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The article discusses a new paradigm for the development of the oil and gas complex of Russia, proposed by Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences A.E. Kontorovich in 2020. It was noted that the oil industry is currently facing a number of serious difficulties, such as the depletion of fields, a decrease in the number of discoveries of new fields, ineffective production methods due to the lack of modern innovative technologies, imperfect legislation, licensing of large state-owned enterprises, insufficient proven reserves; and lack of funding. It is shown that there will still be periods of destabilization of the oil market (crises) in the world, and in such conditions a more thought-out policy of Russia in matters of oil and gas production is needed. In this regard, the proposals of A.E. Kontorovich on the need to change the current development paradigm, which consisted in the consistent development of new oil and gas provinces, moving from west to east. When discussing the new paradigm, we used the experience of the successful oil development in the oldest Russian oil ang gas bearing region - the Republic of Tatarstan. Over the long history of the development of the oil industry in the republic, a vast experience has been accumulated in the exploration and development of oil fields – from small and smallest to giant and supergiant. Approaches for the rational development of various groups and categories of deposits have been found. The most effective methods of prospecting, exploration and additional exploration of oil fields, the most advanced hydrodynamic methods for the development of fields with active and hard-to-recover reserves, including at the late stages of development, have been developed, methods of enhanced oil recovery for various geological and physical conditions have been widely used, including the extraction of residual reserves of long-term exploited deposits. Extensive experience has been accumulated in the development of complex small fields with hard-to-recover oil reserves. It is concluded that the proposed by A.E. Kontorovich, a new paradigm for the development of the oil and gas complex of Russia touches upon topical problems of the industry, requires additional analysis and further development.
Sustainable mid-term development of the petroleum industry depends on many factors, and the key of them is recoverable (with current technologies) and economic oil reserves supply to the raw material base. Between 2003 and 2018 there was a reproduction of recoverable oil reserves on a large scale. For a reliable assessment of oil production levels, in addition to recoverable reserves it is also necessary to take into account economic reserves, which became possible after the introduction of the 2013 Classification and making the entire architecture of resources and reserves project-oriented. Ongoing analysis of recoverable and economic reserves interconversion allows not only to plan amount of oil production, but also to create a scientifically based system of state management of hydrocarbon reserves. The state and companies-subsoil users get an opportunity of iterative modelling of development options and searching for the most optimal of them in terms of both cost effectiveness and sustainable subsoil use. The results of HC reserves inventory taking in different economic scenarios conducted in 2019-2020 by the decision of the Russian government allowed drawing conclusions on both categories and amount of difficult-to-recover reserves in Russia and possible consequences of changes in economic scenarios of fields development, and also on the need for routine proceeding of this work.
Burkhanov, Ramis Nurutdinovich (Almetevsk State Oil Institute) | Lutfullin, Azat Abuzarovich (PJSC, Tatneft) | Ibragimov, Ildar Ilyasovich (Almetevsk State Oil Institute) | Maksyutin, Alexander Valeryevich (CSC, Tetrasoftsevice)
Abstract The structure and composition of oil reserves deteriorate in the course of a mature oil field development due to geological and technological factors. The geological factors include vertical and lateral macro-and micro-heterogeneity of the reservoirs under development. At the same time, macro-heterogeneity leads to the formation of bypassed residual oil in low- permeability and stagnant layers, zones and lenses that are not exposed to stimulation, while micro-heterogeneity contributes to the formation of residual reserves of capillary oil and oil films. Technological factors include impossibility to fully account for reservoir heterogeneity when substantiating well spacing, pressure gradient, or flooding technology. The key problem here is the lack of clear understanding of the distribution pattern, quantity and deterioration of the quality of residual oil in water-flooded reservoirs, which makes it challenging to reasonably select a technology for effective oil extraction. Despite the improvements constantly made to the production logging, hydrodynamic and interpretive, seismic, lithofacies and other methods of exploration and residual reserves modeling, it is often impossible to obtain timely reliable information about the percentage of reserves depletion and their coverage with the development activities. This paper proposes another method — optical — that, in combination with well logging and hydrodynamic surveys as well as geological and hydrodynamic simulation, has been tested to assess the quantity and spatial pattern of residual oil reserves of the Kynovian (Do) and Pashian (D1) horizons at the experimental site of the Romashkinskoye oil field (Devonian formation). From the theoretical and methodological standpoint, this method is underlain by the results of in vitro studies of core columns and involves the selection and research of optical properties of oil wellhead samples, mathematical processing and correlation of the obtained optical and field data. The obtained estimate of residual reserves is compared with data derived from geological simulation, the most promising automated method for identifying, geometrizing and calculating residual recoverable oil reserves (RROR). The proposed method offers such advantages as ease of use, promptness, reliability, functionality and cost-effectiveness. It uses actual data on cumulative well production and takes into account the current reservoir and fluid porosity and permeability (P&P), which provides the possibility to obtain more precise estimates of the RROR quantity and spatial pattern.
Reserve/Resource estimation plays a crucial role in a feasible oil and gas business. Tendency of producing more from unconventional reservoirs and their relatively new as well as different structure brought on a learning curve for the applications of new reservoir evaluation methods. This study clearly desribes all reserve and resource evaluation techniques, the latest developments in this area by providing a single-source up-to-date reference for reserves evaluation in unconventionals.
An extensive review of literature has been applied to describe all available reserve evaluation techniques and their utilization, applicability and robustness, the history of using these techniques, types of technologies which applied in conventional reservoirs and transferred to unconventionals, and their incremental benefits of usage.This paper includes a real worldwide case studies which are illustrated with applications, and briefly describes the challenges, drawbacks, also pros and cons case by case. In the end, each case leads to conclusions on the criteria of application of methods as they related to SPE, SEC and PRMS.
In this study, "reserve and resource estimation" of unconventional reservoirs is investigated. The techniques are described by giving their methodology, as well as identifying the crucial parameters and the key factors of the applying procedure for the estimations. For instance, the main key factor of reserves evaluation is consistency and abiding by the rules outlined by SEC, PRMS and other bodies in terms of technical and economic aspects.
Currently, some studies includes the certain examples of reserve evaluation methods in conventional reservoirs, and limited number of works in unconventionals. However, there is no study which is not only outlines the key elements in one study, but also deducts lessons from the real field applications that will shed light on the utilization of the methods in the future applications. This study will close the gap and become a reference study in unconventional oil industry.
On the background of structural problems in the oil and gas industry, unstable exchange rates and fluctuations in world oil prices, the issue of evaluating the profitability of field development and offering incentives to increase the level of profitable oil reserves is acute. The results of the inventory of hydrocarbon reserves showed that the state balance sheet data on the number of economically recoverable reserves is significantly higher than the amount of oil that can be extracted from the subsurface under current macroeconomic conditions and existing technologies. The task is to maintain the current levels of oil production and reproduction of crude oil reserves in order to ensure the stability of tax revenues to the budgets of the Russian Federation. The problem of reproduction of oil and gas reserves actualizes the issue of analyzing the impact of various factors, including financial and tax mechanisms, on reproduction processes. The subject of the study is the current system of tax benefits and tax deductions of companies for the tax on the extraction of minerals in the oil sector. The article presents the results of technical and economic assessment of oil and gas fields of the Republic of Bashkortostan (on the example of project documents), which showed the unprofitability of further development in the current tax conditions, structural analysis of the elements of costs of the subsurface user. This assessment showed that the existing system of tax incentives does not sufficiently stimulate the exploitation of Mature and low-efficiency deposits, taking away the incentives for the subsoil user to continue it. The authors proposed an algorithm for stimulating low-efficiency deposits with the use of tax incentives, which allows avoiding their conservation, encouraging the subsoil user to further develop the fields, which would provide the state budget with additional tax revenues.
Abstract Oil and gas industry in the Russian Federation contribute more than 40% of federal budget revenues and thus its so crutial to find best solutions to its main challenges along with new opportunities for growth. One of the main challenges for the Russian oil and gas industry right now is to maintain and even develop its hydrocarbon resourse base in the regard of sustainable development of the country and its regions. According to the latest data of the State balance of natural resources of the Russian Federation from 01 of January 2016, during 140 years of oil and gas commissioning in Russia 3454 fields were discovered, among them 2462 oilfields, 572 oil and gas fields, 420 gas and gascondencate fields. Leading production area in Russia is Western-Siberian oil and gas megaprovince.
The PDF file of this paper is in Russian.
For many highly watered oilfields at late stages with reservoir pressure greater than the saturation pressure the measured gas-oil ratio is often considerably exceeds its origin value. During the interaction of oil and water in the reservoir the partial transition of light components occurs from oil to water and their carrying out to the surface dissolved in passing extracted water is done. Herewith the properties of the reservoir oil because of the change of component composition become different with time from its properties at the beginning of the field development. In the paper the estimation of influence of change of reservoir oil viscosity, which is caused by contacting with injected water, on the recovery factor is provided. On the base of Backley - Leverett equation the parametric analysis is provided of influence of type of water injection on the oil recovery factor for different parameters of reservoir and phase permeability. It is shown that the increase of oil viscosity caused by change of it component composition and physical and chemical properties during the contact with injected water leads to decrease of oil recovery factor down to 2% from the proposed value, when the variation of oil viscosity is neglected. By the example of one of the oilfields form Western Siberia, which is operated at late stage, the estimation of influence of change of reservoir oil viscosity on the recovery factor and accumulated oil production during remaining period of time is done. It is obtained that under conditions of change of reservoir oil viscosity on reaching the water cut up to 95% the proposed oil recovery factor will decrease by 6% and the proposed accumulated oil production will decrease by 10%. The obtained results indicate about importance of taking into account the change of oil viscosity during contact with water when planning the basic indicators of oil recovery.
Для многих обводненных месторождений, находящихся на поздней стадии разработки при пластовом давлении выше давления насыщения нефти газом, характерно то, что фактический газовый фактор значительно превышает проектное значением. При взаимодействии в пласте нефти и воды происходит частичный переход легких компонентов из нефти в воду и вынос их на поверхность в растворенном виде с попутно добываемой водой. При этом свойства пластовой нефти из-за изменения компонентного состава со временем изменяются и начинают отличаться от ее свойств в начале разработки месторождения. В статье рассмотрено влияние изменения вязкости пластовой нефти, обусловленного контактированием с закачиваемой водой, на коэффициент извлечения нефти. На основе решения уравнения Баклея – Леверетта выполнен параметрический анализ влияния характера заводнения на коэффициент извлечения нефти для различных параметров пласта и фазовых проницаемостей. Показано, что увеличение вязкости пластовой нефти, вызванное изменением ее компонентного состава и физико-химических свойств в результате контакта с нагнетаемой в пласт водой, приводит к снижению коэффициента извлечения нефти до 2 % прогнозируемой величины без учета изменения вязкости нефти. На примере одного из объектов Западной Сибири, находящегося на поздней стадии разработки, проведена оценка влияния изменения вязкости пластовой нефти на коэффициент извлечения нефти и накопленную добычу нефти за оставшийся период эксплуатации. Установлено, что в условиях изменения вязкости пластовой нефти при достижении обводненности 95 % прогнозный коэффициент извлечения нефти снизится на 6 %, а прогнозная накопленная добыча нефти на 10 %. Полученные результаты свидетельствуют о важности учета изменения вязкости нефти в процессе контакта с водой при планировании основных показателей разработки.
The PDF file of this paper is in Russian.
The article considers the Russian oilfield services market formation process, structure and mechanism of operational activities of the main Russian and international market players. The prerequisites of the Russian oilfield services market formation have laid the foundation for the interaction among energy and oilfield service companies on the Russian oil and gas market. The resulting operational model is conceptually different from the approaches of interaction among energy and oilfield services companies in other developed and emerging markets. The peculiarities of interaction of national energy and international oilfield services companies in the Russian market are revealed, advantages and disadvantages of cooperation models are outlined. Examples of different countries and markets set out alternative approaches for the energy and international oilfield service companies interaction in terms of the types of work, the depth of outsourcing of oilfield services. Against the backdrop of various oilfield service market and oilfield service companies classifications existence, an additional classification of oilfield services companies in the world and Russian markets is proposed, according to the operating model type, which correlates with current trends in a dynamically developing market. The main goals and tasks set by the state within the framework of the "Energy Strategy of the Russian Federation - 2035" project in front of the national oil and gas industry are illustrated, the main one of which is the intensification of extraction of hard-to-recover oil and gas reserves. The fulfillment of this task requires from energy companies modern technological solutions that the leaders of the oilfield service market have. In this regard, the concept of service integration as an effective solution to the problem of extracting hard-to-recover oil and gas reserves was proposed. Conditions under which the concept of oilfield services integration brings maximum efficiency is considered, as well as the advantages and risks of this type of operational interaction among key players in the oil and gas industry.
В статье рассмотрены вопросы российского рынка нефтесервисных услуг, структура и механизм операционной деятельности основных российских и международных игроков рынка. Предпосылки формирования российского рынка нефтесервисных услуг заложили основу для взаимодействия энергетических и нефтесервисных компаний. Сложившаяся в связи с этим операционная модель концептуально отличается от подходов взаимодействия энергетических и нефтесервисных компаний на других развитых и развивающихся рынках. Выявлены особенности взаимодействия национальных энергетических и международных нефтесервисных компаний на российском рынке, показаны преимущества и недостатки моделей сотрудничества. На примерах различных стран и рынков представлены альтернативные подходы к взаимодействию энергетических и международных нефтесервисных компаний с точки зрения видов работ, глубины аутсорсинга нефтесервисных услуг. На фоне существования различных классификаций нефтесервисного рынка и нефтесервисных компаний предложена дополнительная классификация нефтесервисных компаний на мировом и российском рынке по типу операционной модели, что коррелирует с современными тенденциями на динамично развивающемся рынке. Проиллюстрированы основные цели и задачи, которые ставятся государством в рамках проекта «Энергетической стратегии Российской Федерации на период до 2035» перед национальной нефтегазовой отраслью, основной из которых является интенсификация добычи трудноизвлекаемых запасов нефти и газа. Выполнение данной задачи требует от энергетических компаний современных технологических решений, которыми обладают лидеры нефтесервисного рынка. В связи с этим предложена концепция интеграции сервисов. Рассмотрены условия, при которых концепция интеграции нефтесервисов наиболее эффективна, а также показаны преимущества и риски данного типа операционного взаимодействия между ключевыми игроками нефтегазовой отрасли.
The PDF file of this paper is in Russian.
Given the highly competitive environment of the global oil market due to the ongoing slump in oil demand because of substantial increase of oil production in the world, and a number of other factors, it is critical to improve the overall economics of oil production, and, in particular, to improve the oil recovery factor on mature fields. As light oil reserves decrease, oil companies shift their focus on exploration and production of unconventional hydrocarbon reserves. Republic of Tatarstan possesses considerable unconventional hydrocarbon reserves in tight formations and in domanik sediments, which might be a viable alternative to conventional oil, though more challenging in terms of production and research considering, among other factors, high Russia’s dependency on import. In conditions of severe competition, technology development and introduction of technological innovations on a wide scale can only be the basis of sustainable development of the oil sector. As innovations have become the main competitive advantages of oil-producing companies, demand for high-tech solutions will never decline. As things stand now on the Russian oil producing market, the sustained oil production, to say nothing of production increase, is only possible on condition of commercial application of advanced technologies. Considering the market development trends, as well as the structure of the Russian hydrocarbon reserves, it seems reasonable to concentrate efforts on research and development (R&D) and innovation activity. This paper presents the Tatneft’s experience in pilot production of heavy oil in Company’s license areas in the Republic of Tatarstan, and in development of novel reservoir management technologies. An approach to planning of pilot production in complex, heterogeneous, and shallow heavy oil reservoirs is discussed.
На мировом рынке на фоне замедления роста спроса на нефть в сочетании с наращиванием добычи и рядом других факторов отмечается усиление конкуренции. Вследствие падения цены на нефть особенно актуальным становится реализация мер по повышению рентабельности добычи на месторождениях, в том числе по увеличению коэффициента извлечения углеводородов на старых, сильно выработанных месторождениях. По мере истощения традиционных запасов углеводородов нефтяные компании переключают свое внимание также на разведку и добычу в нетрадиционных ресурсов, отличающихся более сложными условиями залегания и особой спецификой. На территории Республики Татарстан в качестве альтернативы традиционной нефти рассматриваются месторождения сверхвязкой нефти и углеводороды доманиковых отложений. При этом в области исследований трудноизвлекаемых запасов, особенно в нетрадиционных коллекторах, отмечается высокая степень зависимости от импорта. Главным фактором долгосрочного развития в нефтяном секторе на фоне ужесточения конкуренции становится технико-технологическое развитие и достижение технологического совершенства. Спрос нефтяных компаний на инновационные технику и технологии будет расти, так как они становятся их конкурентными преимуществами. Ситуация, сложившаяся в российской нефтяной отрасли, такова, что не только наращивание, но и поддержание текущего уровня добычи нефти невозможно без широкого использования высоких технологий. Учитывая прогноз развития рынков и структуру запасов в Российской Федерации, представляется целесообразным сосредоточить усилия на инновационной деятельности в области создания новых техники и технологий и научно-исследовательских и опытно-конструкторских работах. В статье рассмотрен опыт ПАО «Татнефть» в проведении опытно-промышленных работ по добыче сверхвязкой нефти и в области создания новых технологий разработки ее залежей. Показан подход к планированию опытно-промышленных работ на сложных, литологически неоднородных, расчлененных пластах малой толщины, насыщенных сверхвязкой нефтью.
Abstract Russia always plays an important role on iternational energy markets as one of the major oil and gas producers and exporters since the country entered international enrgy market in the middle of the last century. And this role will remain stable at least till the year 2040 according to current forecasts. BP estimates, that Russia will cover around 5% of the global energy demand by the year 2040. Though, Russia has around 17,4% of world gas reserves (OPEC's estimates its even more – around 24,6% due to the different methodology) and only around 6% in world oil reserves, Russia contributes 17,3% to world gas production and 12,2% to world oil production in 2018, according to BP's Statistical Review of World Energy. Developing of enormous gas and oil reserves was extraordinary challenging for the country due to harsh climate conditions, lack of infrastructure, unsufficient financing and need to develop not only fields but the whole remote areas of the country. Though the country was widely ctitised for its dominancy on the European gas market, in this paper it will be outline that developing of the European gas market was of mutual interest of Russia and European Union and both counterpart became beneficiary of it. This paper focuses on challengies with developing enormous gas reserves as Russia has several mega giant gas fields and its experience can be usefull in developing other mega projects around the world.