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The productive section in a high-pressure, high-temperature (HP/HT) geothermal Field A in the Philippines features shallow and deep reservoirs separated by a low-permeability formation. However, recent years have seen a reduction in production levels. To activate and enhance well production, coiled tubing (CT) nitrogen-lift operations were required. CT simulations were combined with simulations from the geothermal reservoir to overcome modeling limitations.
Equipment for monitoring and control are important elements of any coiled tubing unit. The control-console design for the coiled-tubing (CT) unit may vary with manufacturers, but normally, all controls are positioned on one remote console panel. A diagram of a typical well-intervention unit control panel is seen in Figure 1. The console assembly is complete with all controls and gauges required to operate and monitor all of the components in use and may be skid-mounted for offshore use or permanently mounted as with the land units. The skid-mounted console may be placed where needed at the wellsite as desired by the operator.
Over the years, attempts have been made to track the working history of coiled tubing (CT) strings in service to maximize the service utility of the tube while minimizing fatigue failures. As a result, three commonly used methodologies for predicting the fatigue condition of the CT were developed. A relatively simplistic approach used to predict the working life of coil tubing is commonly described as the "running-feet" method, in which the footage of tubing deployed into a wellbore is recorded for each job performed. This deployed footage is then added to the existing record of footage deployed in service for any given string. Depending upon the service environment, type of commonly performed services, and local field history, the CT string is retired when the total number of running feet reaches a predetermined amount.
The service reel serves as the coiled tubing(CT) storage apparatus during transport, and as the spooling device during CT well-intervention and drilling operations. The inboard end of the CT may be connected either to the hollow segment of the reel shaft (spoke and axle design), or to a high-pressure piping segment (concave flange plates), both of which are then connected to a high-pressure rotating swivel. This high-pressure fluid swivel is secured to a stationary piping manifold, which provides connection to the treatment-fluid pumping system. As a result, continuous pumping and circulation can be maintained throughout the job. A high-pressure shutoff valve should be installed between the CT and reel shaft swivel for emergency use in isolating the tubing from the surface pump lines.
The onset of erosion of coiled tubing (CT) strings may be difficult to predict in annular fracturing operations. The complete paper describes a methodology of verifying that CT strings have not been subject to erosion caused by annular fracturing operations. An exploration of pumping rates used on these strings in operations also provides field-tested practical guidelines for avoiding erosion when performing annular fracturing jobs. A CT string may be exposed to erosion in the outer surface during CT annular fracturing operations. The critical parameters that may influence the magnitude of erosion include fracturing pump rate, sand concentration, fluid rheology, wellbore geometry, and the grade of CT string.
Fields in the Bolivian Sub-Andean Basin are remote and difficult to access. The producing zones include the country's most challenging wells, with depths of up to 26,000 ft, with high pressure/high temperature (HP/HT), high gas cut, crossflow, dogleg severity, and well-access restrictions. The complete paper reviews 25 coiled tubing rigless well interventions (CTRWI) to extend the life of those wells, including operations involving nitrogen (N2) lift, acid wash, milling, shifting sleeves, setting packers, stimulation, velocity strings (VS), and fishing. CTRWI in Sub-Andean Basin fields had not been implemented historically because of limited road access to the fields, lack of available equipment with high technical capabilities, high pressure, and well depth. Beginning in 2017, however, operators evaluated the risk and elected to perform CTRWI involving stimulation, cleanout, N2 lift, fishing, VS jobs, and other techniques.
Last year, this feature opened, almost inevitably, with comments on the effects the COVID-19 pandemic might have on our industry. Unfortunately, a year later, we probably have all experienced the effects, both personal and work-related. One of these effects is that there has been re-evaluation of what's important. To understand what is important takes some reflection and evaluation of the past. In previous features, the focus has been on what is new or reimagined.
As coiled tubing (CT) grades have evolved during the past 20 years and wall thicknesses have increased, the resulting force required to shear coil has more than doubled. An industry need existed to develop a shear blade for blowout preventers (BOPs) that could cut high-strength CT using legacy pressure-control equipment already in use. The paper describes the iterative process of development of a novel shear blade able to cut high-strength CT with 50% of the normal shear force. The objective of the work detailed in the complete paper was to develop a novel CT-shearing system capable of cutting high-strength heavy-wall CT with reduced hydraulic pressures. Considering that CT will continue to evolve in terms of yield strength, the goal of the study was to future-proof BOPs wherever possible to protect customers from the liability of obsolete equipment.
Abstract Well BO-X is located in offshore East Malaysia and was completed as a single string producer on 22nd July 2014. Well BO-X has maximum deviation of 57.5 deg at depth 3,150ft MDTHF. Based on the MIT logs, several leaks have been detected on the string which caused the well unable to flow. Well was flowing for 2 years before identified with multiple leaks due to severe metal loss and high penetration along more than 1,400 ft tubing interval (400 ft above the TRSCSSV and 1000ft below the TRSCSSV). Multiple attempts tried to flow well but failed due to circulation of gas through leak points at tubing. Tubing was found to be leaking at multiple points above TRSCSSV (449 ft MDTHF) with severe pitting / penetration at a single point below between ESP discharge head and TRSCSSV from 2 MIT runs. The leaks were detected at depth (1) 64 ft MDTHF, (2) 126.8 ft MDTHF and (3) 221.2 ft MDTHF. There were also several potential leaks detected along the long string above the top packer Reservoir simulation studies and production rate both indicated that the production tubing leaks is deteriorate and few methods were considered to bring back the optimum production. Tubing pack off system technique was considered as it can deploy with slickline, retrievable and ideal use to isolate tubing leaks however there is potential that more leaks will develop along the production years. Workover as an option to replace the tubing could easily cost millions of dollar (USD) Before surrender the well to workover team, a coiled tubing patch system was designed in a cooperative project involving operator and service company to provide an improved tubing pack off system which can straddle the tubing leaks by using coiled tubing instead of spacer pipe. This coiled tubing patch system was significantly lower cost and keep the functionality of Tubing Retrievable Surface Control Subsurface Safety Valve (TRSCSSV) by installing two straddle packer system – upper straddle packer system to cover leak points above TRSCSSV while another straddle system to cover leak points below TRSCSSV (Fig 1).