UK's First Carbon Capture and Storage Project Could Be Operational by Mid-2020s The Acorn Project will capture about 200,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide from the St. Fergus Gas Terminal and transport it for storage to one of three depleted gas fields using existing pipelines. Levels of stress and mental health problems among UK workers are at a 17-year high, according to the latest injury and ill health statistics published by the Health and Safety Executive. The UK’s offshore oil and gas industry continued to see improvement across a broad range of health and safety indicators last year, according to a key insight published by Oil & Gas UK. Offshore Industry Has Come'Perilously Close to Disaster,' Warns UK's Health and Safety Executive The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has warned the UK’s offshore oil and gas operators that they must do more to tackle hydrocarbon releases in the North Sea after coming “perilously close to disaster” in recent years. Oil & Gas UK recently published guidelines with its most up-to-date information aimed at helping operators ensure they have the required financial measurements in place to meet the cost of cleanup for an oil release. North Sea oil and gas production was up but greenhouse gas emissions in 2016 were down against 2015 performance, according to Oil & Gas UK’s Environment Report.
With demand for oil increasing and demand for refined-product storage within the midstream sector also increasing, operational reliability and uptime have become a greater priority for the owners and users of terminals and tank farms. The industry sees value in optimizing tank turnaround schedules and extending tank in-service intervals by predicting and avoiding failures while reducing the health, safety, and environmental risks associated with waste removal and human exposure. Robotic applications have developed to the point where they can help improve the reliability, safety, and costs of tank storage. Getting companies on board with robotics is not an issue, but finding the right in-service tank-inspection approaches for robotic applications is. Rengifo spoke at a panel discussion during the American Petroleum Institute Inspection and Mechanical Integrity Summit that focused on ways in which owners and users can incorporate robotics into their tank-integrity programs, as well as the obstacles they and other vendors face in facilitating robotics.
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) has garnered international interest as a clean and sustainable source of secondary power generation, without impacting the environment and regardless of seasonal weather conditions, for offshore Oil & Gas (O&G) processing facilities. This is considering the suitability of waste heat extraction from existing offshore deepwater Oil & Gas platforms as a complementary application for integrated OTEC modules (hereafter abbreviated as i-OTEC). Such an application is possible with the availability of cold seawater drawn from extended seawater lift caissons or deepwater intake risers. This study investigates, in detail, the various refrigerants that are feasible alternatives to Ammonia (NH3) for a 1MWe i-OTEC scheme.
Anhydrous NH3 or R717 was initially selected as the refrigerant for the aforementioned i-OTEC scheme which is modelled based on an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). It is widely accepted that R717 is the ideal refrigerant for this application due to R717's high enthalpy change during expansion. Although R717 is classified toxic, R717 emissions generally do not create environmental problems, and is detrimental to health only upon presence of R717 at a Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL) of 35ppm. For comparison purposes, other alternative refrigerants were also studied; focusing particularly the risks associated with the refrigerants including toxicity, flammability, asphyxiation, reactivity and physical hazards. Hence, the selection of the refrigerant was a major factor in the design as it provides the basis for further investigation. Shortlisted alternatives, which include R1234yf, R410a, R134a, R290 and R32, were additionally assessed on multiple factors including expected enthalpy gain from the Rankine cycle, circulation flowrate, equipment sizing, hazard classification of refrigerants, compliance to international/local exposure standards, handling and storage of refrigerants.
It is identified that the aforementioned refrigerants are possible alternatives to R717 - but with some drawbacks from a thermodynamic performance perspective, and the fact that some of these refrigerants would be rendered obsolete in various industries. Consideration of the next generation of refrigerants must balance out factors such as public awareness, manufacturers availability, safety aspects and environmental concerns. The latest refrigerant with minimal environmental impact is R1234yf and it has been slowly accepted in the HVAC and motor industry.
Additionally, the turboexpander-generator shaft sealing was identified as the major source of refrigerant emissions during normal operation. Hence, various shaft sealing solutions were also scrutinized to assess the viability of utilizing R717 as a refrigerant whilst still fulfilling safety and emission requirements.
Proper functioning of the drainage system in oil and gas plant is vital for uninterrupted operation of the plant facilities. Among the various drainages, oily water drainage system is critical with high risk considering its hydro carbon content and accumulation of explosive vapours due to improper functioning of any components in the system. This paper presents some of the shortcomings in the design/arrangement/maintenance of the different elements and the improvements to avoid accidents.
The drainage types in GASCO plants are Clean Water Sewer, Sanitary Sewer, Oily Water Sewer (Accidentally Oil Contaminated / Continuously Oil Contaminated) and Chemical Drains. One of the unforeseen risks has caused an explosion in an existing oily water sump inside the process area. The sump was of concrete construction and the cover slab was blown up resulting in considerable damages to the surrounding pipes/support. There was no injuries to personal. The root cause analysis of the incident was done and a study carried out for a safety review of oily water drainage system at all plants.
A study was carried out to identify possible hazards/design deficiencies of the oily water drainage facilities and recommend measures for rectification and risk mitigation. The study identified that the lines are placed in slope & mainly "run dry" after use, liquid seal not available in some manholes causing HC vapour upstream movement, the manholes/sumps are closed, vent pipes size is small and some are blocked. These lead to accumulation/formation of hydrocarbon mixture inside closed sump, ignition by overheating of the pump installed over the pit and subsequent explosion. Recommendations for existing system include regular flushing of the lines with water to ensure transport of oily effluent & maintain liquid seal, regular removal of the floating hydrocarbon liquid from pits using vacuum truck, open up the manholes and use grating covers, provide self-skimming bucket where feasible, etc. Additionally, for new facilities it is recommended to lay the pipes horizontally to ensure liquid seal, provide turn-up elbows to reduce hydrocarbons accumulation in manholes, provide oil skimming/baffle wall in oil/water sumps, use classified equipment, carryout proper maintenance, etc.
The sump was reconstructed with the new design, which is now functioning well and the recommendations are being implemented in existing facilities and in all new projects.
The proposed improvements for the existing system as well as adopting the recommendations in future new drainage system can ensure the prevention of possible explosions and thereby reducing the related hazards to plant facilities/operations. Sharing of the related information among the international companies having similar facilities increases the awareness about such hidden sources of explosion in a drainage system and related pro-active mitigating measures.
The purpose of this standard is to present the standard practices used in providing galvanic anode cathodic protection (CP) to the normally submerged steel surfaces inside steel water storage tanks. This standard provides owners, engineers, and contractors with guidelines for the application of CP to the submerged surfaces of steel water storage tanks; for determining the effectiveness of these CP systems; and for the operation and maintenance of these CP systems.
This standard is applicable to steel water storage tanks of various sizes used in municipal water supply and fire protection, including elevated tanks and flat-bottom tanks at ground level. Although the practices presented in this standard generally are applicable to all such tanks, the galvanic anode CP system described in this standard may not be practical for relatively large tanks.
This standard was originally prepared in 1996 by NACE Task Group (TG) T-7L-1, a component of Unit Committee T-7L, “Cathodic Protection.” It was revised in 2004, 2011, and 2015 by TG 284, “Cathodic Protection, Galvanic Anode for Internal Submerged Surfaces of Steel Water Storage Tanks—Review of NACE SP0196.” TG 284 is administered by Specific Technology Group (STG) 05, “Cathodic/Anodic Protection.” It is sponsored by STG 11, “Water Treatment,” and STG 35, “Pipelines, Tanks, and Well Casings.” This standard is issued by NACE under the auspices of STG 05.
Section 1: General
1.1 This standard presents standard practices for using galvanic anodes to apply CP to the internal submerged surfaces of steel tanks used for the storage of potable and reclaimed water, drinking water, irrigation water, and fire protection water. Appendix A (nonmandatory) provides guidance for the use of CP for the internal surfaces of tanks and vessels containing other waters.
1.2 Impressed current CP systems are used extensively for the internal surfaces of water storage tanks; however, this standard addresses only galvanic anode CP systems. For a description of impressed current CP systems, refer to NACE SP0388.1
1.3 The ground level and elevated storage tanks considered in this standard are of welded, bolted, or riveted-steel construction, and include many shapes and sizes.
1.4 CP as described in this standard may be used alone to control corrosion of submerged steel surfaces or may be used as a complement to the protection provided by protective coatings or other procedures.2 CP cannot protect surfaces that are not submerged; these surfaces are typically protected by coatings alone.
1.5 CP may be installed to control corrosion in both newly constructed and existing tanks. When CP is used on existing tanks, it may be necessary to drain the tank during installation.
1.6 Tanks under consideration for application of CP are often associated with potable water and fire protection systems that may be subject to public health and safety regulations.3 This standard shall not infringe on those regulations. Proper disinfection of the tanks may be required after installation.
1.7 The provisions of this standard should be applied under the direction of a competent corrosion engineer. The term “corrosion engineer,” as used in this standard, refers to a person who, by reason of knowledge of the physical sciences and the principles of engineering and mathematics as acquired by professional education and related practical experience, is qualified to practice corrosion control, including CP, for water storage tanks. Such persons may be Registered Professional Engineers or persons recognized as being qualified or certified as Corrosion Specialists or CP Specialists by NACE, if their professional activities include suitable experience in corrosion control and CP.
1.8 This standard may not be applicable in all situations. The corrosion engineer may consider alternative corrosion control methods.
Safeguarding and restoring the normal ecosystems and environment of the Arabian Gulf in an active hydrocarbon province undergoing field development is a tough challenge. Nevertheless, a multidisciplinary team involved in this field development has maintained a profound commitment in stewarding natural resources of the major carbonate field in Saudi Arabia.
As part of the Kingdom's strategy to maintain crude oil production targets, production tests were needed to confirm potential of the wells in the Southern part of the field's structure prior to commissioning. The wells are located on drill sites in some artificial islands that were reclaimed from the sea. The six-well deliverability testing campaign should greatly enhance offshore field development, help to obtain reservoir characterization parameters, evaluate stimulation needs for producers, and assess comingling concept for selected wells. A total of 27 artificial Islands and a major transportation causeway were constructed by land reclamation from offshore waters of the Arabian Gulf. These facilitate onshore access to drill sites thus eliminating relatively more expensive fixed steel jacket rigs or platforms.
Due to land space limitation and well spacing constraints on the drill sites, a compact well test facility layout was specifically designed to achieve smokeless flaring, full combustion, and minimize environmental impact. The design consists of two heat exchangers, three-phase separators, i-loop systems for effective H2S scavenging and chemical mix with crude, surge tanks and air compressors. When deployed, this system helped to meet the test objectives and addressed space limitation challenges, mitigated risk to sea pollution in a sensitive marine environment, and forestalled uncontrolled release of hydrocarbons to the environment.
The completion of the cleanup and flow back operation on these wells with no single safety incident, uncontrolled release of hydrocarbons, or spill to nearby offshore waters was a major demonstration of leadership and a key contribution to well testing in similar environments.
Meeting global demands responsibly and reliably led to the company's development of the Y field close to the shoreline of the Arabian Gulf. Developing the prolific field is a crucial element in the company's energy supply strategy with a significant increment to the anticpated production levels within afew years. Due to the shallow water location, access to offshore drilling rigs would be impossible without extensively dredging offshore channels. The access challenge was handled by handled by building a causeway that connects to a series of artificial drilling islands. The primary causeway artery has +21 km total length with an additional +20 km of laterals. The laterals form branches of 25 islands designated for crude oil production. Two of the islands are dedicated for water injection to pressurize the field. The drilling islands and causeway were created from sand dredged from the seabed and protected with huge rocks around the slopes. Just as a serious commitment was in place for the causeway and bridge construction, a critically important environmental strategy was also developed to protect the delicate coast ecosystem during the field development. Apart from the sensitive marine environment, a relatively high H2S content in the crude, limited well spacing, and proximity to the public also contribute to the challenging nature of developing the field.
Most oil-in-water analysis methods for produced water require the oil to be extracted into an organic solvent prior to measurement. Many of the organic solvents used for extraction are either extremely flammable, hazardous to human health or both. The chlorinated hydrocarbons are very expensive and must be either recycled or disposed of as hazardous waste. Volatile hydrocarbon solvents such as pentane and hexane are extremely flammable and present a serious fire and explosion risk. All major airlines and many helicopter services consider the risk so serious that they will not transport flammable solvents.
The methodology presented here makes it possible to perform oil-in-water analyses by making measurements directly on the produced water sample. No organic solvents are required. The method is based upon the addition of a detergent surfactant to a produced water sample. The surfactant converts the dispersed oil in the sample into an optically clear microemulsion that is ideal for direct fluorescence measurements using the TD-500D Oil-in-Water Analyzer. The surfactant is safe to handle with a minimum of personal protective equipment and is only slightly flammable even under a direct flame. The US Department of Transportation does not consider it to be a hazardous material. It can be shipped without hazardous identification labels and can be carried on commercial airlines and helicopters without declaration.
Two samples ("Background?? and "OIW??) are collected to perform an analysis. The Background sample is untreated produced water. It is filtered into a measurement cuvette through an ultra-filter to remove suspended solids and dispersed oil. Only water-soluble substances pass through the filter into the cuvette. The OIW sample is collected into a bottle containing surfactant. The sample is then heated to the cloud point of the surfactant and allowed to cool until the cloudiness disappears. This converts the dispersed oil into a stable microemulsion. The dispersed oil is located inside micelles that are small enough to pass through an ultra-filter. The converted OIW sample is then filtered into a cuvette. The TD-500D readings for the Background and OIW cuvettes are then recorded. The dispersed oil concentration is the calculated difference between the OIW and Background readings. The Background reading itself provides additional information. Since it is proportional to the concentration of fluorescent water-soluble organics in the produced water sample, the Background reading can be used to track changes in the concentrations of these substances.
The TD-500D has two measurement channels, A and B. Channel A makes fluorescence measurements using ultraviolet light and is used when the highest sensitivity is required. Channel B uses visible light for reduced sensitivity and extended dynamic range. With the "No-Solvent?? method, channel A detects most crude oils at dispersed oil concentrations less than 1 ppm. The linear range is from 0 to at least 100 ppm. The dynamic range can typically be extended to 750 ppm or greater with a non-linear calibration function. When the instrument is set to channel B, the "No-Solvent?? method can measure dispersed oil concentrations up to 10,000 ppm, eliminating the need to dilute highly concentrated oil-in-water samples.
Emergency Shutdown (ESD) valves play a vital role in meeting production and safety requirements in a process plant. On headers of a Gathering Center (GC), ESD valve assemblies are installed to protect the downstream processing equipment from over pressure, high level and other emergency conditions. ESD valves typically stay in open position for months or years awaiting a command signal to operate. Little attention is paid to these valves outside of scheduled turnarounds. The pressures of continuous production often stretch these intervals even longer. This leads to build up or corrosion on these valves that prevents them from moving. For safety critical applications, it must be ensured that the valves operate upon demand. The SIL-3 rated ESD valves complete with auto self-testing and acoustic leak detection are designed to operate upon demand. This paper discusses the enhancement of safety and integrity of the GCs following installation of new SIL-3 rated ESD valves in its headers.
Kuwait Oil Company is carrying out projects to enhance Safety Integrity Level (SIL) of header ESD systems by providing new SIL-3 certified ESD valves as replacement of the existing valves in its GCs.
This paper examines the numbers arrived in calculating various performance indicators of ESD valve reliability and interpret these for benefit of the engineers. It is evident that there is a marked improvement in the failure rate and hence integrity of new ESD valves compared to old system. This has also remarkably optimized production, leading to substantial savings.
If ESD valves are called into use, they have to work reliably, because the consequences of failure will be far more serious than the disruption, when they work. The new SIL-3 rated ESD valves are designed to operate when called for, thus enhancing safety and integrity of the GC.
The South & East Kuwait (S&EK) Gathering Centers (GC's) of Kuwait Oil Company are designed to receive both wet (three phase - gas, oil and water) and dry (two phase - gas and oil) reservoir fluids from wellheads. The incoming flowlines are directed to a number of production manifold headers and one test manifold header. The production manifold headers are segregated according to Wet and Dry crude, and High and Low Pressure. The operator determines which inlet manifold header receives crude from a particular flowline. For example if the crude from a particular well is known to be HP wet crude, the operator would align the isolation valves to allow the contents of that flowline into one of the HP wet crude headers. The inlet manifold headers serve to stabilize the incoming well flows, acting as a buffer before the crude is directed to the separation trains, which further stabilize the reservoir fluids to stock tank condition. The test manifold is routed to the HP/LP test separators.
The main nominal piping diameter for all header systems in S&EK GC's is 12 inches. However, some of the headers have nominal piping diameters of 6 and 8 inches connecting the header manifold to the inlet separator. All these lines are provided with an ESD valve for stopping the incoming flow to the GC during abnormal conditions. It is hoped that these valves need never be used in earnest. Such use means that something has gone wrong and, at least, one plant system has to be shut down, with its associated disruption of operations.
Code / standard API 2A API 14C API 14G API 14J API 521 API 2218 MARPOL NFPA 11 NFPA 15 NFPA 16 NFPA 101 Purpose Recommended practice for planning, designing and constructing fixed offshore platforms - working stress design Recommended practice for analysis, design, installation and testing of basic surface safety systems for offshore production platforms.
Most of the wells offshore and onshore require acid stimulation to remove formation damage and improve production. The chemical fluid used in stimulation jobs and the low pH of the returned fluid during the back- flow of the acidised wells have an adverse effect on the production lines and downstream facilities.
ZADCO, in co-ordination with ADMA-OPCO have used successfully the Oil Re-Injection System as the most cost effective, feasible and safe option to reduce the well emissions to the natural environment during clean up operations. This system utilises a single- phase pump to boost the separator pressure and overcome the sea line pressure.
This paper presents the two phases ZADCO have carried out for reduction of well emissions during the clean up operations, in which it highlights the main components of the Oil Re-Injection System and its impact on the rig such as the space constraints, power requirements and safety risk assessments. Also, it highlights the achievements accomplished by ZADCO and ADMA-OPCO and the future plans to achieve zero flaring.