and will be addressed in a future paper. The findings from this study have been translated into Best Practices for exploiting thin oil zones and have been applied in further developing the thin oil zone in the subject field.