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Blunt, Martin Julian (Imperial College) | Al-Jadi, Manayer (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Qattan, Abrar (KOC) | Al-Kanderi, Jasem M. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Gharbi, Oussama (Imperial College) | Badamchizadeh, Amin (CMG) | Dashti, Hameeda Hussain (Kuwait Oil Company) | Chimmalgi, Vishvanath Shivappa (Kuwait Oil Company) | Bond, Deryck John (Kuwait Oil Company) | Skoreyko, Fraser A. (CMG)
The Magwa Marrat reservoir was discovered in the mid-1980s and has been produced to date under primary depletion. Reservoir pressure has declined and is approaching the asphaltene onset pressure (AOP). A water flood is being planned and a decision needs to be taken as to the appropriate reservoir operating pressure. In particular the merits of operating the reservoir at pressures above and below the AOP need to be assessed.
Some of the issues related to this decision relate to the effects of asphaltene deposition in the reservoir. Two effects have been evaluated. Firstly the effect of in-situ deposition of asphaltene on wettability and the influence that this may have on water-flood recovery has been investigated using pore scale network modes. Models were constructed and calibrated to available high pressure mercury capillary pressure data and to relative permeability data from reservoir condition core floods. The changes to relative permeability characteristics that would result from the reservoir becoming substantially more oil-wet have been evaluated. Based on this there seems to be a very limited scope for poorer water flood performance at pressures below AOP.
Secondly the scope for impaired well performance has been evaluated. This has been done using a field trial where a well was produced at pressures above and substantially below AOP and pressure transient data were used to estimate near wellbore damage "skin??. Also compositional simulation has been used to estimate near wellbore deposition effects. This has involved developing an equation of state model and identifying, using computer assisted history matching, a range of parameters that could be consistent with core flood experiments of asphaltene deposition. Results of simulation using these parameters are compared with field observation and used to predict the range of possible future well productivity decline.
Overall this work allows an evaluation of the preferred operating pressure, which can drop below the AOP, resulting in lower operating costs and higher final recovery without substantial impairment to either water-flood efficiency or well productivity.
Al-Kandari, Ibrahim (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Jadi, Manayer (Kuwait Oil Company) | Lefebvre, Christian (Beicip-Franlab) | Vigier, Louise (Beicip) | De Medeiros, Maitre (Beicip) | Dashti, Hameeda Hussain (Kuwait Oil Company) | Knight, Roger (KOC) | Al-Qattan, Abrar (KOC) | Chimmalgi, Vishvanath Shivappa (Kuwait Oil Company) | Datta, Kalyanbrata (KOC) | Hafez, Karam Mohamed (KOC) | Turkey, Laila (KOC) | Bond, Deryck John (Kuwait Oil Company)
Copyright 2012, Society of Petroleum Engineers This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE Kuwait International Petroleum Conference and Exhibition held in Kuwait City, Kuwait, 10-12 December 2012. This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE program committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material does not necessarily reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of SPE copyright. Abstract A pilot water flood was carried out in the Marrat reservoir in the Magwa Field. The main aim of this pilot was to allow an assessment of the ability to sustain injection, better understand reservoir characteristics. A sector model was built to help with this task. An evaluation of the injectivity in Magwa Marrat reservoir was performed with particular attention to studying how injectivity varied as injected water quality was changed. This was done using modified Hall Plots, injection logs, flow logs and time lapse temperature logs. Data acquisition during the course of the pilot was used to better understand reservoir heterogeneity.
Haider, Bader Y.A. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Rachapudi, Rama Rao Venkata Subba (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Yahya, Mohammad (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Mutairi, Talal (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al Deyain, Khaled Waleed (Kuwait Oil Company)
Production from Artificially lifted (ESP) well depends on the performance of ESP and reservoir inflow. Realtime monitoring of ESP performance and reservoir productivity is essential for production optimization and this in turn will help in improving the ESP run life. Realtime Workflow was developed to track the ESP performance and well productivity using Realtime ESP sensor data. This workflow was automated by using real time data server and results were made available through Desk top application.
Realtime ESP performance information was used in regular well reviews to identify the problems with ESP performance, to investigate the opportunity for increasing the production. Further ESP real time data combined with well model analysis was used in addressing well problems.
This paper describes about the workflow design, automation and real field case implementation of optimization decisions. Ultimately, this workflow helped in extending the ESP run life and created a well performance monitoring system that eliminated the manual maintenance of the data .In Future, this workflow will be part of full field Digital oil field implementation.
Mishra, Prasanta Kumar (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Harthy, Abdulrahman (Target Oilfields Services) | Al-Kanderi, Jasem M. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Raisi, Muatasam (Target Oilfields Services) | Al-Alawi, Ghaliah (Target Oilfields Services) | Alhashmi, Salim (Target Oilfields Services) | Turkey, Shaikha (Kuwait Oil Company)
This paper presents the main steps of rock-typing workflow and the technique applied to estimate permeability.
Reservoir rock typing (RRT) is a process of up-scaling detailed geological and petrophysical information to provide more accurate input for 3D geological and flow simulation models. The reservoir rocks that correspond to a particular rock type should have similar rock fabric, pore types and pore throat size distribution. The study integrated multi-scale data types to develop a robust and predictable rock type scheme. This consists of detailed sedimentological description of depositional environment and associated sedimentary features, detailed numerical petrographic analysis of rock texture, grain types, porosity types and rock mineralogy and petrophysical data grouping using openhole log and core plugs porosity-permeability relationship and pore throat size distribution (MICP).
The main objective was to develop a reliable reservoir rock type scheme that captures the heterogeneity in Jurassic carbonate reservoir for the Middle Marrat Formation in South East Kuwait area and implementation of the RRT to the permeability prediction within the field. Integration of the thin sections, porosity-permeability, pore throat size and distribution has resulted in the identification of reservoir rock types. A total of 14 different rock types were identified within the reservoir interval in the cored wells, which is subsequently grouped into eight due to modelling limitation. The RRT up-scaling was done in a way to minimize the impact of grouping on permeability and saturation computations. The prediction success between the cored RRT and the predicted RRT using openhole data is more than 85%. As a result, the permeability computation success between core plugs and computed permeability using the RRT is more than 80%.
The Middle Minagish Oolite Formation is 450 to 550 feet thick interval of porous limestone reservoir, composed of peloidal/skeletal grainstones with lesser amount of packstone, oolitic grainstone, wackstone and mudstone in Umm Gudair field, West Kuwait. It is characterized by small scale reservoir heterogeneity, primarily related to the depositional as well as diagenetic features. Capturing reservoir properties in micro scale and its spatial variation needs special attention in this reservoir due to its inherent anisotropy. Reservoir properties will depend on the level that we are analyzing on reservoir (millimeter to meter scale). Here we used Electrical Borehole Image (EBI) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to capture small scale feature of Umm Gudair carbonate reservoir and compared them with core data
In present work, reservoir properties (including texture, facies, porosity and permeability) interpreted by the EBI shows good match with NMR driven properties and core data. Textural changes in image logs also match well with pore size distribution from NMR logs. Further highly porous zones which are considered either due to primary porosity or vugs match with larger pores of NMR logs and these corroborates with also core derived porosity. A good match has been observed between EBI, NMR and cored derived porosity. Permeability calculations have also been made and compared with core data. A detail workflow has been developed here to interpret reservoir properties on un-cored wells, where only low vertical resolution data is available. This technique is quite useful to identify the characters and mode of origin highly porous zones in reservoir section which are generally not identifiable by low resolution standard logs. This workflow will allow us to interpret the heterogeneity at high resolution level in un-cored wells, as results are validated with integration of EBI, NMR and core data.
Hruška, Marina (Chevron Energy Technology Company) | Bachtel, Steven (Chevron Energy Technology Company) | Archuleta, Bonny (Chevron Energy Technology Company) | Skalinski, Mark (Chevron Energy Technology Company)
In this integrated study using resistivity images, conventional openhole logs, and core data from a Middle Eastern reservoir, abundance and geometric configuration of bedded and nodular evaporite have been studied to help distinguish which nodular forms of evaporite may be related to a permeability suppression. Several logs have been calculated from the resistivity image log to quantify nodular evaporite and help predict the presence of corresponding core facies well. Compared with thin-section description, most samples of nodular evaporite were exhibiting fine-scale cementation as well, and their permeability was suppressed compared with samples with rare or no fine-scale cementation in thin sections.
North Kuwait had discovered several deep reservoirs during 1960s which were not considered for development production till 2010 because of higher priority given to the major reservoirs such as Mauddud and Burgan. Zubair and Ratawi are two such new reservoirs, taken up for fast track development since last 2 years.
In order to achieve the production target for the asset, ZU/RT need to be brought to production. A complete evaluation of all geological/ Geophysical data was done for all penetration through ZU/RT. All testing results available during the exploratory wells were comprehensively gathered and evaluated. Based on the data, fast track well release, drilling & completion were initiated. The objective was to gain production as well as data to reduce the uncertainty for further development and reservoir modeling work. The initial results indicated tremendous challenges in terms of fluid regime as well as reservoir rock properties.
The production, at the beginning of the project, was zero, which has now been increased to about 20 MBOPD within a year. Integrated team work and calculated risks helped to achieve this milestone.
The paper aims to share the challenges and the lessons learnt during the production delivery from the new reservoirs in North Kuwait.
Geological Background/ Setting
Sabiriyah Zubair is a minor reservoir of clastic type, which was on low priority for development/ production since discovered druing 60s.. This is a relatively small reservoir in terms of size and potential, as compared to other major reservoirs in Sabiriyah field viz. Mauddud & Burgans. However, the accomplished intial tests at two wells (SA-00271 and SA-0278) indicate that the reservoir has mobile oil and can participate to contribute to NK overall production. Currently 7 wells are flowing to Gathering centre at total rate of about 10 MBOPD.
Das, Om Prakash (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Enezi, Khalaf (Kuwait Oil Company) | Aslam, Muhammad (Kuwait Oil Company) | El-Gezeeri, Taher (Kuwait Oil Company) | Ziyab, Khalid (Kuwait Oil Company) | Fipke, Steven R. (Halliburton) | Ewens, Steven (Halliburton)
Increased hydrocarbon recovery and accelerated production from ultra-high water mobility oil-wet reservoir requires the application of advanced well completion technologies to address premature water breakthrough, reservoir management, production management and extended reservoir contact from a single well location. The Burgan Reservoir of Minagish Field, West Kuwait has active aquifer, very high permeability sands associated with active faults and contain highly viscous reservoir fluid with downhole viscosity of 40cp, enhances water mobility and resulted in premature water breakthrough with increasing water cut trend within few months of production as confirmed from well performance of existing horizontal wells. This has resulted in to non-uniform reservoir depletion, by-passed oil regions and low oil recovery.
The Kuwait's first smart level-4 multilateral well was completed in Burgan reservoir by combining the Level-4 junction along with stacked dual lateral completion having customized viscosity independent Inflow Control Device (ICD), customized two Inflow-Control Valves as well as down hole gauges, wide operating range Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP), suitable wellheads, X-MAS tree and Integrated surface panel for real time data monitoring.
The smart multilateral well has assisted in addressing premature water breakthrough, enhanced dry oil production and facilitated uniform depletion, which results in improved hydrocarbon recovery. The paper covers the customized design of smart Level-4 multilateral well by taking in to account the reservoir and its fluid characterization, well architecture, implementation and specially designed invert emulsion drilling fluid for effective wellbore cleanup to achieve formation virginity. The improved reservoir management and production management results are also mentioned in this paper.
Al-Farhan, Farhan A. (Kuwait Foreign Petroleum Exploration Co) | Gazi, Naz H. (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Humoud, Jamal (Kuwait Oil Company) | Tirkey, Naween (Kuwait Oil Company) | Haryono, Rafiq (Kuwait Oil Company)
Interference testing, although primitive in terms of its introduction and idea to the petroleum industry, still stands to this day as one of the most cost effective and efficient ways of confirming communication and evaluating reservoir properties between wells. Similarly, a pressure build-up is one of the most accurate ways of estimating dynamic reservoir parameters surrounding the well, providing that the shut-in of the well is allowable. On the other hand, a drawdown test is not usually recommended due to the instability of the flow rate, and hence, the uncertainty in the parameter estimation when analyzing the transient of the pressure drawdown. In this project, due to production constraints a drawdown test was run for the active horizontal well as a substitute to the pressure build-up. It was therefore decided to couple the drawdown test with an interference test so as highlight the subsurface uncertainties. In order to achieve these objectives, careful design and operational coordination between the different asset teams and contractors is crucial to obtain interpretable and useful data.
Water production was observed in some of the nearby wells, and therefore communication between the horizontal well and the surrounding wells needed to be verified. The main objective of this project was to evaluate the reservoir parameters and connectivity surrounding the important horizontal well. In this test, the horizontal well was the active well in a five well interference test. The results of the test indicated different pressure behaviors seen from the observation wells corresponding to the pulse created by the horizontal well. Communication was established in some of the wells, whereas, faults were also verified in the surrounding regions. In addition, the drawdown analysis of the horizontal well showed all the flow regimes that relate to a horizontal wells' signature as well as boundary behavior which coincide with the interference test results. The results of the drawdown analysis indicate the possibility and accuracy of conducting a pressure transient analysis using this method without being constrained with production objectives, and hence not shutting the well in.
Advanced smart multilateral wells with extended reservoir contact from a single well location have accelerated sustained oil production and increases hydrocarbon recovery from ultra-high water mobility oil-wet Burgan reservoir in Minagish Field West Kuwait. Further the smart multilateral wells have proven to be a great tool for adequate proactive reservoir management and production management without well interventions. The Burgan reservoir has active aquifer, very high permeability sands associated with active faults and contain highly viscous reservoir fluid with downhole viscosity of more than 40cp, enhance water mobility and resulted in premature water breakthrough with increasing water cut trend within few months of production in existing horizontal wells. This has resulted into non-uniform reservoir depletion, by-passed oil regions and low oil recovery.
The smart level-4 multilateral wells were successfully designed and implemented in Burgan reservoir by combining the reliable Level-4 junction along with stacked dual lateral completion having customized viscosity independent Inflow Control Device (ICD), customized two Inflow-Control Valves as well as down hole gauges, wide operating range Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP), suitable wellheads, X-MAS tree and Integrated surface panel for real time data monitoring first time in Kuwait. The improved production performance of smart multilateral wells in Burgan reservoir of Minagish Field, West Kuwait have achieved appropriate production management through flow regulations across laterals and adequate reservoir management with the combination of inflow control device as well as inflow control valves along with downhole pressure temperature gauges. Moreover the smart multilateral wells have enhanced sustained oil production, maximizes hydrocarbon recovery at lowered capital and operational expenditure resulted in improved economic performance of reservoir with significant increase in net present value (NPV). The paper covers the successful implementation of smart multilateral wells and its effectiveness in achieving the life-cycle production management as well as proactive reservoir management supported with actual well performance results. Further the paper details about the economic benefits of smart multilateral wells and its contribution in improving the economic performance of Burgan reservoir of Minagish Field, West Kuwait.