With demand for oil increasing and demand for refined-product storage within the midstream sector also increasing, operational reliability and uptime have become a greater priority for the owners and users of terminals and tank farms. The industry sees value in optimizing tank turnaround schedules and extending tank in-service intervals by predicting and avoiding failures while reducing the health, safety, and environmental risks associated with waste removal and human exposure. Robotic applications have developed to the point where they can help improve the reliability, safety, and costs of tank storage. Getting companies on board with robotics is not an issue, but finding the right in-service tank-inspection approaches for robotic applications is. Rengifo spoke at a panel discussion during the American Petroleum Institute Inspection and Mechanical Integrity Summit that focused on ways in which owners and users can incorporate robotics into their tank-integrity programs, as well as the obstacles they and other vendors face in facilitating robotics.
Hatmi, Khalid Al (Petroleum Development Oman LLC) | Mashrafi, As'ad Al (Petroleum Development Oman LLC) | Balushi, Sa'Ud Al (Petroleum Development Oman LLC) | Al-Kalbani, Haitham (Petroleum Development Oman LLC) | Al-Battashi, Mundhir (Petroleum Development Oman LLC) | Shaikh, Mohammed (Petroleum Development Oman LLC)
The natural gas demand for energy production has increased in the last decades and is forecasted to further increase in the future. According to IEA energy outlook report 2008, approximately 40% of proven natural gas reserves are acidic (i.e. contains H2S and CO2). Hence, the need to capture associated contaminants of acidic gases to meet health, environmental, integrity and product specifications with affordable techniques will continue to be a challenge. Amine sweetening process is considered as one of the most acid gas removal techniques being used around the world due to its flexible operation, high removal efficiency and its design maturity. However, energy requirement around amine process has been always an area of a concern for all new and existing units. The top energy consumer is the regenerator re-boiler. Optimization of energy requirement around Amine plant becomes an important exercise for most operating companies to minimize its expenditures either during design stage or operation stage and achieve carbon emission target.
The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of two debottlenecking approaches namely Lean Vapor Compression (LVC) and Rich Vapor Compression (RVC) to minimize energy consumption around Amine units. These two approaches are considered to be the most promising in reducing the reboiler duty. These debottlenecking approaches involve modification of standard conventional process flow scheme with modified process flow scheme to enhance heat integration and regeneration efficiencies.
The two approaches have been applied on two different amine sweetening units in Sultanate of Oman with MDEA and MDEA-PZ solvents. ProMax process simulation software has been utilized to perform advanced thermodynamics model which has been initially validated by real field data.
Unlike most of published studies, the study has been conducted using models validated by real field data including different solvents and operating conditions as a base case. Additionally, the study focuses in pre-combustion amine based CO2 and H2S capture processes. By applying the Lean Vapor Compression approach, 40-50% reduction in re-boiler duty was achieved. For Rich Vapor Compression approach, saving of 10-11% has been achieved with considerable changes in amine circulation rate and stripper operating pressure.
Field-scale sequential biotreatment unit deployed at the Apache TAMU #2 tank battery. Biological-based emissions control has been demonstrated to be an efficient and cost-effective alternative to thermal-oxidation technology or flaring for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the forest-products and paint and coatings industries. This type of technology application has promising advantages such as the potential for a low carbon footprint, low secondary pollutants such as NOx and SOx, lower energy demands, and lower cost. The objective of this project was to design and implement a sequential field-scale biotrickling/biofilter treatment unit to remove VOCs and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emissions at the Apache TAMU#2 well-storage-tank battery in Snook, Texas. The field-scale biotreatment system included a biotrickling filter followed by a biofilter with the total treatment volume of 100 ft3, skid-mounted on a 22-ft trailer.
Khoramfar, Shooka (Department of Environmental Engineering, Texas A&M University-Kingsville) | Jones, Kim D. (Department of Environmental Engineering, Texas A&M University-Kingsville) | Boswell, James (Boswell Environmental) | King, George E. (Apache Corporation)
Biological based emissions control has been demonstrated to be an efficient and cost effective alternative to thermal oxidation technology or flaring for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the forest products and paint and coatings industries. This type of technology applicationhas promising advantages such as the potential for a low carbon footprint, low secondary pollutants such as NOx and SOx, lower energy demands, and lower cost. The objective of this project was to design and implement a sequential field scale biotrickling-biofilter treatment unit to remove VOCs and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emissions at the Apache TAMU#2 well storage tank battery in Snook, Texas.
The field scale biotreatment system included a biotrickling filter followed by a biofilter with the total treatment volume of 100 ft3, skid mounted on a 22 foot trailer. The biotrickling filter was packed with structured cross flow media with large surface area and high void fraction designed to remove the more water soluble compounds and control the humidity and temperature variations of the inlet gas stream. The biofilter unit was loaded with plastic spheres packed with compost which is referred to as the engineered media. Each of the bio-oxidation units was operated at the air flow rate of 25 CFM and empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 2 minutes. The system was inoculated with local stormwater and wastewater from a sedimentation basinclarifier of a local refinery to provide a mixed culture of microorganisms for degradation of the VOC emissions.
VOC emissions were collected from the headspace of a storage tank battery leading into a pressure relief vent system. Based on the photo ionization detector (PID) measurements at the inlet of the bio-oxidation unit, the VOC concentration loadings was cyclic and appeared to be correlated to the gas lift cycle of liquid loading to the crude oil storage tank.
During the evaluation period, the biotrickling unit demonstrated a surprisingly higher removal efficiency compared to the biofilter. This may be related to the more stable and higher density of biomass growth observed on the surface of the cross flow media. The lower removal efficiency in the biofilter unit could be due to the lack of uniform moisture and nutrients in the second vessel as a result of spray nozzle inefficiency. This aspect of operation can be further optimized by changing the nozzle and the frequency of watering/spraying of the compost media. A removal efficiency of 50-60% for the total VOCs, across the complete unit, was achieved during the 3 month evaluation period while the unit was operated at an average inlet VOC concentration of 400 ppm.
The relatively high concentration of alkenes and alkanes (compared to aromatics and water soluble organics in this crude oil vapor), may have decreased the degradation of the total VOCs in the bio-oxidation unit because these long-chain compounds are more difficult to biodegrade by bacterial biofilms in an aerobic environment.
The results suggest biological emission treatment systems may be cost effective when compared to thermal oxidizers and flares and should be evaluated as a Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) to mitigate HAPs (and VOCs) from some oil and gas operations.
This innovative biological emissions control technology effectively controlled the cyclic emissions produced at the remote site. The strong increase in removal of VOCs after the oil refinery wastewater inoculation suggests an important optimization parameter for more rapid acclimation and increased efficiency for the system in the future applications.
Oil storage tanks in industrial zones along the coastal lines have a high risk of oil spill in case of tsunami attack. The occurrence of major oil spill depends on the possibility of oil storage tank drifting with the tsunami run up. The occurrence of the oil spills from these tanks is estimated in Japan by safety factors based on theoretical assumption according to the guidelines of Fire and Disaster management Agency (FDMA) of Japan. This study conducted experiments and numerical simulations to revise the guidelines of FDMA and propose its modification.
In 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake unleashed a major tsunami which devastated ports and industrial complexes, which comprises oil storage tanks and other hazardous material facilities, in the northeast of Japan main land. Since the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused by the Sumatra earthquake, it was aware of tank drifting and damage by tsunami inundation (Saatcioglu et al., 2006). Although there was no tsunami- triggered oil spill case reported after the Indian Ocean tsunami, there was major oil spills from the damaged oil storage tanks in the case of Japan.
In Kesennuma City, 22 out of 23 oil storage tanks, located at the entrance of the bay, were broken and drifted into the bay as shown in Fig. 1(a). 11523 m3 of oil, mainly heavy oil as well as gasoline and light oil, was released through the way. After the tsunami, 18 tanks were found in different parts of the city, though 4 tanks went missing according to the fire department of Kesennuma city. The furthest drifted tank reached up to 2.4 km from the mouth of Bay. Storage tanks from an oil tank farm in Banda Acech city were displaced a considerable distance from their base as seen in Fig. 1(b) (Reconnaissance Team of JSCE, 2005).
In Sendai City, the tsunami inundation led to drifting of small and empty storage tanks, and collapsed pipes. Since the emergency shutdown valves of pipelines did not work because of the blackout after the earthquake, large amount of oil spilled out into the dike (Zama et al., 2012). Fig. 2 shows the heavy oil spill in dike in Sendai area. The tank was empty when the tsunami struck and submerged into the sea water up to 3.5m high form the bottom plate. The tank did not uplift nor displace even though it was empty. However, the broken pipelines that crossed near the tanks, spilled out oil into the dike (Nishi, 2012).
ABSTRACTCorrosion Control for above ground crude oil storage tanks presents a real challenge due to the factors like large and complex tank geometries, the proximity of anodes to the tank bottom, tank design, electrical isolation etc. The issue is further complicated by the provisions such as leak detection system, secondary containment or specialized foundation designs.Inadequate / inappropriate corrosion control may pose serious environmental and safety hazards, in the event of leakage / seepage from the large crude oil storage tanks, which handle enormous amounts of highly flammable hydrocarbons. Various solutions implemented to achieve effective corrosion control in above ground crude oil storage tanks at various locations by Energy major in India, have been described to evaluate effectiveness of the implemented solutions.The effectiveness of the implemented corrosion control methods has been evaluated by periodic inspections during Maintenance and Inspections over a period of more than twenty years.INTRODUCTIONCrude Oil is a naturally occurring, highly inflammable hydrocarbon liquid is refined, to yield various petroleum components through fractional distillation. Before transportation to Refineries, Crude Oil is stored in bulk quantities, in large above ground storage tanks, to maintain desired stocks for continuous operation of Pipelines and to maintain crude oil supplies to Refineries for uninterrupted operation. Such storage of highly inflammable crude oil in storage tanks, primarily Steel tanks, brings into focus the primary potential of leakage and consequent probability of fire and explosion 1 due to the combustible nature of crude oil. Environmental impact of crude oil discharge (leakage / seepage) depends on the type of crude oil, discharge quantities, spill circumstances (e.g, weather conditions, speed and effectiveness of response) & eco-system specific characteristics (e.g. land, stream, river, pond, wetland etc) 2. Leakage of even small quantities of crude oil can have significant adverse effects on public and private property, in addition to potential fire hazard and explosion.
Petroleum emissions (Volatile Organic Compounds, VOC) have deleterious effects on the environment and certain factors increase the volumes of these emissions. Identifying and minimising such factors is an efficient means of loss control management. In this paper therefore, the effects, quantity and most significant loss sources (and/or factors) as well as ways of minimising these emissions are identified and outlined.
Fixed roof tank losses were observed to be exponentially higher than floating roof tanks. The most significant loss source was vapour volume for fixed roof tank and wind effects for floating roof tanks with internal floating roof tanks recording the lowest emissions. The most interesting discovery was, higher ambient temperatures resulted in higher vapour pressure (Gay-Lussac's Law) and density values.
This paper introduces practical and quantitative effects of meteorological factors as well as tank design on emissions in Tema, Ghana. All calculations are based on equations specified in AP-42 chapter 7. Data used include meteorological data from Ghana Meteorological Agency, tank design data and daily product levels for 2015 from a tank farm. The effects of wind on emission in withdrawal loss is excluded for internal floating roof tank and so also was deck seam losses for the welded external floating roof tank. All calculations are explicit, practical and detailed for easy understanding and reproduction.
There is a growing interest in the production of biofuels mainly because of environmental protection and energy supply reasons. Currently, most research into efficient biofuel production is being carried out and predictions from small-scale production experiments bear out that using algae (microalgae, among other biofuels) to produce biodiesel may be the only viable method by which enough automotive fuel can be produced to replace current world conventional diesel usage. Also, studies show that some species of algae can produce up to 60% - 80% of their dry weight in the form of oil. Because the cells grow in aqueous suspension where they have more efficient access to water, CO2 and dissolved nutrients, microalgae are capable of producing large amounts of biomass and usable oil in either high rate algal ponds or photo-bioreactors. This oil can then be turned into biodiesel which could be sold for use in automobiles. Economic wise, regional production of microalgae and processing into biofuels will provide great benefits to rural communities. Hence, there is need for optimal, efficient and safe production of biodiesel from microalgae.
In this work, we propose a project for the design and construction of a biodiesel microreactor. It is drawn using the PDMS software. The design of the reactor requires the modelling of the complex series of reversible reactions which are known to take place; process characterization of the biodiesel production system by dividing it into unit processes; design of a process model; derivation of thermodynamic equations that govern the whole system; and algorithm using FORTRAN 95 to enhance the estimation and proper management of the productivity of any quantity (mass) of algal biomass to be converted to useful volume of biodiesel. Finally, a test of the use of this biodiesel in vehicles is presented.
A global trend towards increasingly-stringent environmental regulations of sulfur dioxide emissions to improve air quality is faced. China has been adopting progressive policies for improvement of air quality. Recent industry trends focused on producing cleaner air and fuels around the globe, especially in China, have generated significant demand for additional hydro-desulfurization and sulfur recovery capacities in both new and existing refineries and gas plants. Oxygen enrichment technology frequently offers the most economical route to achieve the desired increase in sulfur processing capacity with high recovery efficiency.
This commercially proven technology has excellent operating safety records as witnessed by the safe operation of over 300 SRU/TGTU plants in USA, Canada, Europe, Middle East, South Africa and a newly installed facility in Panjin, China.
This paper provides a technical background of oxygen enrichment technology, and discusses the various economic, logistical, process and operational advantages that can be realized through its implementation.
High Precision Monitoring of Crude Oil Tanks is very precise and accurate dynamic measurement detecting any Leak during operations. For many decades, the oil industry has been concerned with the financial consequences of oil losses. In recent years, there has also been an increased awareness of the industry's environmental impact. Pollution, caused both by liquid spills and atmospheric emissions, is an area of increased concern, and the industry has initiated programs to reduce the risks of environmental damage. Maintaining an accurate leak detection and reconciliation program is a necessity for anyone environmentally conscious such as a tank farm owner.
This paper describes the innovative solution developed by ZADCO maintenance team for High Precision Monitoring of Crude Oil Tanks system. It also describes the existing Crude Oil storage system hydraulics, technology of level storage tank measurements and control system utilized in developing the High Precision Monitoring logic algorithm. It shows relatively preciseness if the developed solution and the control on the different operations modes and scenarios. The solution became an online dynamic diagnostic and alerts the operators if unpleasant or abnormal operations accur in a time span of 27 seconds.