With demand for oil increasing and demand for refined-product storage within the midstream sector also increasing, operational reliability and uptime have become a greater priority for the owners and users of terminals and tank farms. The industry sees value in optimizing tank turnaround schedules and extending tank in-service intervals by predicting and avoiding failures while reducing the health, safety, and environmental risks associated with waste removal and human exposure. Robotic applications have developed to the point where they can help improve the reliability, safety, and costs of tank storage. Getting companies on board with robotics is not an issue, but finding the right in-service tank-inspection approaches for robotic applications is. Rengifo spoke at a panel discussion during the American Petroleum Institute Inspection and Mechanical Integrity Summit that focused on ways in which owners and users can incorporate robotics into their tank-integrity programs, as well as the obstacles they and other vendors face in facilitating robotics.
Pavlov, G. I. (Kazan National Research Technical University, RF, Kazan) | Kochergin, A. V. (Kazan National Research Technical University, RF, Kazan) | Khaliulin, R. R. (Kazan National Research Technical University, RF, Kazan) | Telyashov, D. A. (Kazan National Research Technical University, RF, Kazan) | Nakoryakov, P. V. (Kazan National Research Technical University, RF, Kazan) | Sitnikov, O. R. (Kazan National Research Technical University, RF, Kazan)
The PDF file of this paper is in Russian.
Mobile steam plants (UPP-1600/100) mounted on a truck chassis are widely used in the oil and gas industry. They are designed for the generation of steam. As heat energy in steam is used, the energy of combustion of diesel fuel combusted in the burner device. PPU-1600/100 equipped with spray burners. Along with the high incidence of nozzle burners, they have significant drawbacks that adversely affect the technical-economic indicators of PPU-1600/100. Alternatively, the authors proposed misfortunate burner which has improved operational characteristics of PPU-1600/100. We developed burner without nozzle capable to operate on a wide range of hydrocarbon fuels (diesel fuel, heating oil, waste oil, waste liquid combustible petrochemical industry, flammable gases) and modernized PPU-1600/100. Tests of the upgraded installation were conducted and the experimental data were obtained for comparative analysis of technical, economic characteristics and environmental performance of flue gases. We found that the proposed burner allows to reduce operating costs of PPU-1600/100. This effect is achieved by increasing the combustion efficiency and the use of liquid combustible waste as an alternative fuel. Environmental performance of the upgraded PPU-1600/100 significantly outpaces that one of commercially available steam mobile units. Misfortunate burner allows to burn on full of various flammable liquids, including flammable liquid waste and produce cheap heat. This conclusion is confirmed experimentally by the example of the operation of the PPU-1600/100 equipped with burner device without nozzle.
Передвижные паровые установки ППУ-1600/100, монтируемые на автомобильном шасси широко используются в нефтегазодобывающей отрасли. В качестве тепловой энергии при получении пара используется энергия продуктов сгорания дизельного топлива, сгорающего в горелочном устройстве. ППУ-1600/100 оснащены форсуночными горелочными устройствами. Несмотря на широкое распространение, форсуночные горелочные устройства имеют существенные недостатки, которые негативно влияют на технико-экономические показатели ППУ1600/100. В качестве альтернативы этим устройствам предложено бесфорсуночное горелочное устройство, которое позволяет улучшить эксплуатационные характеристики ППУ1600/100. Создано безфорсуночное горелочное устройство, способное функционировать на широком спектре углеводородных горючих (дизельное топливо, печное топливо, отработанные масла, жидкие горючие отходы нефтехимической отрасли, горючие газы). Модернизирована устновка ППУ-1600/100. Проведены испытания модернизированной установки и получены опытные данные для проведения сравнительного анализа технических, экономических характеристик и экологических показателей дымовых газов. Установлено, что предлагаемое горелочное устройство позволяет снизить эксплуатационные затраты при эксплуатации ППУ-1600/100. Это достигается за счет увеличения полноты сгорания топлива и использования жидких горючих отходов в качестве альтернативного топлива. Показано, что экологические показатели модернизированной ППУ-1600/100 существенно превосходят аналогичные показатели серийно выпускаемых паровых передвижных установок. Сделан вывод, что бесфорсуночное горелочное устройство позволяет сжигать с достаточной полнотой различные горючие жидкости, включая жидкие горючие отходы, и получать дешевую тепловую энергию. Этот вывод экспериментально подтвержден на примере эксплуатации ППУ-1600/100 с бесфорсуночным горелочным устройством.
The objective of this project is to survey the current exposure level of BTEX to laboratory technicians by measuring intake and their metabolites in urine sample. It is also to take appropriate actions to control their exposure through improvement in facility, practices and corrective actions.
Occupational health survey on technicians performing sampling and analysis of crude oil, condensate, paraffinic naphtha etc. was carried out every year by a competent external agency. The BTEX vapors were absorbed in a passive sampler for 8 hours held close in the breathing zone of technicians. The absorbed components were extracted and analyzed using chromatograph for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene. Their metabolites were determined by collecting pre/post urine samples after extended hours of exposure.
In 2010 BTEX were below the threshold and detection limits in 4 cases out of 5. The BTEX metabolites were below detection limit (DL) and Threshold Limit value (TLV). In Oct 2012, the survey indicated abnormal and higher BTEX values; particularly Toluene was 120 mg/m3 as against the TLV of 75 mg/m3. Several steps were taken which included training, awareness of technicians, good laboratory practices, personal protective equipment and improved exhaust system and ventilation. The air intake velocity of fume hoods, HVAC system, the ambient temperature etc. were inspected and monitored. Additional fume hood was installed to extract vapors. The activated carbon filters of all 19 air extraction blowers were replaced in Sep-2013 to ensure increase in fume hood air velocity and for complete absorption of BTEX in these filters so that there is no air pollution.
A special type of face mask (Model 3M 9922) was introduced which prevents direct inhalation of volatiles. BTEX exposure was minimized by improving the performance of fume hoods, extraction system, exhaust bowers and HVAC Units. Training of technicians and their awareness on release of BTEX and ways of minimizing their exposure helped us to implement a good laboratory practice thereby minimizing exposure. Strict adherence to safety procedures and using appropriate personal protective equipment reduces inhalation of BTEX. Improvement in the exhaust filters minimized air pollution. The subsequent surveys indicated that the working place is well protected against release of BTEX and there is no risk to health of the staff. By the whole process we could meet both local and international legislation on BTEX emissions.
This significant improvement can be shared with ADNOC group of companies having similar work place hazards. This can be considered as an achievement and operational excellence towards ADGAS commitment in safeguarding the safety of our employees and looking for improving the work environment.
Quality is a measurement of excellence that is often difficult to quantify. Providers of quality products and services command premium prices. Brand names we associate with quality inspire positive thoughts. They are names we trust to deliver what we expect of them—safely, reliably, and with flawless performance.
Quality is a perceptual, conditional, and somewhat subjective attribute that is understood differently by different people. In business, engineering, and manufacturing, quality is fitness for purpose. It has a pragmatic interpretation as the superiority of something. That something may be a product or service. It may also be a process, personnel, management, or an entire enterprise—a brand.
While our industry strives to strengthen quality and reliability standards worldwide, the general public has a very negative perception of the industry’s performance. They do not think “quality” when they consider our performance or contributions to society.
Why do so many people feel so negatively about the industry responsible for powering the modern world? It provides jobs and improves living standards. For more than 7 billion people on our planet, every measure of quality of life, from gross domestic product per capita and infant mortality, to education levels and access to clean water, is correlated to the consumption of modern fuels, in particular oil and gas. There is no doubt that it is a vital resource that has improved people’s lives more than any other energy source.
A growing proportion of society now wants the lifestyle that oil and gas provide without our industry. Why? The short answer: trust. People do not trust oil companies. Perhaps they are cynical about gasoline prices. They do not trust what they perceive as an environmental polluter and source of greenhouse gases. They do not trust us to operate safely. The rise of vocal activist groups has exacerbated the situation, but we are not without blame. There have been industry incidents that caused loss of lives and damage to the environment. We did not always respond satisfactorily. Modern telecommunications, especially the Internet and social media, spread bad news universally, instantaneously, and continuously.
In my March column, I wrote about social license to operate, deemed to exist when a project—or an industry—has ongoing support and trust from the community. Gaining that support and trust requires that we not only meet, but exceed, society’s perceived basic requirements for safety, environmental stewardship, and social responsibility. We must deliver the affordable energy that society expects of us, and we must deliver it reliably, safely, and with flawless performance. Quality is not a luxury; it is essential.
The Role of Standards
The value of standards to quality has been apparent at least since the Industrial Revolution. Sir Joseph Whitworth, a Victorian mechanical engineer, campaigned for conformity and consistency in nuts and bolts in 1841. This made manufacturing safer, more efficient, and more economical in his native Britain and eventually, internationally. We in the oil and gas industry have applied similar logic to develop standards that have imparted benefits in areas ranging from the manufacture of tubular goods, fittings and flanges, to cost, performance, and reliability; global trade and international operations; health, safety, and environment (HSE); sustainability; intellectual property; global trade; competition and antitrust; knowledge sharing and transfer; the needs of specific groups in society; and the development of indigenous capacity and technology transfer to developing countries.
“If you control an industry’s standards, you control that industry lock, stock, and ledger,” wrote W. Edwards Deming in his book, Out of the Crisis. The crisis in this case was the economic struggle of the developed countries of North America and Western Europe in the late 1970s and early 1980s to keep pace in the face of stiff competition from Japan’s ability to produce high-quality goods at competitive cost. Ironically, Japan’s economic rise following World War II was founded on the ideas taught by Deming, an American engineer, statistician, professor, author, and management consultant.
Japan became the second-largest economy in the world by managing processes. Deming saw that the concepts of statistical control of processes could be applied not only to manufacturing processes, but also to the processes by which enterprises are led and managed.
In this age of consolidation and personnel reduction, regulatory personnel are also feeling the pinch. Businesses are trying to do more with less – less inventory, less lead-time, less overhead. For locations with both a safety and an environmental person, more and more often, these positions are being consolidated into one. While there is much overlap between these areas, there are sufficient differences. Typically, at the base level, safety compliance, since it deals with cultural change and people issues, tends to be more people-oriented. Environmental compliance, on the other hand, tends to be more of an exercise in intellect. That is not to say that environmental professionals are smarter than safety professionals – far from it. However, environmental compliance tends to focus on meeting specific regulatory limits, using specifically identified methodology. Safety compliance, on the other hand, deals with behaviors of the individual, and therefore, the successful safety professional must, in my opinion, be more empathetic. So, with these differences being what they are, what does the safety professional need to know to make sure you are the one who remains if consolidation of responsibilities does occur? Using what Darwin teaches, you must be “the fittest” to survive. You must be more adaptable than your counterpart, and to do that, you must have the most useful knowledge.
NFPA 2112, Standard on Flame Resistant Garments for Protection of Industrial Personnel against Flash Fire, has become recognized as the foremost performance standard for flame resistant clothing meant to protect workers from a flash fire hazard. The document details the minimum performance requirements for the thermal protective qualities of flame resistant fabrics and the garments. Since its original issue in 2001, NFPA 2112 has provided authoritative guidelines for manufacturers of flame resistant fabrics and garments.
Interest in compliance with NFPA 2112 increased significantly since the publication of a memo by OSHA in the spring of 2010. Much discussion has gone into the interpretation of the memo and its effect on end users in the oil and gas industry. While OSHA does not mandate compliance with any standards, nationally recognized consensus standards, such as NFPA 2112, are used as evidence of best practices being followed in considering General Duty Clause citations. The mere mention of the NFPA 2112 standard in the memo sparked an immediate response from organizations with employees at risk for exposure to flash fire.
OSHA’s general industry standard for personal protective equipment (PPE), 29 CFR 1910.132(a), clearly states that PPE, including protective clothing, shall be provided and used if workplace hazards are identified as part of the required risk assessment. Despite the existence of OSHA regulation on PPE in the workplace, accidents continue to occur in facilities where flash fire is a hazard. Death and injury have been the result in workplace incidents involving explosions, the most notable among these being the Texas City, Anacortes, and Deepwater Horizon accidents.
NEW METHOD TO IMPROVE ON-SITE SAFETY WITH IR GAS CLOUD IMAGING SYSTEM
This paper will present a brand-new stand-off gas detection system using a multispectral infrared imaging technology. This system allows seeing the size, localization and behavior of a gas cloud in real time. The goal of this system is to enhance the level of safety and security in petrochemicals plants. This is possible thanks to a new redundant technology which allow the safety units to use a camera to globally monitor the dangerous areas of their installation. By multiplying technologies involved in the security monitoring process, it is possible to reduce the number of misdetection. The main goal of this paper is to describe the involved technology and results which can be obtained by using such a system to detect gases cloud propagating in dangerous environments.
The principle is based on physical properties of gases. Each gas has its own absorption spectrum and can present typical absorption lines in infrared LWIR bands (8 to 14 µm). The system uses the particular pattern lines which enables them to be identified from several gases. The system uses the scene background as an infrared source, and image processing algorithms to highlight the presence of a gas cloud in the field of view. The evaluation of the quantity of gas is carried out by a three differential infrared imaging process: spatial, spectral, and temporal fields.
This technology has been developed several years ago in partnership with the French Defence Agency (MoD). The goal was to meet the requirement for an early warning caused by a chemical threat. With a night & day efficiency of up to 2km and 60° filed of view, this process is able to detect all main gases such as Toxic Industrial Compounds (TICs) and Inflammable Gases (IG). Only some gases cannot be detected because they don't have any absorption line in the LWIR (Cl2 or HF for instance).
The system measures the concentration along the line of sight and this paper will detail the sensitivity that can be obtained like 2 ppm.m for SF6, 35 ppm.m for SO2, 260 ppm.m for NH3 or 500 ppm.m for C2H4.
Prevention through Design in Real Time
This presentation is the third in a series reporting on the process for an alternative energy project development. Do not be concerned if you have not participated in previous presentations since we are reporting on developments as they occur in “real time”.
The project, Calumet Green Energy Park (Calumet Park), is being developed as an eco-industrial park, anchored by a 250 TPD thermophilic anaerobic digester. The digester will take organic waste and hold it in an oxygen-free environment for <30 days; capture the methane and carbon dioxide, which are released from living organisms as they decompose in an anaerobic environment; create compost; and release only clean water and oxygen.
Methane and carbon dioxide can be thus created in a carbon-negative system, reducing atmospheric carbon. Methane can be converted to a transportation fuel, compressed natural gas (CNG), which exhibits a very good environmental profile. My first PDC presentation in this series focused primarily on the fuel created from the gas.
Deaths of workers in confined spaces are a recurring occupational tragedy. According to NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health), approximately 60% of deaths involve would-be rescuers. With the proper equipment and training, the vast majority of these fatalities can be prevented. The danger of toxic gas hazards is a very real and daily threat that people face in numerous occupations. In the state of Kentucky, one police officer and two sewer workers died in an attempt to rescue a third sewer worker who had been overcome by H2S gas at the bottom of an underground pumping station.
On July 17, 2007, at about 9 a.m., an explosion and fire occurred at the Barton Solvents Wichita facility in Valley Center, Kansas. Eleven residents and one firefighter received medical treatment. The incident triggered an evacuation of Valley Center (approximately 6,000 residents); destroyed the tank farm; and significantly interrupted Barton's business. The initial explosion occurred inside a vertical aboveground storage tank that was being filled with Varnish Makers' and Painters' (VM&P) naphtha. This paper discusses the hazards associated with static-accumulating flammable liquids that can form ignitable vapor-air mixtures inside storage tanks.