|Theme||Visible||Selectable||Appearance||Zoom Range (now: 0)|
Hohl, Andreas (Baker Hughes) | Kulke, Vincent (Institute of Dynamics and Vibrations, TU Braunschweig) | Kueck, Armin (Baker Hughes) | Heinisch, Dennis (Baker Hughes) | Herbig, Christian (Baker Hughes) | Ostermeyer, Georg-Peter (Institute of Dynamics and Vibrations, TU Braunschweig) | Reckmann, Hanno (Baker Hughes)
Vibrations impact the drilling process by reducing reliability, increasing maintenance costs and reducing rate of penetration and drilling efficiency. Herein, torsional vibrations are typically distinguished into low-frequency torsional oscillations and stick/slip with frequencies below 1 Hz and high-frequency torsional oscillations (HFTO) with frequencies up to 450 Hz. HFTO is associated to high accelerations with critical values above 150 g and dynamic torsional torque values above the make-up torque. A HFTO mitigation strategy is mandatory for prone applications to guarantee high reliability and drilling efficiency.
In this work different best practices for mitigation of HFTO and their interdependency are discussed along with their operational efficiency. The discussed scenarios include coupling between stick/slip and HFTO, different formation properties, and tools that are used for vibration mitigation such as isolators and mud motors. The analysis includes the review of time-based acceleration and load data with a sampling frequency of 1000 Hz and 2500 Hz and numerical modeling to determine the application and environment specific critical range of operational parameters in a holistic approach. The extracted critical range of operational parameters enables operations to optimally adjust parameters with a minimum of torsional loads and optimal drilling efficiency.
This analysis again unveils that the general effect of HFTO is triggered by the cutting forces between PDC bits and hard and dense formation. It is shown qualitatively and quantitatively that high WOB values and low rotary speed values correspond to HFTO. The case study shows opportunities of a reduction of HFTO related loads by increase of the rotary speed without compromising the ROP in specific applications and environments. It is shown that special tools for vibration mitigation influence the stable operational window and need to be considered.
Depending on the scenario a complete mitigation of HFTO or at least a significant reduction of loads can be achieved by targeted adjustment of operational parameters and use of tools for vibration mitigation. The drilling process can be optimized leading to a reduced cost of the well delivery since HFTO can be a major cause for non-productive time if not handled properly.
Amir Rashidi, Mohammad Rashad (PETRONAS Research) | Dabbi, Edgar Peter (DHI Water & Environment) | Abu Bakar, Zainol Affendi (PETRONAS Research) | Misnan, M Shahir (PETRONAS Research) | Pedersen, Claus (DHI Water & Environment) | Wong, Ka Yee (DHI Water & Environment) | M Sallehud-Din, M Taufik (PETRONAS Research) | Shamsudin, M Azim (PETRONAS Research) | Wo, Shaochang (PETRONAS Research)
PETRONAS has identified a large gas field as a potential CO2 storage reservoir in offshore Sarawak. Using the Carbon, Capture and Storage (CCS) concept, the plan is to inject CO2 into the reservoir for permanent storage with the purpose of mitigating the contribution of CO2 emissions to global warming. An important aspect of CCS is the Measuring, Monitoring, and Verification program, which is needed to ensure safe CO2 injection and storage. This includes understanding of the potential risks associated with leakage of stored CO2. This study focuses on the risk and impact of the CO2 once it escapes the overlying sediments and enters the marine environment.
To describe the behavior of leaked CO2 in the marine environment, it is important to understand the ambient flow conditions at the identified area that would govern the advection and dispersion processes in the seawater column. Hence, long-term 3D-hydrodynamic modelling is conducted to describe seasonal and inter-annual variations of hydrodynamic conditions at the area of interest. Supplementing the flow model is the coupled physical-chemical reactions that will occur if CO2 escapes into the seawater. As CO2 bubbles ascend in the water column, their volume changes because of gas dissolution and reduction in hydrostatic pressure. Additionally, as CO2 gas dissolves in seawater, concentration of the Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC) increases, which in turn leads to reduction of pH in the seawater. Thus, the risk and effects of CO2 leakage to the marine environment will be reflected by reduction of the pH from its natural variation. Scenario of CO2 seepage from plugged and abandoned (P&A) well was simulated based on hypothetical leakage rates derived from previous studies.
Far-field modelling results of CO2 seepage from the P&A well suggest that no CO2 gas would reach the surface and escape into the atmosphere. The CO2 would dissolve rapidly above the seabed. Any reduction in pH values within the far-field is predicted to be within the natural variation of the seawater acidity with the varying climatic conditions. To fully capture the near-field dispersion effects, additional finer resolution modelling was performed for three representative climatic periods (or monsoons). Results suggest that the near-field plume where pH falls below 6.5 (threshold limit based on Malaysia Marine Water Quality Criteria and Standard) is usually confined within 100 m radius but may extend to 200 m from the leakage source. However, the near field model also confirms rapid dissolution of CO2 gas within the first 5 m water column above the seabed.
The study result can be used as an important input in designing X-Field's MMV operational plan in terms of optimizing sampling volume and frequencies for marine water monitoring purposes, which may result in significant operational cost reduction. Hence, similar study is recommended to be conducted with the same purpose in future CCS related projects due to its impact on the technical and economical value creation.
Banyu Urip, which is the highest producing oil facility in Indonesia with 220 kbd, generates up to 40 MW electrical power to maintain production. Any power blackout results in significant production upset including high flaring. This is exacerbated by usually extended recovery time post power blackout due to complex electrical distribution system. The Banyu Urip facility has experienced production loss due to historical power blackout events, most recently in 2019. This paper provides a case study on optimizing load shedding and gas turbine fuel control system, which could serve as learning for other power generation facilities in various industries for designing a robust blackout prevention system.
An integrated blackout prevention system comprises of Electrical Control and Monitoring System (ECMS) as primary load shedding, Gas Turbine Generator (GTG) temperature peaking control, and backup load shedding by under-frequency protection relay is designed. All these load shedding layer of protection cover multiple blackout prevention scenarios or protection system element failure such as GTG trip, overloading, and ECMS failure.
Multiple parameter analysis and simulation were performed to determine characteristic of each protection layer. Turbine exhaust temperature response, load, fuel supply, as well as generator frequency are all taken into consideration for the integration of blackout protection layer.
Key factor for the seamless integration is timeline of each element to work and for backup element to activate. All must be done within GTG overload capability corridor.
ECMS load shedding system is put as the frontline to prevent overload in case GTG trip. As the backup layer, protective relay will enable under-frequency load shedding upon overload and GTG slowdown. GTG temperature peaking control and under-frequency set point are properly designed to ensure that the under-frequency relay is operating.
After implementing these optimizations, load shedding is proven to work very effectively and there has been some GTG trip events without blackout nor significant production impact.
Evaluation of system performance continues as Banyu Urip Central Processing Facility (CPF) operates. The results will be critical for reliability improvement as well as production continuity assurance. In other words, this also provides a best practice for blackout mitigation to optimize successful power generation facility operation.
Oil and gas companies operating carbonate oil and gas condensate fields in Kazakhstan have been carrying out acid stimulation activities leading to a substantial increase in hydrocarbon production. Nearly all treatments were considered a success. Nevertheless, a certain level of optimization in the production enhancement methods that could, potentially, have brought additional technical and financial benefits, were overlooked due to various reasons.
A comprehensive review of historical treatments on several fields located in West-Kazakhstan region was performed to identify areas to improve post-stimulation well performance. This review identified improvements including "cleaner" fluid selection, optimised design and treatment schedules. Historical treatments in the oil field typically used straight hydrochloric acid as the main acid, polymer-gelled (self-diverting) acid as the chemical diverter, and linear guar gel for displacement, and diagnostic tests. The application of a modern single-phase retarded acid to replace the straight hydrochloric acid was identified as a key improvement that would yield more efficient wormhole generation and an improved stimulation ratio. Another opportunity for improvement was to upgrade the chemical diversion system from polymer-based self-diverting acid to a viscoelastic surfactant-based (polymer-free) diverting acid system. The use of an oil-based displacement fluid with high retained permeability instead of linear gel and to reduce the hydrostatic pressure post-acidizing, thereby improving flowback, was also employed.
Extended core flow testing for regained permeability and solubility were carried out with several acid systems to compare their capabilities and efficiency to create conductive wormholes, and their dissolution capacities. Additionally, emulsion, and sludging tendency upon contact with wellbore tubulars and formation crude was checked to verify the acids’ compatibility with hydrocarbons produced from the target reservoir. After the prerequisite laboratory testing, field trials commenced applying various combinations of fluid technologies in high-rate matrix stimulation treatments. The optimizations resulted in higher (normalized) post-stimulation productivity index (PI), facilitated formation cleanup, and enabled more efficient operations. A similar approach is, currently, being implemented in other stimulation projects in the region, and the results are being replicated.
As has been mentioned above, one of the main enhancements implemented as part of this work is the employment of the single-phase retarded acid. Most of the published literature discussing application of the acid covers the cases of stimulation of relatively hot reservoirs (BHST>100°C) as acidizing of high-temperature carbonate rock using traditional hydrochloric acid is a great challenge. The current paper provides details of the case studies, where the acid system was successfully implemented in combination with several other stimulation technologies for mid-temperature ranges. One of the objectives was also to assess whether application of reduced volumes of the retarded and diverting acids would still lead to improved wells’ productivity. Positive results of the laboratory studies, treatment modeling, and field trials were validated by the increasing normalized post-stimulation PI with each optimization step.
Hassan, Nur Atiqah (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Yeap, Wei Jian (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Singh, Ratan (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Nik Khansani, Nik Zarina Suryana (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.)
Uncontrolled sand production has caused serious complication and monetary loss in oil and gas assets worldwide especially in mature fields. It is known to be drastically limiting the production rates and damaging downhole and surface equipment, inducing the risk of catastrophic failure. Sand production is commonly associated with contributing factors such as unconsolidated formation, initiation of water breakthrough and changes in rock stresses due to depleted reservoir pressure. To mitigate sand production, operators often opt for applying mechanical or chemical downhole sand control methods. This paper will discuss about the performance results and lessons learnt from the application of chemical treatment for downhole sand control over several mature fields in Malaysia.
Chemical sand consolidation (SCON) and sand agglomeration have been identified as effective chemical treatment to control sand production downhole. Both treatments involve injection of chemical into immediate near wellbore area of the reservoir with the aim to improve the strength of the incompetent formation and thus reducing the tendency for sand production. In most cases, SCON treatment consists of injecting fluid containing adhesive or resin for binding the sand grains while the main mechanism of sand agglomeration involves increasing the attraction between sand particles through processes such as polymer bridging interactions and charge neutralization. Stringent candidate screening and detailed pre-job planning are crucial in ensuring the success of both SCON and sand agglomeration treatment.
Over the past few decades, there were about 20 SCON treatment jobs and 3 sand agglomeration jobs were performed across several Malaysia fields with varying service providers and chemicals. The overall success rates for sand consolidation and sand agglomeration are 75% and 66% respectively. To evaluate the effectiveness of the chemical treatment for downhole sand control, analysis was conducted to study the effects of parameters such as completion type, perforation length, formation permeability, clay content, well preparation, formation temperature and placement methods.
This paper presents lesson leamt and best practice from several chemical SCON and sand agglomeration treatments performed over mature fields in Malaysia. Case studies for several wells will be examined to highlight the lesson learnt which are essential to further enhance the success of chemical SCON and agglomeration treatment. Best practice shall be incorporated into future campaigns to ensure chemical treatment as a successful means to control sand production downhole in a low-cost environment.
This research addresses the bottlenecks experienced in supply chain management (SCM) in an African hydrocarbon company, which slows down processes and makes the procedures tedious, this leads to operational inefficiencies. This paper discusses the security of the supply chain management data and the overall automation of procurement value chain, providing transparency to the stakeholders involved in the entire supply chain management process. It also provides a system that is not prone to malware or data alteration. The existing system lacks trust and greater transparency. A new technology will be developed using Blockchain Hyperledger which is a distributed ledger technology (DLT). The SCM application/portal serving the request and procurement process will utilize the Hyperledger Fabric SDK or REST web service to interface with the Hyperledger Fabric network. The organizations that participate in developing the Hyperledger Fabric network are known as the "members". Every member organization in the blockchain network is capable to set up their peers for taking part in the network. All these peers’ needs are configured with suitable cryptographic materials like Certificate Authority and other data. Chaincode will be actualized in peers to initiate transaction invocation request. This process will result in the chaincode providing an executable smart contract. The system executes the terms of the contract (agreement) by all necessary stakeholder's peer; for example: when goods or services are completely delivered, work Completion Certificate will be issued. This will be on the blockchain network and will be transparent to all stakeholders so once invoice is presented, the verification will be automatically ascertained and payment will be made. Procurement data like invitation to tender (ITT), request for proposal (RFP), request for quote (RFQ), contract award, work completion certificate (WCC), and invoice will be distributed among the nodes uniformly at the same time, making it impossible for cyber-invasion on all the nodes at the same time. Blockchain has been identified industry-wide as the next level in SCM operations because of its greater transparency, increased efficiency, enhanced data security, reduced costs, improved traceability, smart contract and unbroken chain of transaction history. It was observed that the blockchain implementation will further enable easy audit trail, automated and transparent Issuance of ITT/RFP/RFQ to Vendors, end-to-end SCM automation with secured data, and quality reporting system. In conclusion Blockchain Technology will enhance Supply chain manpower efficiency and hydrocarbon production. Blockchain Technology in Supply chain management will present a new knowledge in the area of integrated supply chain management for procurement process transparency and end- to-end data security
Surveying and mapping in the oil and gas industry is time-consuming, difficult and often dangerous. Tatweer Petroleum introduced advanced Unmanned Ariel Vehicles (UAVs), commonly known as drones as a tool to allow the surveyors and mappers to collect unlimited aerial data with high precision measurements, while saving time, money, and manpower, with safe best practices. Tatweer Petroleum integrates the results obtained from drones with its Spatial Data Infrastructure of day-to-day operations in the Bahrain Field (or "Field) in order to implement the best Geographical Information Systems (GIS) practices.
Tatweer Petroleum has introduced advanced Unmanned Ariel Vehicles (UAVs), commonly known as drones to address the unique needs of its daily operations by providing safe, efficient, and cost-effective surveying and surveillance solutions. Tatweer Petroleum integrates the results of Drones with its Spatial Data Infrastructure for day-to-day Operations in the Bahrain Field in order to implement the best Geographical Information Systems (GIS) practices.
Drones as a tool to allow the surveyors and mappers to collect unlimited aerial data with high precision measurements, while saving time, money, and manpower, with safe best practices. Moreover, Tatweer Petroleum’s drones solution simplifies the surveying process with pre-defined mapping missions where the pilots deploy the drones on site, and analyze and process the data at Tatweer Petroleum Headquarters. Drones have provided considerable improvements in Terrain Mapping, Stockpile Volume Calculations, and Site Planning.
Using advanced UAVs, Tatweer Petroleum is shifting from Traditional surveying to Drone technology. Using this technology, the Company captures highly accurate best-in-class Orthophotos of up to 2 cm resolution in the Bahrain Field to update infrastructure information. This technology helped Tatweer Petroleum generate 3D models (Digital Terrain Models and Digital Surface Models) of the quarry areas within the Bahrain Field. Tatweer Petroleum uses such meodels to identify the encroachments of the quarries within the Field, demarcating the zones of the quarry areas, calculating the volumes of the stockpiles, and other analysis. The most notable advantage of using drones is the ability to obtain on-demand aerial data for Terrain Mapping, Stockpile Volume Calculations, Site Planning, and control encroachments within the Field. Drone data is processed and analyzed for use by petroleum engineers, geology & geophysical, and GIS professionals. Drones play a major role in updating spatial data, integrating results with its Spatial Data Infrastructure for day-to-day operations in the Bahrain Field, and implementing the best GIS practices.
This paper demonstrates best practices in utilizing drone technology for capturing on demand Orthophotos, generating 3D models, updating spatial data, and providing necessary inputs for analytical studies. These studies are being used in all domains within the oil and gas industry that are necessary for production enhancements. Drones play a vital role not only in surveying and mapping, but also in security, inspection, and maintenance.
Striving to achieve high level of plant's reliability, and realizing the wide impact of piping misalignment on rotating equipment premature failures, Oil & Gas industry has come up with many standards and best practices aiming to eliminate or minimize to the possible extent the effects of pipe strain on rotating equipment. Pipe strain is considered as one of the most frequent reasons causing rotating equipment to fail. It occurs when there is a misalignment between the piping and the equipment's suction and/or discharge flanges. A case study of a vertical crude charge pump at Saudi Aramco plant, experiencing high vibration and repetitive mechanical seal failures due to piping misalignment and subsequent pipe strain effects will be considered in this paper, highlighting the corrective actions adopted following the relevant investigation and troubleshooting conducted by Operation, Maintenance and Engineering (OME) team. Moreover, a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model will be presented, demonstrating the significant impact of pipe strain on the pump's shaft behaviour and the potential modes of failure in case pump-to-pipe flanges misalignments are not seriously considered.
Project schedule delay and cost overrun have become a normal matter to witness and at a certain point, it textures almost likely that it would be an inevitable result. Such result could be avoided if we identify the causes of delay and try to mitigate the challenges early phase in the project. An effective Project Manager manages all aspects of EPC project and he must understand the causes of problems. This case study aims to explore problems faced in EPC projects that lead to cost overrun and schedule delay, and to explore good practices to minimize impact on overall project.
The methodology adopted consists of survey, interviews and case study approach. A survey was used to collect the common causes of EPC Project delays and cost overrun. An interview approach used to find out significant delay and success factors together with effective management practices collected from survey. Later, case study approach is used to validate the information gathered previously and to understand the relation and consequences of each factor. The interviewee were project managers, project controls manager, construction manager, discipline engineers, subject matter experts and client representatives, etc. from several EPC contractors and clients.
There are several causes of EPC projects delay and cost overrun and every project may have its own challenges but many found to be common among projects. Sometimes, it may be a single trigger event that leads to delays or a combination of events. The case study reveals that major factors contributing to schedule delay and cost overrun are mostly related to project complexity, aggressive unrealistic schedule, weak or poor planning and control, inherited bidding inaccuracies and estimation mistakes, ineffective leadership and poor decision-making, absence of project management practices, etc. Also, design changes, delay in placing POs, lack of team competency, late client approvals, late vendor information, delay in PTW issuance, inadequate construction resources, quality issues and reworks, and ignoring previous project's lesson learned. Further most, poor risk management, poor interface management between project stakeholders contributes to cost overrun and delays. This case study findings may be helpful to EPC contractors, clients, project sponsors, project managers, construction managers and other stakeholders to understand the major factors, causes and problems that they may face during EPC project lifecycle and how to overcome such challenges effectively.
This case study can be viewed as a lesson learned approach. This study will guide them in developing and adopting necessary effective and efficient project management practice to complete the EPC projects within budget, on schedule with good quality, and safety. Stakeholders’ awareness about causes of delay give them more options and improve capability in problem-solving throughout the project life-cycle.
Turning a brownfield from industrial to residential or commercial use has been a trend in recent years. Even more so when land has become valuable, like many of the former manufactured gas plants (MGP) which lie in today’s hearts of the cities. Prior to landuse alternation, land contamination assessment is required in order to ensure that health and environmental risks to receptors are in compliance with legal regulations. Conventional site characterizations based on soil and groundwater sampling may involve significant uncertainties due to insufficient sampling density under limited budgets. Estimations of free phase product (NAPL) spatial extensions might be highly affected by traditional sampling schemes, which often may happen to miss the contaminant bodies. Applying a denser sampling grid may be not feasible due to time and cost constraints (large sites, accessibility issues, depth specific problems). High resolution methods like Membrane Interphase Probe (MIP), Laser Induced Flurescence (LIF), Hydraulic profiling Tool (HPT), Electrical Conductivity (EC) respectively Cone Penetration Testing (CPT) are recognized as rapid, low-invasive and cost-efficient site characterization methods in terms of contamination, hydraulics and lithology. This paper displays best practice scenarios to cope with oil contaminated sites when reaching amazing economical efficiencies (up to more than 100m per day) and preserving at the same time the vertical high-resolution capabilities.
A Dual LIF site characterization system was developed by combining a UVOST, and a TarGOST system under a single Dual LIF probe coupled afterwards to a CPT cone. The combined system was deployed at a Swedish site. The site main contaminants are oil-related with reports over coal-tar specific type of NAPL. A no. of 45 UVOST-TarGOST-CPT profiles down to around 10m bgl were carried out indoor, and outdoor of site facilities. They revealed the type, spread, and intensity of site contamination. For calibration, and validation aims, several soil samples were recovered by depth oriented MacroCore sampling.
As high-resolution site characterization method, LIF displays significant advantages over traditional characterization techniques. Especially for NAPL detection and delineation, a LIF deployment followed by complementary target-oriented soil sampling delivers the key to reliable site models. A combined use of UVOST and TarGOST under a CPT environment proved to potentiate the high-resolution methodology by enforcing validation resp. resolution capabilities in terms of contaminants (heavy vs light contaminant classes, different saturation degrees, vertical differentiation of NAPLs), and geotechnical parameters (lithology, soil density and consistency). This combined UVOST-TarGOST-CPT methodology applied for the first time in Europe, illustrates the need for site specific screening methods able to provide reliable images of the site under cost efficiency requirements. Moreover, reliable site models open the perspective of successful remediation strategies, and land redevelopment scenarios.
Comparisons of site characterization campaigns display significant cost, and time savings using environmental high resolution techniques against conventional methods of drilling/sampling/testing, with direct reflection into the bottom-line profitability of projects. Analyzed scenarios point out, that cost reductions above 30% and time reductions above 20% are fully reachable added-value objectives.