This paper examines whether retention of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) is different under anaerobic versus aerobic conditions. Both static (mixing with loose sand) and dynamic methods (core floods) were used to determine HPAM retention. There are both advantages and disadvantages associated with determining polymer retention using static tests versus dynamic tests and using aerobic versus anaerobic conditions. From static retention measurements, polymer adsorption values on pure silica sand or Berea sandstone were small, and they showed little difference between experiments conducted aerobically or anaerobically. For both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, HPAM retention increased significantly with increased pyrite or siderite content. Static retention under anaerobic conditions ranged from 45-75 µg/g with 1% of either pyrite or siderite to 137-174 µg/g for 10% pyrite or siderite to 1161-1249 µg/g for 100% pyrite or siderite.
If iron minerals are present, the most representative polymer retention results are obtained (for both static and dynamic tests) if conditions are anaerobic. Retention values (from static measurements) under aerobic conditions were commonly twice those determined under anaerobic conditions. If iron minerals are present and retention tests are performed under aerobic conditions, TOC or some similar method should be used for polymer detection. Viscosity detection of polymer may provide retention values that are too high (because oxidative degradation can be misinterpreted as polymer retention). For a broad range of siderite content, retention from static tests did not depend on whether dissolved oxygen was present. However, for a broad range of pyrite content, HPAM retention was significantly lower in the absence of dissolved oxygen than under aerobic conditions. Theses results may be tied to iron solubility. When polymer solutions were mixed with 100% pyrite over the course of 12 hours, 360–480-ppm iron dissolved into polymer solutions under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, whereas with 100% siderite, only 0–0.6-ppm iron dissolved. If dynamic methods (i.e., corefloods) are used to determine polymer retention under aerobic conditions, flow rates should be representative of the field application. Rates that are too high lead to underestimation of polymer retention. With 10% pyrite, dynamic retention was 211 µg/g at 6 ft/d versus 43.2 µg/g at 30 ft/d. In contrast, retention values were fairly consistent (40.6 – 47.8 µg/g) between 6 ft/d and 33 ft/d under anaerobic conditions.
Zhang, Yandong (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Wei, Mingzhen (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Bai, Baojun (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Yang, Hongbin (China University of Petroleum) | Kang, Wanli (China University of Petroleum)
Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes are regarded as important methods to recover remaining oil after primary and secondary recovery. It is important to select the most appropriate EOR process among the possible techniques for a candidate reservoir. Therefore, EOR screening criteria have been constructed using available EOR data sets and serve as the first step to compare the suitability of each EOR method for a particular reservoir. Most screening criteria for polymer flooding are based on data sets from EOR surveys published biannually by the Oil & Gas Journal. These surveys missed significant polymer flooding parameters such as formation water salinity and hardness, polymer types and molecular weight, polymer concentration, reservoir heterogeneity, and so on. All of these topics are covered in this paper with data from relevant literature and records provided by oil companies in China.
Polymer flooding has been widely applied in China for over 20 years and a large number of pilot and field projects have been conducted. These projects include important information to quantify the development of polymer flooding as an EOR method. Nevertheless, most of them have been published in Chinese, and are not accessible to the global research community due to the language barrier. This paper represents an effort to collect all relevant information of polymer flooding from available Chinese publications and reports from all of the major oil companies in China. The primary objectives of this survey is to reveal EOR advances, to trace the development of the polymer flooding EOR methodology in China, and to benefit EOR worldwide.
This project collected information on 55 polymer flooding projects after reviewing nearly 200 publications in Chinese, including 31 pilot projects and 24 field projects from 1991 to 2014. A data set was constructed by collecting all relevant information for polymer flooding. Statistical analyses and graphical methods were used to analyze the whole data set. Box plots combined with violin plots were used to show the distribution and the range of each parameter. By defining and calculating lower and upper limits in box plots, special projects were identified and explained. Scatter plots, which show multiple parameters in one plot, were used to identify significant relationships among different parameters, especially for dependent parameters. This method overcomes some disadvantages of the range method, which is traditionally used for EOR screening. For example, using polymers with high concentration in low salinity reservoirs can lead to higher incremental oil recovery than in high salinity ones, and lower permeability usually correlates with the use of polymers with lower molecular weight. However, the traditional range method cannot show this relationship. Finally, comprehensive screening criteria for polymer flooding were updated based on information revealed in the field application projects.
This paper addresses two questions for polymer flooding. First, what polymer solution viscosity should be injected? A base-case reservoir-engineering method is present for making that decision, which focuses on waterflood mobility ratios and the permeability contrast in the reservoir. However, some current field applications use injected polymer viscosities that deviate substantially from this methodology. At one end of the range, Canadian projects inject only 30-cp polymer solutions to displace 1000-3000-cp oil. Logic given to support this choice include (1) the mobility ratio in an unfavorable displacement is not as bad as indicated by the endpoint mobility ratio, (2) economics limit use of higher polymer concentrations, (3) some improvement in mobility ratio is better than a straight waterflood, (4) a belief that the polymer will provide a substantial residual resistance factor (permeability reduction), and (5) injectivity limits the allowable viscosity of the injected fluid. At the other end of the range, a project in Daqing, China, injected 150-300-cp polymer solutions to displace 10-cp oil. The primary reason given for this choice was a belief that high molecular weight viscoelastic HPAM polymers can reduce the residual oil saturation below that expected for a waterflood or for less viscous polymer floods. This paper will examine the validity of each of these beliefs.
The second question is: when should polymer injection be stopped or reduced? For existing polymer floods, this question is particularly relevant in the current low oil-price environment. Should these projects be switched to water injection immediately? Should the polymer concentration be reduced or graded? Should the polymer concentration stay the same but reduce the injection rate? These questions are discussed.
Polymer flooding is a widely used commercial process with a low cost per barrel of produced oil, For this application, hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) polymers are the most widely used type of polymer. In an era of low cost oil, it is becoming even more essential to optimize the polymer flooding design under realistic reservoir conditions. The objective of this research was to better understand and predict the behavior of HPAM polymers and their effect on residual oil saturation, in order to improve the capability of optimizing field design and performance. The corefloods were performed under typical field conditions of low pressure gradients and low capillary numbers. The polymer floods of the viscous oils recovered much more oil than the water floods, with up to 24% lower oil saturation after the polymer flood than the water flood. The experimental data are in good agreement with the fractional flow analysis using the assumptions that the true residual oil saturations and end point relative permeabilities are the same for both water and polymer. This suggests that for more viscous oils, the oil saturation at the end of water flood (i.e. at greater than 99% water cut) is better described as ‘emaining’ oil saturation rather than the true ‘esidual’ oil saturation. This was true for all of the corefloods regardless of the core permeability and without the need for assuming a permeability reduction factor in the fractional flow analysis.
Jin, Luchao (University of Oklahoma) | Budhathoki, Mahesh (University of Oklahoma) | Jamili, Ahmad (University of Oklahoma) | Li, Zhitao (The University of Texas at Austin) | Luo, Haishan (The University of Texas at Austin) | Delshad, Mojdeh (The University of Texas at Austin) | Shiau, Ben (University of Oklahoma) | Harwell, Jeffrey H. (University of Oklahoma)
The surfactant screening process to develop an optimum formulation under reservoir conditions is typically time consuming and expensive. Theories and correlations like HLB, R-ratio and packing parameters have been developed. But none of them can quantitatively consider both the effect of oil type, salinity, hardness and temperature, and model microemulsion phase behavior.
This paper uses the physics based Hydrophilic Lipophilic Difference (HLD) Net Average Curvature (NAC) model, and comprehensively demonstrated its capabilities in predicting the optimum formulation and microemulsion phase behavior based on the ambient conditions and surfactant structures. By using HLD equation and quantitatively characterized parameters, four optimum surfactant formulations are designed for target reservoir with high accuracy compared to experimental results. The microemulsion phase behavior is further predicted, and well matched the measured equilibrium interfacial tension. Its predictability is then reinforced by comparing to the empirical Hand's rule phase behavior model. Surfactant flooding sandpack laboratory tests are also interpreted by UTCHEM chemical flooding simulator coupled with the HLD-NAC phase behavior model.
The results indicate the significance of HLD-NAC equation of state in not only shorten the surfactant screening processes for formulators, but also predicting microemulsion phase behavior based on surfactant structure. A compositional reservoir simulator with such an equation of state will increase its predictability and hence help with the design of surfactant formulation.
Pilots are widely used for the purpose of gathering valuable information about performance and practical challenges of implementing a particular CEOR process in a given field (
Addition of chemical species to the material balance equations alongside finer resolution requirements for CEOR simulations compared to waterfloods (WF), often make it impractical to run full field CEOR simulations to the required accuracy. Massively parallel computing, dynamic local grid refinement and sector modeling have been used with varying success, of which sector modeling is the most common. Sector models, by their very definition, are also naturally suited for modeling of pilots.
The art of sector modeling needs mastering a few important steps such as: appropriate selection of the sector model extent, details on carving it out of the Full Field Model (FFM), populating it with proper petrophysical and fluid properties, initializing it to correct initial conditions and optimizing its boundary conditions. On top of that, choice of optimum grid size for proper trade-off of simulation run times and accuracy needs to be considered.
This paper presents a case study for appropriate simulation of a CEOR pilot within Chevron. The candidate has a waterflood history matched FFM. This model is used to generate a sector model for the CEOR pilot area. This paper outlines how the extent of the sector model and all the regions in communication with the Area of Interest (AOI) is decided. It also discusses proper initialization and optimization of the boundary conditions of the sector model along with its appropriate refinement and grid optimization. Proper CEOR simulations on the final optimized sector model and sensitivity analysis are also presented. The challenges, lessons learned and best practices are shared and important considerations for adequate simulation of CEOR processes are outlined.
Favorable microemulsion rheology is required for achieving low surfactant retention and economic viability of chemical EOR. Co-solvents play a pivotal role in obtaining favorable microemulsion rheology as well as many other aspects of chemical EOR. We measured the partitioning of co-solvents between phases to better understand their behavior and how to select the best co-solvent for chemical EOR. There is an optimal co-solvent partition coefficient for microemulsion systems. Commercial co-solvents used for chemical EOR are actually mixtures of different components. We used HPLC to measure the partitioning of the constitutive components of phenol ethoxylate co-solvents between oil and water phases and between microemulsion and excess oil and water phases. These measurements show that the components partition independently and the partitioning of individual components is often different from the average. The co-solvent partition coefficients between oil and water were systematically evaluated as functions of the number of ethylene oxide groups, number of propylene oxide groups, temperature, salinity, and the equivalent alkane carbon number (EACN) of the oil. Novel alkoxylate co-solvents were also evaluated for chemical EOR. The novel alkoxylate co-solvents can be more effectively tailored to match the characteristics of different crude oils. Coreflood experiments were conducted to investigate co-solvent transport and retention. Co-solvents were identified that showed excellent performance and low retention.
Water-based polymers are often used to improve oil recovery by increasing displacement sweep efficiency. However, recent laboratory and field work has suggested these polymers, which are often viscoelastic, may also reduce residual oil saturation. The objective of this work is to investigate the effect of viscoelastic polymers on residual oil saturation in Bentheimer sandstones and identify conditions and mechanisms for the improved recovery. Bentheimer sandstones were saturated with a heavy oil (120cp) and then waterflooded to residual oil saturation using brine followed by an inelastic Newtonian fluid (diluted glycerin). These floods were followed by injection of a viscoelastic polymer, hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM).
Significant reduction in residual oil was observed for all core floods performed at constant pressure drop when the polymer had significant elasticity (determined by the dimensionless Deborah number,
Zhu, Youyi (State Key Laboratory of Enhanced Oil Recovery, Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, CNPC) | Fan, Jian (State Key Laboratory of Enhanced Oil Recovery, Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, CNPC) | Liu, Xiaoxia (State Key Laboratory of Enhanced Oil Recovery, Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, CNPC) | Li, Jianguo (State Key Laboratory of Enhanced Oil Recovery, Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, CNPC)
Chemical flooding technology is one of the effective enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods for high water cut sandstone reservoirs with either medium and/or high permeability. Because of the small pore throat radius in the pore medium of low permeability reservoir, high molecular weight polymers cannot be injected in the low permeability reservoir. Therefore, many traditional chemical floodings (such as polymer flooding, alkali-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding and surfactant-polymer (SP) flooding) cannot be effectively applied in this case. Small-molecule viscoelastic surfactant (VES) has special rheological properties in porous medium. It showed both viscosified function and reduction of oil/water interfacial tension (IFT) performances under certain conditions, thereby providing the possibility of IOR/EOR potential application in low permeability reservoirs.
Most of reservoirs in Jilin Oilfield belong to low permeability reservoirs with permeability of around 50 mD in average. The recovery percent of reserves in Fuyu was only 23% by water flooding with water cut as high as 93%. A candidate EOR technique with chemical flooding has been proposed. Studies on VES flooding EOR methods targeting this reservoir condition were conducted. The rheological property, IFT property, viscosifying ability of VES and core flooding experiments of VES system were studied.
From VES screening experiment, a type of zwitterionic betaine surfactant with long carbon chain was selected. It showed viscosifying behavior, shear thinning property and low IFT performances at reservoir conditions. VES of EAB solutions showed a good viscosifying action at low surfactant concentration. Moreover, based on its shear thinning property under the wide shear rate conditions, VES exhibited a good injectivity performance. IFT between crude oil and formation water with EAB was 10-3-10-2 mN/m order of magnitudes. The results could be obtained at the concentration ranges of surfactants from 0.1wt% to 0.4wt%. Ultralow IFT (10-3 mN/m order of magnitudes) could be obtained in the presence of co-surfactants or alkalis (such as sodium carbonate). Core flooding experiments of VES flooding showed that the incremental oil recovery factors could reach up to 13%-17% over conventional water flooding at Fuyu reservoir conditions. Test results indicated that VES flooding might become a promise alternative EOR method for low permeability reservoir after water flooding.
In contrast to the complexity of ASP/SP combination system, VES flooding could avoid chromatographic effects in the reservoir based on their simple formula (single surfactant compound). This new chemical flooding technique might have a great potential for EOR application in the low permeability reservoirs.
Scaling up from lab to pilot is one of the challenges to meet in any ASP project to accomplish the requirements at full implementation. Tailored EOR surfactants developed and manufactured in the laboratory, to achieve the lowest interfacial tension (IFT) between oil and water at the reservoir conditions, have to be viable and robust in the manufacture, capable in performance and compatible in the formulation, not only at laboratory scale, but also at industrial scale.
It is described in this poster the route map in the development and manufacture of alkyl aryl sulfonates surfactants for the Cepsa ASP pilot project in the Caracara Sur field, Los Llanos basin (Colombia) from a continuous feed-back of the laboratory tests. The surfactant employed for the project was selected from other surfactants from several suppliers and dyalkylbenzene sodium sulfonate was the one achieving the lowest interfacial tension for Caracara field conditions. The dyalkylbenzene sodium sulfonate was accompanied by a co-surfactant improving the solubility and performance properties.
Pilot ASP injection started in May 2015 and some conclusions were obtained during the production of the surfactants in several manufacture batches: Composition, molecular weight even isomerism of alkylbenzenes may impact strongly on the interfacial activity of alkyl aryl sulfonates surfactants. Sulfonation and neutralization of alkylbenzenes are critical processes to comply the requirements of alkyl aryl surfactants for any cEOR project. Finally, the laboratory in the field for quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) of surfactants is completely necessary. Periodical sampling and on-site analyses are scheduled but also samples delivery to research center for more sophisticated analyses. These data are essential for the final performance evaluation and the project success.
Composition, molecular weight even isomerism of alkylbenzenes may impact strongly on the interfacial activity of alkyl aryl sulfonates surfactants.
Sulfonation and neutralization of alkylbenzenes are critical processes to comply the requirements of alkyl aryl surfactants for any cEOR project.
Finally, the laboratory in the field for quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) of surfactants is completely necessary. Periodical sampling and on-site analyses are scheduled but also samples delivery to research center for more sophisticated analyses. These data are essential for the final performance evaluation and the project success.